Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Kato TA, Hashimoto R, Hayakawa K, Kubo H, Watabe M, Teo AR, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2016 Jan;70(1):7-23.
    PMID: 26350304 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12360
    Japan's prototype of depression was traditionally a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality known as shūchaku-kishitsu proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However, since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among Japanese youth. Called 'modern type depression (MTD)' by the mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different sociocultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in the ICD or the DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems.
  2. Xiang YT, Ungvari GS, Correll CU, Chiu HF, Lai KY, Wang CY, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2015 Aug;69(8):489-96.
    PMID: 25708964 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12283
    Little is known about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in Asian inpatients with schizophrenia. This study examined trends of ECT use for schizophrenia patients in Asia between 2001 and 2009 and its independent demographic and clinical correlates.
  3. Sulaiman AH, Bautista D, Liu CY, Udomratn P, Bae JN, Fang Y, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2014 Apr;68(4):245-54.
    PMID: 24829935
    The aim of this study was to compare the symptomatic and clinical features of depression among five groups of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) living in China, Korea, Malaysia/Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.
  4. Quek KF, Low WY, Razack AH, Loh CS
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2001 Oct;55(5):509-13.
    PMID: 11555347 DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1819.2001.00897.x
    This present study was undertaken to validate the English version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in urological patients. Validity and reliability were studied in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and patients without LUTS. Reliability was evaluated using the test-retest method and internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Sensitivity to change was expressed as the effect size in the pre-intervention versus post-intervention score in additional patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Internal consistency was excellent. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the 12 items with Cronbach's alpha value of 0.37-0.79, while total scores was 0.79 in the population study. Test-retest correlation coefficient for the 12 items score were highly significant. Intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.35-0.79). It showed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to the effects of treatment. A high degree of significant level between baseline and post-treatment scores were observed across all 12 items in the treatment cohort but not in the control group. The GHQ-12 is suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change in urological disorders.
  5. Deva MP
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 1998 Dec;52 Suppl:S364-6.
    PMID: 9895195
    Mental illnesses and mental health have, out of ignorance and fear, evoked a low priority in healthcare systems the world over. The concept that all mental illnesses were synonymous with madness has its origins in the beginnings of ignorance and fear. To a large extent, these have contributed to the marginalization of psychiatry and neglect of the mentally ill. The kings of old, seeing the ill-treatment of the mentally ill, built asylums for them, but again, the prejudice soon was overwhelming and care of the mentally ill was often given to those who were not the best administrators and carers. The long and controversial tradition of mental asylum care for the mentally ill was also brought about by the lack of specific treatments for mental illnesses. With the advent of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and other psychotropics afterwards, the need for incarceration in asylums became largely redundant. However, what also became obvious soon after was the fact that the psychotropics only helped to control symptoms and not to cure diseases of the mind. Although considerable research has gone into attempts at correcting supposed defects in neurotransmission, the cure of mental illness seems some way off. The need for rehabilitating or re-housing those with mental illnesses especially those needing long-term care and those whose cure seems difficult has been recognized for a long time. It was Phillipe Pinel who almost 200 years ago unchained the mental patients at an asylum in Paris and proposed work therapy and humane care. Psychosocial rehabilitation of the mentally ill is not, therefore, a new concept. The need for methods of changing the behavior, thinking and functioning of those with severe mental illnesses using psychological, social, occupational, behavioral and medical methods is called psychosocial rehabilitation. This method, although developed in stages over the past two centuries, has undergone changes and deterioration and development in different parts of the world with different priorities and emphasis.
  6. Kato TA, Teo AR, Tateno M, Watabe M, Kubo H, Kanba S
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2017 Jan;71(1):75-76.
    PMID: 27862668 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12481
  7. Tateno M, Teo AR, Shirasaka T, Tayama M, Watabe M, Kato TA
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2016 Dec;70(12):567-572.
    PMID: 27573254 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12454
    AIM: Internet addiction (IA), also referred to as Internet use disorder, is a serious problem all over the world, especially in Asian countries. Severe IA in students may be linked to academic failure, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and forms of social withdrawal, such as hikikomori. In this study, we performed a survey to investigate the relation between IA and ADHD symptoms among college students.

