High melting point polymeric carrier without plasticizer is unacceptable for solid dispersion (SD) by melting method. Combined polymer-plasticizer carrier significantly affects drug solubility and tableting property of SD.
Freeze drying technology has not been maximized and reported in manufacturing orally disintegrating films. The aim of this study was to explore the freeze drying technology in the formulation of sildenafil orally disintegrating films and compare the physical properties with heat-dried orally disintegrating film. Central composite design was used to investigate the effects of three factors, namely concentration of carbopol, wheat starch and polyethylene glycol 400 on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the film. Heat-dried films had higher tensile strength than films prepared using freeze-dried method. For folding endurance, freeze-dried films showed improved endurance than heat-dried films. Moreover, films prepared using freeze-dried methods were thicker and had faster disintegration time. Formulations with higher amount of carbopol and starch showed higher tensile strength and thickness whereas formulations with higher PEG 400 content showed better flexibility. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the freeze-dried films had more porous structure compared to the heat-dried film as a result of the release of water molecule from the frozen structure when it was subjected to freeze drying process. The sildenafil film was palatable. The dissolution profiles of freeze-dried and heat-dried films were similar to Viagra® with f2 of 51.04 and 65.98, respectively.
Methyl salicylate-lactose physical mixture (1:1 and 1:1.5 ratios) was incorporated into calcium alginate beads by a coacervation method involving an ionotropic gelation/polyelectrolyte complexation approach.
In the present study, we investigate the mucoadhesive characteristics and release of the anticancer agent curcumin, contained in chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs). Such a system has potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of colon cancer through prolonged retention and delivery. The CS-NPs were ionically gelled with tripolyphosphate (TPP) and registered an isoelectric pH of 6.2 (z-average diameter of 214 nm ± 1.0 nm). pH variations around the isoelectric point caused a reduction in CS-NPs electrical charge which correspondingly increased the z-average due to agglomeration. Curcumin release from CS-NPs was slowest at chitosan to TPP weight ratio of 3:1, with a significant retention (36%) at the end of 6 h. Adsorption isotherms of mucin on CS-NPs fitted both the Freundlich and Langmuir models, suggesting a monolayer-limited adsorption on heterogeneous sites with varied affinities. Encapsulated curcumin exerted an influence on the adsorption of mucin due to H-bonding as well as π-π interactions between the phenolic moieties of curcumin and mucin.
The effects of microwave on drug release properties of pectin films carrying sulfanilamide (SN-P), sulfathiazole (ST-P) and sulfamerazine (SM-P) of high to low aqueous solubilities were investigated. These films were prepared by solvent evaporation technique and treated by microwave at 80 W for 5-40 min. Their profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, matrix interaction and matrix crystallinity were determined by drug dissolution testing, drug content assay, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Microwave induced an increase in matrix amorphousness but lower drug release propensity with a greater retardation extent in SN-P films, following a rise in strength of matrix interaction. A gain in amorphous structure does not necessarily increase the drug release of film. Microwave can possibly retard drug release of pectin film carrying water-soluble drug through modulating its state of matrix interaction.
Mebeverine HCl is a water soluble drug commonly used to treat irritable bowel syndrome by acting directly on the smooth muscles of the colon. This work was aimed at the formulation and in vitro evaluation of a colon-targeted drug delivery system containing mebeverine HCl. Matrix tablets were prepared using ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit RL 100 either solely or in combination by wet granulation technique. Dissolution was carried out in 0.1 N HCl for 2?h followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for eight hours. Uncoated forms released more than 5% drug in 0.1 N HCl therefore, Eudragit L100 was used as a coat. The results indicated very slow release profile. As a result, single retardant was used to prepare the matrix and coated by Eudragit L 100. The matrix containing 7% Eudragit RL 100 and 6% of binder was subjected to further studies to assess the effect of different coats (Eudragit L 100-55 and cellulose acetate phthalate) and different binders (pectin and sodium alginate) on the release profile. Eudragit L 100 and pectin were the best coating agent and binder, respectively. The final formula was stable and it can be concluded that the prepared system has the potential to deliver mebeverine HCl in vivo to the colon.
