Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the most common cause of end-stage renal failure. Early referral and specific nephrology treatment could delay the disease progression and should reduce the treatment cost, mortality and morbidity rate in these patients. This is a single-center, retrospective review of all DN patients referred to the nephrology clinic in Hospital Sultan Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, from 2000 to 2009, to study and define the clinical characteristics of DN patients at the time of the referral to the nephrology clinic. A total of 75 patient case records were reviewed. Forty-three (57.3%) of them were males, with a median age of 64.3 ± 8.5 years at the time of referral. Only 14.7% of them had blood pressure lower than 125/75 mmHg. Co-morbid and disease-related complications were also commonly diagnosed and 28.4% (n = 21) had ischemic heart disease, 23% (n = 17) had diabetic retinopathy and 20.3% (n = 15) had diabetic neuropathy. The mean serum creatinine at the time of referral was 339.8 ± 2.3 μmol/L, gylcated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA1C) was 8.1 ± 2.0 %, serum fasting glucose was 9.6 ± 4.7 mmol/L, serum cholesterol was 5.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L and hemoglobin level was 10.6 ± 2.9 g/dL. Although female patients were less frequently seen in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), they comprised at least 72.7% of CKD stage 5 (male:female; 6:16, P <0.05). Twenty-nine percent (n=22) of them were referred at CKD stage 5, 48% (n=36) were at CKD stage 4, 17.3% (n=13) were at CKD stage 3, 4% (n=3) were at CKD stage 2 and 1.3% (n=1) was at CKD stage 1. Advanced CKD patients were frequently prescribed with more antihypertensives. CKD stage 5 patients were prescribed with two-and-half types of antihypertensive as compared to two types of anti-hypertensive in CKD stage 2 and stage 3. Furthermore, ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I) were less frequently prescribed to them. Only 22.7% (n=5) of CKD stage 5 patients received ACE-I and 30% (n=11) in CKD stage 4 patients as compared to 53.4% (n=7) in CKD patients stage 3. This review shows that DN patients were referred late to the nephrologists and the overall disease management was suboptimal. Antihypertensive requirement was also increased and ACEIs were less frequently prescribed in the advanced diabetic nephropathy patients.
Study site: Nephrology Clinic, Hospital Sultan Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia
Kidney biopsy is indicated to confirm the clinical diagnosis or to evaluate prognosis of a renal problem. It is a reliable and safe procedure, especially with real-time ultrasound guidance. This is a single-center, retrospective review of the biopsies performed in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang from 2000 to 2010. The demographic data, clinical parameters, and histological reports were extracted from clinic records and analyzed to determine the diagnostic adequacy of biopsy samples for both lupus and non-lupus patients. A total of 219 biopsies were performed throughout the period and only 74 were included in this review. Their mean age was 22.5 ± 10.5 years. 59.5% of the biopsies were performed on female patients. Malays comprised 79.7% (n = 59) of them, followed by Chinese (18.9%, n=14) and Indian (1.4%, n=1). About one-third of the biopsies(n = 25) were performed on patients with lupus nephritis and two-thirds (n = 49) on non-lupus nephritis patients. At the time of biopsy, their serum creatinine values were normal, serum albumin 28.4 ± 10 g/L and total cholesterol 8.9 ± 4.6 mmol/L (mean ± SD). The urine dipstick was 3+ for both proteinuria and hematuria and daily protein excretion was 3.6 ± 3.2 g. Sixty-seven specimens were considered adequate and only six (8%) were inadequate for histological interpretations. The mean number of glomeruli in the biopsy specimens was 16 ± 9.9 (range: 0-47 glomeruli). In non-lupus patients, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the commonest histological diagnosis (n = 15, 30.6%), followed by minimal change disease (n = 13, 26.5%) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 7, 14.3%). Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in four (8.2%) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in two (4.1%) specimens. Both post-infectious glomerulonephritis and advanced glomerulosclerosis were found in one specimen each. Among the lupus nephritis patients (n = 25), 88% of them were females (P <0.05) and lupus nephritis WHO class IV was the commonest variant (n = 12, 48%) followed by WHO class III (n = 7, 28%). Membranous glomerulopathy or lupus nephritis WHO class V was found in three (12%), and two (8%) had lupus nephritis WHO class II. Serum albumin, urinalysis findings, and daily urinary protein excretion were comparable for both lupus and non-lupus patients. In conclusion, renal biopsy in our center is adequate and sufficient for histological interpretations and management of patients with renal problems.