    METHODS: Severity of IA and ADHD traits was assessed by self-report scales. Subjects were 403 college students (response rate 78%) who completed a questionnaire including Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-V1.1.

    RESULTS: Out of 403 subjects, 165 were male. The mean age was 18.4 ± 1.2 years, and mean total IAT score was 45.2 ± 12.6. One hundred forty-eight respondents (36.7%) were average Internet users (IAT < 40), 240 (59.6%) had possible addiction (IAT 40-69), and 15 (3.7%) had severe addiction (IAT ≥ 70). Mean length of Internet use was 4.1 ± 2.8 h/day on weekdays and 5.9 ± 3.7 h/day on the weekend. Females used the Internet mainly for social networking services while males preferred online games. Students with a positive ADHD screen scored significantly higher on the IAT than those negative for ADHD screen (50.2 ± 12.9 vs 43.3 ± 12.0).

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Internet misuse may be related to ADHD traits among Japanese youth. Further investigation of the links between IA and ADHD is warranted.

  8. Hirota T, Guerrero A, Sartorius N, Fung D, Leventhal B, Ong SH, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2019 Feb;73(2):84-89.
    PMID: 30471156 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12800
    AIM: Data pertaining to child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training systems are limited as extant research has mostly been derived from one-time data collection. This 5-year follow-up survey collects updated information on CAP training systems in the Far East, allowing for the tracking of system changes over the past 5 years.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from 18 countries, or functionally self-governing areas, in the Far East, 17 of which were also included in the original study. An online questionnaire was completed by leading CAP professionals in each country. Questions were expanded in the present study to capture the contents of CAP training.

    RESULTS: When compared to data from the original study, there has been progress in CAP training systems in the last 5 years. Specifically, there has been an increase in the number of countries with CAP training programs and national guidelines for the training. In addition, the number of CAP departments/divisions affiliated with academic institutions/universities has increased. Findings from 12 of 18 countries in the present study provide data on clinical contents. All informants of the present study reported the need for more child and adolescent psychiatrists and allied professionals.

    CONCLUSION: Despite progress in CAP training systems over the last 5 years, the need for more professionals in child and adolescent mental health care in all the relevant areas in this region have yet to be adequately addressed. Continued national efforts and international collaborations are imperative to developing and sustaining new CAP training systems while facilitating improvements in existing programs.

  9. Nour El Huda AR, Norsidah KZ, Nabil Fikri MR, Hanisah MN, Kartini A, Norlelawati AT
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2018 Apr;72(4):266-279.
    PMID: 29160620 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12622
    AIM: This study examined catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) DNA methylation in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients and also in healthy controls to investigate its potential use as a peripheral biomarker of schizophrenia and its relations with the clinical variables of schizophrenia patients.

    METHODS: We examined the DNA methylation levels of COMT using genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients (n = 138) and healthy control participants (n = 132); all were Malaysian Malays. The extracted DNA was bisulfite converted, and the percentage methylation ratio value was calculated based on the results following a MethyLight protocol analysis.

    RESULTS: The percentage methylation ratio of COMT was lower in schizophrenia than it was in the healthy controls (P 

  10. Yang SY, Chen LY, Najoan E, Kallivayalil RA, Viboonma K, Jamaluddin R, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2018 Aug;72(8):572-579.
    PMID: 29761577 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12676
    AIM: The aim of the present study was to survey the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and combined medication use across 15 Asian countries and areas in 2016.

    METHODS: By using the results from the fourth survey of Research on Asian Prescription Patterns on antipsychotics, the rates of polypharmacy and combined medication use in each country were analyzed. Daily medications prescribed for the treatment of inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, including antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antiparkinson agents, were collected. Fifteen countries from Asia participated in this study.