The present study is an attempt to formulate a controlled-release matrix tablet formulation for alfuzosin hydrochloride by using low viscous hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K-100 and HPMC 15cps) and its comparison with marketed product. Different batches of tablets containing 10 mg of alfuzosin were prepared by direct compression technique and evaluated for their physical properties, drug content, and in vitro drug release. All the formulations had a good physical integrity, and the drug content between the batches did not vary by more than 1%. Drug release from the matrix tablets was carried out for 12 hr and showed that the release rate was not highly significant with different ratios of HPMC K-100 and HPMC15cps. Similar dissolution profiles were observed between formulation F3 and the marketed product throughout the study period. The calculated regression coefficients showed a higher r2 value with zero-order kinetics and Higuchi model in all the cases. Although both the models could be applicable, zero-order kinetics seems to be better. Hence, it can be concluded that the use of low viscous hydrophilic polymer of different grades (HPMC K-100 and HPMC 15cps) can control the alfuzosin release for a period of 12 hr and was comparable to the marketed product.
Modified-release drug spheroids coated with an aqueous mixture of high-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) were formulated. The preparation of core drug spheroids and the coating procedures were performed using the rotary processor and a bottom-spray fluidized bed, respectively. Dissolution studies indicated that incorporation of suitable additives, such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PEG) improved the flexibility and integrity of the coat layer by retarding the drug release. An increase in coating levels applied generally retarded the release rate of the drug. However, the ratio of HPMC to NaCMC in the mixed, plasticized polymeric coat played a more dominant role in determining the dissolution T50% values. The optimal ratio of HPMC to NaCMC for prolonged drug release was found to be 3:1, whereas an increase in the amount of NaCMC in the mixed polymer coat only increased drug release. The synergistic viscosity effect of HPMC and NaCMC in retarding drug release rate was greater in distilled water than in dissolution media of pH 1 and 7.2. Cross-sectional view of the scanning electron micrograph showed that all of the coated spheroids exhibited a well-fused, continuous, and distinct layer of coating film. The drug release kinetics followed a biexponential first-order kinetic model.
The development of hydrogel films as wound healing dressings is of a great interest owing to their biological tissue-like nature. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogels loaded with asiaticoside, a standardized rich fraction of Centella asiatica, were successfully developed using the freeze-thaw method. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized and optimized by gel fraction, swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate and mechanical strength. The formulation with 8% PVA, 5% PEG 400 and five consecutive freeze-thaw cycles was selected as the optimized formulation and was further characterized by its drug release, rheological study, morphology, cytotoxicity and microbial studies. The optimized formulation showed more than 90% drug release at 12 hours. The rheological properties exhibited that the formulation has viscoelastic behavior and remains stable upon storage. Cell culture studies confirmed the biocompatible nature of the optimized hydrogel formulation. In the microbial limit tests, the optimized hydrogel showed no microbial growth. The developed optimized PVA/PEG hydrogel using freeze-thaw method was swellable, elastic, safe, and it can be considered as a promising new wound dressing formulation.
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a well-studied biodegradable polymer used in drug delivery and other medical applications such as in tissue regeneration. It is often necessary to impart porosity within the scaffold (microparticles) in order to promote the growth of tissue during the regeneration process. Sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate have been extensively used as porogens in the generation of porous microstructure. In this study, we compared the effect of volumes (250 μl, 500 μl and 750 μl) of two porogens, sodium chloride (1.71 M) and ammonium bicarbonate (1.71 M), on the porosity of PLGA microparticles.
Microporous polymeric matrices prepared from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) [PCL] were evaluated for controlled vaginal delivery of the antiprotozoal agent (tinidazole) in the treatment of the sexually transmitted infection, trichomoniasis. The matrices were produced by rapidly cooling co-solutions of PCL and tinidazole in acetone to -80 °C to induce crystallisation and hardening of the polymer. Tinidazole incorporation in the matrices increased from 1.4 to 3.9% (w/w), when the drug concentration in the starting PCL solution was raised from 10 to 20% (w/w), giving rise to drug loading efficiencies up to 20%. Rapid 'burst release' of 30% of the tinidazole content was recorded over 24 h when the PCL matrices were immersed in simulated vaginal fluid. Gradual drug release occurred over the next 6 days resulting in delivery of around 50% of the tinidazole load by day 7 with the released drug retaining antiprotozoal activity at levels almost 50% that of the 'non-formulated' drug in solution form. Basic modelling predicted that the concentration of tinidazole released into vaginal fluid in vivo from a PCL matrix in the form of an intravaginal ring would exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration against Trichomonas vaginalis. These findings recommend further investigation of PCL matrices as intravaginal devices for controlled delivery of antiprotozoal agents in the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.