In developing countries, the majority of infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) occurs during childhood and continues as a latent infection. By adulthood, almost all the population may show anti-HCMV IgG as positive. This study was undertaken to determine the correlation between the prevalence of HCMV antibodies and HCMV infection during post transplant period among renal transplant patients in Baghdad. 43 renal transplant patients attending three renal transplantation centers, and 40 healthy individuals who served as controls were enrolled in this study. 18 (41.9%) were transplanted recently and they were under post-operative follow-up and 25 (58.1%) were transplanted more than one year ago. Detection of anti-HCMV IgG was carried out using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). The results revealed that anti-HCMV IgG was significantly higher among renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls (97.7% vs 85%, P = 0.04). The anti-HCMV IgG positivity rate was not affected by patients' age, sex, and duration after transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy. We conclude that the high anti-HCMV IgG positivity rate among Iraqi renal transplant recipients make them prone to considerable risk of reactivation of HCMV infection.
To determine the medication prescribing patterns in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a Malaysian hospital, we prospectively studied a cohort of 600 patients in two phases with 300 patients in each phase. The first phase was carried out from the beginning of February to the end of May 2007, and the second phase was from the beginning of March to the end of June 2008. Patients with CKD who had an estimated creatinine clearance ≤ 50 mL/min and were older than 18 years were included. A data collection form was used to collect data from the patients' medical records and chart review. All systemic medications prescribed during hospitalization were included. The patients were prescribed 5795 medications. During the first phase, the patients were prescribed 2814 medication orders of 176 different medications. The prescriptions were 2981 of 158 medications during the second phase. The mean number of medications in the first and second phases was 9.38 ± 3.63 and 9.94 ± 3.78 respectively (P-value = 0.066). The top five used medications were calcium carbonate, folic acid/vitamin B complex, metoprolol, lovastatin, and ferrous sulfate. The most commonly used medication classes were mineral supplements, vitamins, antianemic preparations, antibacterials, and beta-blocking agents. This study provides an overview of prescription practice in a cohort of hospitalized CKD patients and indicates possible areas of improvement in prescription practice.
Central vein stenosis is usually associated with previous cannulation or trauma to the affected vein. This pathology may present as ipsilateral arm swelling in patients in whom a recent arteriovenous fistula has been prepared for chronic hemodialysis. The presence of central vein stenosis without prior trauma or cannulation is not hitherto reported to the best of our knowledge. We herewith report a patient with end-stage renal disease who was initiated on chronic dialysis using an arteriovenous fistula, who was noted to have central vein stenosis. This was despite her never having had any central vein cannulation or previous known trauma. Venogram confirmed the presence of brachiocephalic vein stenosis. The patient underwent venographic stenting of the involved vein with good success.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common diagnosis among critically ill patients. Although the etiology of AKI will determine the appropriate initial management, the definitive management of established AKI is still debatable. This is a retrospective, observational, single-center analysis of a cohort of patients referred to the nephrology unit for AKI from 1st August 2010 to 31st January 2011. Those patients with indications for dialysis were treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, intermittent hemodialysis or stiff-catheter peritoneal dialysis as determined by their hemodynamic status and the technical availability of the method. The 30-day mortality rate, renal outcomes and independent prognostic factors were analyzed statistically. Seventy-five patients were reviewed. The mean age was 52.9 ± 14.5 years. Two-thirds were males and 75% were Malays. 53.3% were referred from intensive wards. Pre-renal AKI and intra-renal AKI were diagnosed in 21.3% and 73.3% patients, respectively. Sepsis was the most common cause (n = 59). The pathogens were successfully cultured in 42.3% of the cases. The median urea and creatinine were 30.4 [interquartile range (IQR) 20.3] mmol/L and 474 (IQR 398.0) μmol/L, respectively. Seventy-six percent had metabolic acidosis. Oliguria was only noted in 38.7% of the patients. Sixty percent (n = 45) of the referrals were treated with conventional, intermittent hemodialysis and 22.7% (n = 17) with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration. The 30-day mortality rate was 28%, and was higher in intensive wards (37.5% versus 17.1%). Thirty-one percent (n = 20) had complete recovery, 17 (26.6%) had partial recovery without dialysis and seven (10.9%) became dialysis dependent. The 30-day mortality rate was 28%. Referral from intensive wards was the only significant poor prognostic factor in our patients and not the dialysis modalities.
Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence world-wide, probably more common in industrialized countries. The metabolic evaluation of 24-h urine collection has been considered as part of the management of urinary stone patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine constituents in stone formers and its relation to demographic data in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and six patients were recruited in this study from two hospitals in the same geographical region; 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and an informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The 24-h urine was collected in sterile bottles with a preservative agent and calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium and phosphate were tested using commercial kits on a Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer. The age (mean ± SD) of 96 patients was 56.45 ± 13.43 years and 82.3% of the patients were male while 17.7% were female. The 24-h urine abnormalities were hypercalciuria (14.5%), hyperoxaluria (61.4%), hypocitraturia (57.2%), hyperuricouria (19.7%), hypomagnesuria (59.3%) and hyperphosphaturia (12.5%). Hyperoxaluria (61.4%) was the most common abnormality detected during the analysis of 24-h urine constituents in contradiction to industrial countries, where hypercalciuria was the most common finding. The high frequencies of hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia reflect the important role of magnesium and citrate in stone formation and their prophylactic role in the treatment of urinary stone disease in the given population.
Malignancy is a significant long-term complication of successful renal transplantation. Not only the rate is higher but also cases are highly aggressive. We report a case of metastatic, small cell, neuroendocrine tumor in a post-renal transplant patient with progressive left inguinal nodes and right lumbar swellings. He had a remarkably elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels with multiple metastatic masses in the left inguinal, left iliac fossa, and right lower abdominal wall on abdominal computed tomography scan. Excisional biopsy of a left inguinal node revealed extensive infiltration with malignant cells in it. Immunohistochemistry staining was positive for synaptophysin, prostatic specific antigen, and CD56. While the primary small cell carcinoma of genitourinary organs is rare, the case illustrates the highly aggressive nature of the disease in a kidney transplant recipient.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) was frequently encountered complication among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and recognized as a major public health problem. The present study aimed to determine the basic features of AKI patients admitted to ICU. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 106 AKI patients admitted to ICU, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 1, 2007 until the end of December 2013. The AKI patients ranged from 18 to 80 years old with the mean (standard deviation) of 58.93 (15.76) years, 60.4% were male and 91.5% were Malay ethnicity. Hypertension and diabetes were in 38.1% and 28.8%, respectively. The median (interquartile range) length of ICU stay was 4.50 (9.00) days. Eighty-two patients (79.6%) were classified as the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN)-I, 12 (11.7%) as AKIN-II, and nine (8.7%) as AKIN-III. Sepsis was the common etiology among AKI patients (74.3%). Twenty-four patients (22.9%) required dialysis and 90.5% were mechanically ventilated. In conclusion, AKI developed more in male patients, Malay ethnicity, presented with comorbid, caused by sepsis, admitted to ICU, required mechanical ventilation, and need for renal replacement therapy.
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a known motile organism in soil. Its infection is usually described in immunocompromised patients. It inflicts serious infection with high mortality and morbidity rate. We report a rare case of an end-stage renal disease patient on regular continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) who developed melioidosis PD peritonitis. Within a short period of time, she developed encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis evidenced by the intraoperative findings of intraabdominal cocooning. Choice and duration of antibiotic are important for proper eradication of the organism. Early diagnosis and treatment of both conditions also may improve the prognoses.
