OBJECTIVE: With distinct optical attributes (e.g., robust photostability, restricted emission spectra, tunable broad excitation, and high quantum output), fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have been feasibly functionalized with manageable interfaces and considerably utilized as a new class of optical probe in biological investigations.
METHODS: In this review article, we structured the current advancements in the preparation methods and attributes of QDs. Furthermore, we extend an overview of the outstanding potential of QDs for biomedical research and radical approaches to drug delivery.
CONCLUSION: Notably, the applications of QDs as smart next-generation nanosystems for neuroscience and pharmacokinetic studies have been explained. Moreover, recent interests in the potential toxicity of QDs are also apprised, ranging from cell investigations to animal studies.
OBJECTIVES: Pioneering research on molecular mechanisms underlying the viral transmission, molecular pathogenicity, and potential treatments will be highlighted in this review. The development of antiviral drugs specific to SARS-CoV-2 is a complicated and tedious process. To accelerate scientific discoveries and advancement, researchers are consolidating available data from associated coronaviruses into a single pipeline, which can be readily made available to vaccine developers.
METHODS: In order to find studies evaluating the COVID-19 virus epidemiology, repurposed drugs and potential vaccines, web searches and bibliographical bases have been used with keywords that matches the content of this review.
RESULTS: The published results of SARS-CoV-2 structures and interactomics have been used to identify potential therapeutic candidates. We illustrate recent publications on SARS-CoV-2, concerning its molecular, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics, and focus on innovative diagnostics technologies in the production pipeline. This objective of this review is to enhance the comprehension of the unique characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and strengthen future control measures.
Lay Summary: An innovative analysis is evaluating the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim is to increase knowledge of possible viral detection methods, which highlights several new technology limitations and advantages. We have assessed some drugs currently for patients (Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Anakinra and Interferon beta 1a), as the feasibility of COVID-19 specific antivirals is not presently known. The study explores the race toward vaccine development and highlights some significant trials and candidates in various clinical phases. This research addresses critical knowledge gaps by identifying repurposed drugs currently under clinical trials. Findings will be fed back rapidly to the researchers interested in COVID 19 and support the evidence and potential of possible therapeutics and small molecules with their mode of action.
METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.
RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.
CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.
OBJECTIVE: Nano-medicine provides the same efficacies as traditional medicines owing to their improved solubility and bioavailability with reduced dosages. However, there are currently safety concerns due to the difficulties related to nanomaterial characterization; this might be the reason for unawareness of such medicines among the patients. The absence of clear regulatory guidelines further complicates matters, as it makes the path to registering them with regulatory bodies difficult. However, some products have overcome these obstacles and have been registered. While there are many international initiatives to harmonize the regulatory requirements and helps the industry to determine the most important characteristics that influence in vivo product performance.
CONCLUSION: This review focuses on the various types of nanopharmaceuticals, and developments process with strategies tailored to upcoming regulations may satisfy the patients' needs.
OBJECTIVE: To address the problem, we first prepared nifedipine loaded sustained releases microsponges and then formulated tablets for effective clinical application and patient compliance.
METHOD: Preparations of microsponges were carried out using different composition of nifedipine and polymer (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 % molar ratio) using emulsion solvent diffusion technique.
RESULTS: The microsponges with molar ratio 1:3 (formulation code: MF-3) found optimized as revealed by analyzing surface morphology, better powder flow properties (angle of repose; 28.80 ± 0.9, Hausner ratio 1.15 ± 0.2, % compressibility 15.28 ± 0.5% and higher % drug content (80 ± 1.9 %). Different batches of tablets were then formulated incorporating MF-3 microsponges and different proportion (10-50 %) of microcrystalline cellulose and starch as additives. Among tablet formulations, batch composed of 48% of MF-3, 30% of MCC, 20 % of starch and 2 % of talc (TF-33), showed 92.73 ± 2.19 % drug release during 24 hr in vitro release study in comparison to other batches including commercial formulation which was found to be released completely in 20 hr. Further, stability analysis revealed good drug retention of loaded nifedipine as well as consistent in vitro release pattern over a period of 90 days at 40 ºC and 75% RH.
CONCLUSION: The microsponge tablet delivery system was found to be superior concerning the therapeutic advantage as well as manufacturing feasibility of nifedipine.
METHODS: We searched for the chitosan and its derivatives based nanocarrier systems for the pulmonary drug delivery. We focused on the applications of chitosan in the development of nanoparticles for the pulmonary drug delivery.
RESULTS: Chitosan, a natural linear bio poly amino saccharide is playing a crucial role in the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) such as nanoparticles in order to treat various respiratory diseases effectively by managing these difficulties due to its unique characteristic properties of biodegradability, biocompatibility, mucoadhesivity and its ability to enhance macromolecule permeation. It also aids in providing sustained and targeted effects, which are the primary requirements of an ideal pulmonary drug delivery system. This review highlights the applications and importance of chitosan with special emphasis on nanotechnology, particularly employed in various respiratory diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: This review will be of interest to both the biological and formulation scientists to have a quick snapshot on the utility of chitosan in pulmonary drug delivery systems. At present, there are no patented chitosan based controlled release products available with pulmonary drug delivery and therefore this area needs attention to explore the potential of this polymer in the area of respiratory research.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to review the recent literature on vesicular drug delivery systems containing curcumin.
METHODS: We have collated and summarized various recent attempts made to develop different controlled release drug delivery systems containing curcumin which would be of great interest for herbal, formulation and biological scientists. There are several vesicular nanotechnological techniques involving curcumin which have been studied recently, targeting pulmonary diseases.
RESULTS: Different vesicular systems containing curcumin are being studied for their therapeutic potential in different respiratory diseases. There has been a renewed interest in formulations containing curcumin recently, primarily owing to the broad spectrum therapeutic potential of this miracle substance. Various types of formulations, containing curcumin, targeting different bodily systems have recently emerged and, nevertheless, the search for newer frontiers with this drug goes on.
CONCLUSION: This mini review, in this direction, tries to highlight the key research interventions employing vesicular systems of drug delivery with curcumin.
OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to investigate the potential of NanoSECA on cognitive tasks and memory enhancement pathways in a normal adult rat model.
METHODS: Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats (7-8 weeks old) were randomly subjected to five groups (n=six per group). Treatment groups were supplemented with NanoSECA and ethanolic extract of C. asiatica (SECA) for 28 days by oral gavages. Different brain sections were isolated, homogenized, and tested for acetylcholinesterase, antioxidants (glutathione and malondialdehyde), and anti-inflammatory agents (nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2).
RESULT: NanoSECA supplementation markedly enhanced the acetylcholine, glutathione levels and reduced a distinct diminution in plasma activities of acetylcholinesterase, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels.
CONCLUSION: NanoSECA can be used as a memory enhancer through enhanced cholinergic activity, increased antioxidant level, and reduced oxidative stress.