Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Pritchard C, Amanullah S
    Psychol Med, 2007 Mar;37(3):421-30.
    PMID: 17176500
    Suicide is expressly condemned in the Qu'ran, and traditionally few Islamic countries have reported suicide. Undetermined deaths are classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Other Violent Deaths (OVD) in ICD-9, or Other External Causes (OEC) in ICD-10. It has been suggested that to avoid under-reporting of suicides, both formal suicide verdicts and OVD should be considered together because OVD may contain 'hidden' suicides.
  2. Barrett R, Loa P, Jerah E, Nancarrow D, Chant D, Mowry B
    Psychol Med, 2005 Feb;35(2):281-93.
    PMID: 15841685
    We present results of a study of treated rates of schizophrenia among the Iban of Sarawak, Malaysia. Most Iban live in longhouses, each comprising a kindred group of up to 300 individuals. Cultural practices such as minimal intermarriage with members of adjacent ethnic groups and in-depth genealogical knowledge make them a population suitable for genetic investigation. Iban culture is conducive to a focus on symptoms and illness, and to patterns of treatment-seeking behaviour that are enthusiastic and persistent.
  3. Bartholomew RE
    Psychol Med, 1994 May;24(2):281-306.
    PMID: 8084927
    This study questions the widely held assumption that the phenomenon known as mass psychogenic illness (MPI) exists per se in nature as a psychiatric disorder. Most MPI studies are problematical, being descriptive, retrospective investigations of specific incidents which conform to a set of pre-existing symptom criteria that are used to determine the presence of collective psychosomatic illness. Diagnoses are based upon subjective, ambiguous categories that reflect stereotypes of female normality which assume the presence of a transcultural disease or disorder entity, underemphasizing or ignoring the significance of episodes as culturally conditioned roles of social action. Examples of this bias include the mislabelling of dancing manias, tarantism and demonopathy in Europe since the Middle Ages as culture-specific variants of MPI. While 'victims' are typified as mentally disturbed females possessing abnormal personality characteristics who are exhibiting cathartic reactions to stress, it is argued that episodes may involve normal, rational people who possess unfamiliar conduct codes, world-views and political agendas that differ significantly from those of Western-trained investigators who often judge these illness behaviours independent of their local context and meanings.
  4. Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Veronese N, Kahl KG, Mitchell AJ, Lin PY, et al.
    Psychol Med, 2017 Sep;47(12):2107-2117.
    PMID: 28374652 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291717000551
    BACKGROUND: Despite the known heightened risk and burden of various somatic diseases in people with depression, very little is known about physical health multimorbidity (i.e. two or more physical health co-morbidities) in individuals with depression. This study explored physical health multimorbidity in people with clinical depression, subsyndromal depression and brief depressive episode across 43 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
    METHOD: Cross-sectional, community-based data on 190 593 individuals from 43 LMICs recruited via the World Health Survey were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between depression and physical multimorbidity.
    RESULTS: Overall, two, three and four or more physical health conditions were present in 7.4, 2.4 and 0.9% of non-depressive individuals compared with 17.7, 9.1 and 4.9% among people with any depressive episode, respectively. Compared with those with no depression, subsyndromal depression, brief depressive episode and depressive episode were significantly associated with 2.62, 2.14 and 3.44 times higher odds for multimorbidity, respectively. A significant positive association between multimorbidity and any depression was observed across 42 of the 43 countries, with particularly high odds ratios (ORs) in China (OR 8.84), Laos (OR 5.08), Ethiopia (OR 4.99), the Philippines (OR 4.81) and Malaysia (OR 4.58). The pooled OR for multimorbidity and depression estimated by meta-analysis across 43 countries was 3.26 (95% confident interval 2.98-3.57).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our large multinational study demonstrates that physical health multimorbidity is increased across the depression spectrum. Public health interventions are required to address this global health problem.
    Study name: World Health Survey (Malaysia is a study site)
  5. Chiu TL, Tong JE, Schmidt KE
    Psychol Med, 1972 May;2(2):155-65.
    PMID: 5034110 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291700040629
    During a psychiatric survey in Sarawak, subjects demonstrating latah were examined separately, both clinically and with a questionnaire. Latah occurred only in females, mainly Malays, occasionally Ibans, and never Chinese. Fifty latah subjects were examined, seven were firmly diagnosed as being mentally ill, and another 13 demonstrated mild psychiatric disorders. Dream content indicated an overt sexual component
  6. Tay AK, Mohsin M, Hau KM, Badrudduza M, Balasundaram S, Morgan K, et al.
    Psychol Med, 2020 Sep 11.
    PMID: 32914737 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291720003104
    BACKGROUND: Large variations in prevalence rates of common mental disorder (CMD) amongst refugees and forcibly displaced populations have raised questions about the accuracy and value of epidemiological surveys in these cross-cultural settings. We examined the associations of sociodemographic indices, premigration traumatic events (TEs), postmigration living difficulties (PMLDs), and psychosocial disruptions based on the Adaptive Stress Index (ASI) in relation to CMD prevalence amongst the Rohingya, Chin and Kachin refugees originating from Myanmar and relocated to Malaysia.