    RESULTS: A total of 3744 patients' prescription forms were examined. The prescription patterns differed across these Asian countries, with the highest rate of polypharmacy noted in Vietnam (59.1%) and the lowest in Myanmar (22.0%). Furthermore, the combined use of other medications, expressed as highest and lowest rate, respectively, was as follows: mood stabilizers, China (35.0%) and Bangladesh (1.0%); antidepressants, South Korea (36.6%) and Bangladesh (0%); anxiolytics, Pakistan (55.7%) and Myanmar (8.5%); hypnotics, Japan (61.1%) and, equally, Myanmar (0%) and Sri Lanka (0%); and antiparkinson agents, Bangladesh (87.9%) and Vietnam (10.9%). The average psychotropic drug loading of all patients was 2.01 ± 1.64, with the highest and lowest loadings noted in Japan (4.13 ± 3.13) and Indonesia (1.16 ± 0.68), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Differences in psychiatrist training as well as the civil culture and health insurance system of each country may have contributed to the differences in these rates. The concept of drug loading can be applied to other medical fields.

  11. Kato TA, Katsuki R, Kubo H, Shimokawa N, Sato-Kasai M, Hayakawa K, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2019 Aug;73(8):448-457.
    PMID: 30900331 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12842
    AIM: Understanding premorbid personality is important, especially when considering treatment selection. Historically, the premorbid personality of patients with major depression in Japan was described as Shuchaku-kishitsu [similar to Typus melancholicus], as proposed by Shimoda in the 1930s. Since around 2000, there have been increased reports in Japan of young adults with depression who have had premorbid personality differing from the traditional type. In 2005, Tarumi termed this novel condition 'dysthymic-type depression,' and more recently the condition has been called Shin-gata/Gendai-gata Utsu-byo [modern-type depression (MTD)]. We recently developed a semi-structured diagnostic interview to evaluate MTD. Development of a tool that enables understanding of premorbid personality in a short time, especially at the early stage of treatment, is desirable. The object of this study was to develop a self-report scale to evaluate the traits of MTD, and to assess the scale's psychometric properties, diagnostic accuracy, and biological validity.

    METHODS: A sample of 340 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis. Diagnostic accuracy of the MTD traits was compared against a semi-structured interview.

    RESULTS: The questionnaire contained 22 items across three subscales, thus we termed it the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale: Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22). Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were all satisfactory. Among patients with major depression, the area under the curve was 0.757 (sensitivity of 63.1% and specificity of 82.9%) and the score was positively correlated with plasma tryptophan.

    CONCLUSION: The TACS-22 possessed adequate psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy in an initial sample of Japanese adults. Additional research on its ability to support clinical assessment of MTD is warranted.

  12. Park SC, Jang EY, Xiang YT, Kanba S, Kato TA, Chong MY, et al.
    PMID: 32048773 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12989
    AIM: We aimed to estimate the network structures of depressive symptoms using network analysis and evaluated the geographic regional differences in theses network structures among Asian patients with depressive disorders.

    METHODS: Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD), the network of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode was estimated from 1174 Asian patients with depressive disorders. The node strength centrality of all ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for a depressive episode was estimated using a community-detection algorithm. In addition, networks of depressive symptoms were estimated separately among East Asian patients and South or Southeast Asian patients. Moreover, networks were estimated separately among Asian patients from high-income countries and those from middle-income countries.

    RESULTS: Persistent sadness, fatigue, and loss of interest were the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms in Asian patients with depressive disorders overall. A community-detection algorithm estimated that when excluding psychomotor disturbance as an outlier, the other nine symptoms formed the largest clinically meaningful cluster. Geographic and economic variations in networks of depressive symptoms were evaluated.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that the typical symptoms of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode are the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, our findings suggested that cultural influences related to geographic and economic distributions of participants could influence the estimated depressive symptom network in Asian patients with depressive disorders.

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