OBJECTIVE: (i) To examine the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index (Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]) and its relationship to in vivo insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents (OB) along the spectrum of glucose tolerance and (ii) to compare TyG index with triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein TG/HDL and 1/fasting insulin (1/IF ), other surrogates of insulin sensitivity.
PATIENTS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional data in 225 OB with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes (preDM), and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who had a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and fasting lipid measurement.
RESULTS: Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) declined significantly across the glycemic groups from OB-NGT to OB-preDM to OB-T2DM with a corresponding increase in TyG index (8.3 ± 0.5, 8.6 ± 0.5, 8.9 ± 0.6, p
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of sulfonylurea therapy in Chinese NDM patients during infancy before genetic testing results were available.
METHODS: The medical records of NDM patients with their follow-up details were reviewed and molecular genetic analysis was performed. Sulfonylurea transfer regimens were applied in patients diagnosed after May 2010, and glycemic status and side effects were evaluated in each patient.
RESULTS: There were 23 NDM patients from 22 unrelated families, 10 had KCNJ11 mutations, 3 harbored ABCC8 mutations, 1 had INS mutations, 4 had chromosome 6q24 abnormalities, 1 had a deletion at chromosome 1p36.23p36.12, and 4 had no genetic abnormality identified. Sixteen NDM infants were treated with glyburide at an average age of 49 days (range 14-120 days) before genetic confirmation. A total of 11 of 16 (69%) were able to successfully switch to glyburide with a more stable glucose profile. The responsive glyburide dose was 0.51 ± 0.16 mg/kg/d (0.3-0.8 mg/kg/d), while the maintenance dose was 0.30 ± 0.07 mg/kg/d (0.2-0.4 mg/kg/d). No serious adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genetic diagnosis is recommended in all patients with NDM. However, if genetic testing results are delayed, sulfonylurea therapy should be considered before such results are received, even in infants with newly diagnosed NDM.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and predictors of PREM defined by IDAA1c.
METHODS: Six hundred fourteen of 678 children (aged <15 years) with new-onset T1D (2000-2013) from a regional pediatric diabetes service (Auckland, New Zealand).
RESULTS: Overall rate of PREM at 3 months was 42.4%, and lower in Māori/Pacific children (28.6%; P = .006) and those of other ethnicities (28.8%; P = .030) compared with New Zealand Europeans (50.4%). Comparing the most and least deprived socioeconomic quintiles, the odds of PREM were lower among the most deprived (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44; P = .019). Lower rates of PREM were seen in children aged 0 to 4.9 years (23.8%) and 10 to 14 years (40.9%) than in children aged 5 to 9.9 years (57.4%; P
METHODS: Genetic analysis was performed in 42 patients with MODY aged 1 month to 18 years among a cohort of 759 patients with diabetes, identified with the following four clinical criteria: age of diagnosis ≤18 years; negative pancreatic autoantibodies; family history of diabetes; or persistently detectable C-peptide; or diabetes associated with extrapancreatic features. GCK gene mutations were first screened by Sanger sequencing. GCK mutation-negative patients were further analyzed by WES.
RESULTS: Mutations were identified in 24 patients: 20 mutations in GCK, 1 in HNF4A, 1 in INS, 1 in ABCC8, and a 17q12 microdeletion. Four previously unpublished novel GCK mutations: c.1108G>C in exon 9, and c.1339C>T, c.1288_1290delCTG, and c.1340_1343delGGGGinsCTGGTCT in exon 10 were detected. WES identified a novel missense mutation c.311A>G in exon 3 in the INS gene, and copy number variation analysis detected a 1.4 Mb microdeletion in the long arm of the chromosome 17q12 region. Compared with mutation-negative subjects, the mutation-positive subjects had lower hemoglobin A1c and initial blood glucose levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Most MODY cases in this study were due to GCK mutations, which is in contrast to previous reports in Chinese patients. Diabetes associated with extrapancreatic features should be a clinical criterion for MODY genetic analysis. Mutational analysis by WES provided a precise diagnosis of MODY subtypes. Moreover, WES can be useful for detecting large deletions in coding regions in addition to point mutations.