This study describes the properties of an amphotericin B-containing mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), with the intent to maximize uptake within the gastrointestinal tract. We have reported previously that lipid nanoparticles can significantly improve the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmpB). On the other hand, the aggregation state of AmpB within the NLC has been ascribed to some of the side effects resulting from IV administration. In the undissolved state, AmpB (UAmpB) exhibited the safer monomeric conformation in contrast to AmpB in the dissolved state (DAmpB), which was aggregated. Chitosan-coated NLC (ChiAmpB NLC) presented a slightly slower AmpB release profile as compared to the uncoated formulation, achieving 26.1% release in 5 hours. Furthermore, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation appeared to prevent the expulsion of AmpB upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal pH media, whereby up to 63.9% of AmpB was retained in the NLC compared to 56.1% in the uncoated formulation. The ChiAmpB NLC demonstrated mucoadhesive properties in pH 5.8 and 6.8. Thus, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation is well-primed for pharmacokinetic studies to investigate whether delayed gastrointestinal transit may be exploited to improve the systemic bioavailability of AmpB, whilst simultaneously addressing the side-effect concerns of AmpB.
The drawbacks associated with chemical skin permeation enhancers such as skin irritation and toxicity necessitated the research to focus on potential permeation enhancers with a perceived lower toxicity. Crude palm oil (CPO) is obtained by direct compression of the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palm belonging to the genus Elaeis. In this research, CPO and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil were evaluated for the first time as skin permeation enhancers using full-thickness human skin. The in vitro permeation experiments were conducted using excised human skin mounted in static upright 'Franz-type' diffusion cells. The drugs selected to evaluate the enhancing effects of these palm oil derivatives were 5-fluorouracil, lidocaine and ibuprofen: compounds covering a wide range of Log p values. It was demonstrated that CPO and TRF were capable of enhancing the percutaneous permeation of drugs across full-thickness human skin in vitro. Both TRF and CPO were shown to significantly enhance the permeation of ibuprofen with flux values of 30.6 µg/cm2 h and 23.0 µg/cm2 h respectively, compared to the control with a flux of 16.2 µg/cm2 h. The outcome of this research opens further scope for investigation on the transdermal penetration enhancement activity of pure compounds derived from palm oil.
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of formulation development methods on the stability (secondary structure, aggregation, and biological activity) of protein drugs embedded in lipid matrices. Catalase, horseradish peroxidase, and α-chymotrypsin were employed as model proteins, while Precirol® AT05 (glyceryl palmitostearate) was used as lipid matrix. Protein-loaded lipid matrices were prepared using melting and mixing and wet granulation methods. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and biological activity analyses were performed. ATR FT-IR analysis indicated significant interference of the lipid with the protein amide-I band, which was eliminated using spectral subtraction. Wet granulation method induced more changes in protein secondary structure compared to melting and mixing method. SEC analysis gave evidence of protein aggregation for catalase upon adopting the wet granulation method. The biological activity of catalase was found to reduce significantly than other two proteins upon using wet granulation method, which might be ascribed to both secondary structure alterations and the formation of aggregates. Horseradish peroxidase and α-chymotrypsin did not form any soluble aggregates. In conclusion, melting and mixing method emerged as a better incorporation method compared to wet granulation because of better stability shown by the formulated proteins.
Poor solubility and bioavailability of drugs are often affected by its microscopic structural properties. Nitrofurantoin (NF), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II item, has a low water solubility with low plasma concentrations. To improve its therapeutic efficacy, formulation strategy of solid dispersion (SD) and co-crystallization are compared herein. The co-crystal is prepared with citric acid in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio while SD consists of 30% w/w nitrofurantoin and 70% w/w hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the carrier system. As a control, the physical mixture of NF and HPMC was prepared. All the preparations were characterized with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), microscopy analysis, solubility, and dissolution studies. The formation of co-crystal, solvent evaporated, and spray-dried SD are confirmed by the ATR-FTIR where peaks shifting of several functional groups indicate the formation of the hydrogen bond. Dissolution studies showed a greater initial dissolution rate in co-crystal than SD despite the possible presence of amorphous content in the SD system. Overall, co-crystal is concluded to be a better approach than SD for an effective dissolution.
Tocotrienol (TRF) ethosomes were developed and evaluated in vitro for potential transdermal delivery against melanoma. The optimised TRF ethosomal size ranged between 64.9 ± 2.2 nm to 79.6 ± 3.9 nm and zeta potential (ZP) between -53.3 mV to -62.0 ± 2.6 mV. Characterisation of the ethosomes by ATR-FTIR indicated the successful formation of TRF-ethosomes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated the spherical shape of ethosomes, and the entrapment efficiencies of all the formulations were above 66%. In vitro permeation studies using full-thickness human skin showed that the permeation of gamma-T3 from the TRF ethosomal formulations was significantly higher (p