    METHODS: Parallel epidemiological studies were conducted in areas where the three groups were concentrated in and around Malaysia (response rates: 80-83%).

    RESULTS: TE exposure, PMLDs and ASI were significantly associated with CMD prevalence in each group but the Rohingya recorded the highest exposure to all three of these former indices relative to Chin and Kachin (TE: mean = 11.1 v. 8.2 v. 11; PMLD: mean = 13.5 v. 7.4 v. 8.7; ASI: mean = 128.9 v. 32.1 v. 35.5). Multiple logistic regression analyses based on the pooled sample (n = 2058) controlling for gender and age, found that ethnic group membership, premigration TEs (16 or more TEs: OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.39-2.88; p < 0.001), PMLDs (10-15 PMLDs: OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 3.17-5.54; 16 or more PMLDs: OR, 7.23; 95% CI, 5.24-9.98; p < 0.001) and ASI score (ASI score 100 or greater: OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.46-3.30; p < 0.001) contributed to CMD.

    CONCLUSIONS: Factors specific to each ethnic group and differences in the quantum of exposure to TEs, PMLDs and psychosocial disruptions appeared to account in large part for differences in prevalence rates of CMDs observed across these three groups.

  7. Wu Y, Levis B, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, et al.
    Psychol Med, 2020 06;50(8):1368-1380.
    PMID: 31298180 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291719001314
    BACKGROUND: Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.

    METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.

    RESULTS: 16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (-0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.

  8. O'Donoghue B, Lyne J, Roche E, Mifsud N, Renwick L, Behan C, et al.
    Psychol Med, 2021 May 25.
    PMID: 34030746 DOI: 10.1017/S003329172100177X
    BACKGROUND: Migration is an established risk factor for developing a psychotic disorder in countries with a long history of migration. Less is known for countries with only a recent history of migration. This study aimed to determine the risk for developing a psychotic disorder in migrants to the Republic of Ireland.

    METHODS: We included all presentations of first-episode psychosis over 8.5 years to the DETECT Early Intervention for psychosis service in the Republic of Ireland (573 individuals aged 18-65, of whom 22% were first-generation migrants). Psychotic disorder diagnosis relied on SCID. The at-risk population was calculated using census data, and negative binomial regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios.

    RESULTS: The annual crude incidence rate for a first-episode psychotic disorder in the total cohort was 25.62 per 100000 population at risk. Migrants from Africa had a nearly twofold increased risk for developing a psychotic disorder compared to those born in the Republic of Ireland (IRR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.11-3.02, p = 0.02). In contrast, migrants from certain Asian countries had a reduced risk, specifically those from China, India, Philippines, Pakistan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and Hong Kong (aIRR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.81, p = 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Further research into the reasons for this inflated risk in specific migrant groups could produce insights into the aetiology of psychotic disorders. This information should also be used, alongside other data on environmental risk factors that can be determined from census data, to predict the incidence of psychotic disorders and thereby resource services appropriately.

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