Cardiovascular (CV) event is the most common cause of death in dialysis patients. Both traditional and nontraditional CV risk factors related to malnutrition, inflammation, and anemia are commonly found in this population. This study was conducted to evaluate the burden factors of CV risk factors and its management in our regularly dialyzed patients. It was a single-center, cross-sectional analysis of prevalent intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients followed up in our hospital. Both the traditional and non-traditional CV risk factors were recorded and compared between the two groups. Eighty-eight patients were recruited. Forty-five were treated with CAPD and 43 patients were treated with IHD. The mean age was 49.5 ± 15.17 years old and 54.5% were females. Eighty percent were Malay followed by Chinese (14.7%) and Indian (5.7%). Thirty-eight percent were hypertensive and 17% were diabetic. The mean age of CAPD patients was 48.9 ± 16.9 compared to 50 ± 13.5 years old for IHD patients (P > 0.05). The body mass index (BMI) of CAPD patients was 23.9 kg/m2 versus 21.7 kg/m2 of the IHD (P = 0.04). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure of CAPD patients were 158 and 89 mm Hg in comparison to 141 and 72 mm Hg in IHD patients (P <0.001) and their total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were 5.93 mmol/L and 3.84 mmol/L versus 4.79 mmol/L and 2.52 mmol/L, respectively (P≤0.001). The CAPD patients were hyperglycemic more than IHD patients, although it was not statistically significant. All the nontraditional CV risk factors except serum albumin were comparable between the two groups. Serum albumin in CAPD patients was 35.5 g/L compared to 40.8 g/L in the IHD patients (P <0.001). In our prevalent dialysis-dependent patients, both traditional and non-traditional CV risk factors are common. Due to the prolonged and continuous glucose exposure from the peritoneal dialysis fluid, the CAPD patients had highly atherogenic serum, higher BMI, and intensified inflammation which pre-disposed them to higher CV events.
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent commonly used to achieve hemostasis. However, there have been a few case reports suggesting that high-dose intravenous TXA has epileptogenic property. In patients with renal impairment, even administering the usual recommended dose of TXA can induce seizure episodes. We present here a patient on hemodialysis who developed seizures after receiving two doses of TXA over 5 h period.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients suffer from multiple comorbidities and complications as a cause or consequence of kidney disease. Information regarding medication- prescribing patterns in predialysis patients is sparse. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the medication prescription patterns among predialysis patients. Medical records (both paper based and computerized) of patients at CKD Resource Centre, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, were reviewed. A total of 615 eligible cases were included in the study. The mean number of medications prescribed per patient was 8.22 ± 2.81, and medication use was correlated to the renal function (stage 3a < stage 3b < stage 4 < stage 5; P <0.001). The top three prescribed medication groups were found to be lipid-lowering agents, calcium channel blockers, and antiplatelet agents. Some medication classes such as nonaluminum/noncalcium phosphate binders, erythropoietin-stimulating agents, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers, particularly in advanced stage, were found to be underutilized. In conclusion, predialysis patients are prescribed a large number of medications. Our findings highlight the need for assessing the impact of current medication-prescribing patterns on morbidity and mortality rates in Malaysian predialysis population.
Studies among hemodialysis (HD) patients have looked into relationships between illness perception (IP), depression, and adherence yet rarely looked further into medication factors. Those studies were also conducted at urban HD centers leaving out those from a smaller town. Our objective is to determine phosphate binders (PBs) influences on IP and depression among HD population in smaller town. One hundred and thirteen patients from three Central Pahang Cluster Hospitals, Malaysia on HD were interviewed using Malay version of the Brief IP Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). This study found a significant positive correlation between PBs daily dose frequency with consequence, timeline, and illness concern. Type of PBs used influenced personal control significantly. History of PBs side effects resulted in significantly lower treatment control and lower emotional representation. There was a significant negative relationship between dialysis vintage with both identity and IP score. Depressed patients had significantly higher emotional representation compared to healthy controls. Meanwhile, there was a positive correlation between BDI-II score with coherence, consequence, and emotional representation. Around 23.9% of the patients reported symptoms of depression. Depressed patients had significantly shorter dialysis vintage compared to healthy controls. They tended to report a significant history of hospital admission in the past six months that peaked among those on HD between four to six years. The current study showed the effect of PBs therapy on IP while depression was associated with HD duration and hospital admission. This information can be used to formulate a better treatment approach by health-care practitioners toward better patients treatment hence outcomes.
