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  1. Chiu TL, Tong JE, Schmidt KE
    Psychol Med, 1972 May;2(2):155-65.
    PMID: 5034110 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291700040629
    During a psychiatric survey in Sarawak, subjects demonstrating latah were examined separately, both clinically and with a questionnaire. Latah occurred only in females, mainly Malays, occasionally Ibans, and never Chinese. Fifty latah subjects were examined, seven were firmly diagnosed as being mentally ill, and another 13 demonstrated mild psychiatric disorders. Dream content indicated an overt sexual component
  2. Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Veronese N, Kahl KG, Mitchell AJ, Lin PY, et al.
    Psychol Med, 2017 Sep;47(12):2107-2117.
    PMID: 28374652 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291717000551
    BACKGROUND: Despite the known heightened risk and burden of various somatic diseases in people with depression, very little is known about physical health multimorbidity (i.e. two or more physical health co-morbidities) in individuals with depression. This study explored physical health multimorbidity in people with clinical depression, subsyndromal depression and brief depressive episode across 43 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
    METHOD: Cross-sectional, community-based data on 190 593 individuals from 43 LMICs recruited via the World Health Survey were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between depression and physical multimorbidity.
    RESULTS: Overall, two, three and four or more physical health conditions were present in 7.4, 2.4 and 0.9% of non-depressive individuals compared with 17.7, 9.1 and 4.9% among people with any depressive episode, respectively. Compared with those with no depression, subsyndromal depression, brief depressive episode and depressive episode were significantly associated with 2.62, 2.14 and 3.44 times higher odds for multimorbidity, respectively. A significant positive association between multimorbidity and any depression was observed across 42 of the 43 countries, with particularly high odds ratios (ORs) in China (OR 8.84), Laos (OR 5.08), Ethiopia (OR 4.99), the Philippines (OR 4.81) and Malaysia (OR 4.58). The pooled OR for multimorbidity and depression estimated by meta-analysis across 43 countries was 3.26 (95% confident interval 2.98-3.57).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our large multinational study demonstrates that physical health multimorbidity is increased across the depression spectrum. Public health interventions are required to address this global health problem.
    Study name: World Health Survey (Malaysia is a study site)
  3. Barrett R, Loa P, Jerah E, Nancarrow D, Chant D, Mowry B
    Psychol Med, 2005 Feb;35(2):281-93.
    PMID: 15841685
    We present results of a study of treated rates of schizophrenia among the Iban of Sarawak, Malaysia. Most Iban live in longhouses, each comprising a kindred group of up to 300 individuals. Cultural practices such as minimal intermarriage with members of adjacent ethnic groups and in-depth genealogical knowledge make them a population suitable for genetic investigation. Iban culture is conducive to a focus on symptoms and illness, and to patterns of treatment-seeking behaviour that are enthusiastic and persistent.
  4. Pritchard C, Amanullah S
    Psychol Med, 2007 Mar;37(3):421-30.
    PMID: 17176500
    Suicide is expressly condemned in the Qu'ran, and traditionally few Islamic countries have reported suicide. Undetermined deaths are classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Other Violent Deaths (OVD) in ICD-9, or Other External Causes (OEC) in ICD-10. It has been suggested that to avoid under-reporting of suicides, both formal suicide verdicts and OVD should be considered together because OVD may contain 'hidden' suicides.
  5. Bartholomew RE
    Psychol Med, 1994 May;24(2):281-306.
    PMID: 8084927
    This study questions the widely held assumption that the phenomenon known as mass psychogenic illness (MPI) exists per se in nature as a psychiatric disorder. Most MPI studies are problematical, being descriptive, retrospective investigations of specific incidents which conform to a set of pre-existing symptom criteria that are used to determine the presence of collective psychosomatic illness. Diagnoses are based upon subjective, ambiguous categories that reflect stereotypes of female normality which assume the presence of a transcultural disease or disorder entity, underemphasizing or ignoring the significance of episodes as culturally conditioned roles of social action. Examples of this bias include the mislabelling of dancing manias, tarantism and demonopathy in Europe since the Middle Ages as culture-specific variants of MPI. While 'victims' are typified as mentally disturbed females possessing abnormal personality characteristics who are exhibiting cathartic reactions to stress, it is argued that episodes may involve normal, rational people who possess unfamiliar conduct codes, world-views and political agendas that differ significantly from those of Western-trained investigators who often judge these illness behaviours independent of their local context and meanings.
  6. Wu Y, Levis B, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, et al.
    Psychol Med, 2020 Jun;50(8):1368-1380.
    PMID: 31298180 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291719001314
    BACKGROUND: Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.

    METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.

    RESULTS: 16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (-0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.

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