METHODS: Parallel epidemiological studies were conducted in areas where the three groups were concentrated in and around Malaysia (response rates: 80-83%).
RESULTS: TE exposure, PMLDs and ASI were significantly associated with CMD prevalence in each group but the Rohingya recorded the highest exposure to all three of these former indices relative to Chin and Kachin (TE: mean = 11.1 v. 8.2 v. 11; PMLD: mean = 13.5 v. 7.4 v. 8.7; ASI: mean = 128.9 v. 32.1 v. 35.5). Multiple logistic regression analyses based on the pooled sample (n = 2058) controlling for gender and age, found that ethnic group membership, premigration TEs (16 or more TEs: OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.39-2.88; p < 0.001), PMLDs (10-15 PMLDs: OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 3.17-5.54; 16 or more PMLDs: OR, 7.23; 95% CI, 5.24-9.98; p < 0.001) and ASI score (ASI score 100 or greater: OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.46-3.30; p < 0.001) contributed to CMD.
CONCLUSIONS: Factors specific to each ethnic group and differences in the quantum of exposure to TEs, PMLDs and psychosocial disruptions appeared to account in large part for differences in prevalence rates of CMDs observed across these three groups.
METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
RESULTS: 16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (-0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
METHODS: We included all presentations of first-episode psychosis over 8.5 years to the DETECT Early Intervention for psychosis service in the Republic of Ireland (573 individuals aged 18-65, of whom 22% were first-generation migrants). Psychotic disorder diagnosis relied on SCID. The at-risk population was calculated using census data, and negative binomial regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios.
RESULTS: The annual crude incidence rate for a first-episode psychotic disorder in the total cohort was 25.62 per 100000 population at risk. Migrants from Africa had a nearly twofold increased risk for developing a psychotic disorder compared to those born in the Republic of Ireland (IRR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.11-3.02, p = 0.02). In contrast, migrants from certain Asian countries had a reduced risk, specifically those from China, India, Philippines, Pakistan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and Hong Kong (aIRR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.81, p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Further research into the reasons for this inflated risk in specific migrant groups could produce insights into the aetiology of psychotic disorders. This information should also be used, alongside other data on environmental risk factors that can be determined from census data, to predict the incidence of psychotic disorders and thereby resource services appropriately.