Studies have shown that the mean or median phosphate levels were related to certain factors although applying this finding into the clinical setting is challenging. In this study, we attempted to determine treatment characteristics for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) having hyperphosphatemia or hypophosphatemia in comparison with those with normal phosphate level. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted at HD units of Central Pahang Cluster Hospitals, Malaysia, in April 2017 involving 110 ESRD patients on MHD. About 40% of the study patients had normo-or hyperphosphatemia. As many as 84.5% (n = 93) of our patients were prescribed calcium carbonate (CC); the phosphate level was not affected by phosphate binder (PB) adherence. None of our patients received more than one type of PBs. Although there were no significant differences in any factors between normo- and hyperphosphatemic patients, 64% (n = 28) of the hyperphosphatemic patients did not receive the recommended maximum PB dose. In addition, 42% (n = 30) of patients with normo- and hyperphosphatemia prescribed CC received more than the recommended daily elemental calcium. On the other hand, our hypophosphatemic patients tended to be significantly older and had lower HD duration compared to normophosphatemic patients. No other significant differences were found in medication factors between normo- and hypophos-phatemic patients. There is potential to maximize phosphate control in hyperphosphatemic patients in Malaysia by maximizing PB therapy. On the other hand, proactive supervision is required in caring and prescribing for hypophosphatemic patients, especially the older patients.
Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in renal transplant patients is often assessed by application of creatinine-based equations. The aim was to correlate the estimated GFR (eGFR) using creatinine-based equations [Cockroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Nankivell] with gold standard 51Cr-EDTA in kidney transplant patients in the Asian population. This is a single-center, cross-sectional study involving adult renal transplant patients. Background demographic data, medications, office blood pressure, and baseline investigations were taken. Correlations between measured GFR and eGFR were analyzed and Pearson's correlation coefficients, bias, and accuracy were assessed. Thirty-seven renal transplant patients with a mean age of 46 ± 13 years were recruited. Majority were Chinese (68%), Malay (24%), and Indian (8%). The median duration of the transplant was 84 (interquartile range 60,132) months. The mean measured GFR was 71 ± 21 mL/min/1.73 m2. Cockroft-Gault and CKD-EPI has the best correlation with 51Cr-EDTA with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.733 (P <0.001) and 0.711 (P < 0.001), respectively. All formulae showed >80% accuracy with eGFR lies between 30% of the measured value. CKD-EPI and MDRD had the greatest accuracy with 89.2% each. Clinician may use any of these three serum creatinine-based equations to estimate GFR in kidney transplant recipients.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common problem in hospitals and many end up requiring dialysis. The aim was to identify the associated factors of dialysis-dependent of AKI patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs). A retrospective cohort study was conducted where a list of 121 AKI patients admitted to ICU in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia was retrospectively reviewed. AKI patients aged below 18 years old, had kidney transplantation or chronic dialysis before ICU admission and had incomplete medical record were excluded from the study. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were used. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of patients was 56 (17.15) years. Majority of patients were males (63.2%) and Malay ethnic (54.1%). 49.3% of patients were in stage I, 48.3% in stage II and 76.2% in stage III. The mean (SD) duration of patients stayed in ICU was 7 days (6.92) for non-dialysis dependent and 12 days (8.37) for dialysis-dependent. The associated factors were male gender [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53, 8.86; P = 0.004], AKI Stage III (adjusted OR: 4.51; 95% CI: 1.28, 15.91; P = 0.019), admitted in ICU (adjusted OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.28, 7.29; P = 0.012), and longer length of stay (adjusted OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.18; P = 0.003). The factors influence of dialysis-requiring AKI were observed to be dependent on the male male gender, suffer from the advanced stage (Stage III), admitted to the ICU and had a longer length of stay in ICU. Therefore, it is important for physicians to identify patients who are at high risk of developing AKI and implement preventive strategies.
Knowledge limitation is a major cause of the increasing number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in Malaysia and the world. Nurses are responsible for identifying the patients' needs to come up with appropriate discharge plans which might include educational activities. The objective of this study was to determine the baseline information (socio- demographic background, as well as medical and lifestyle histories), along with educational needs of CKD patients. A total of 116 CKD patients who attended the Nephrology Clinic of Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan were recruited. Patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected between April and May 2017. Data were obtained via semi-guided questionnaires; the patients were given enough time to complete the required items. The CKD educational needs' assessment consisted of seven domains: general information, chronic illness management, complications, self-management, medications, treatment, and financial status. Majority of the patients were men (53.4%), aged 54.65 ± 16.49 years, secondary school-finishers (49.1%), and jobless (48.3%). In terms of medical and life-style histories, most patients were diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (51.7%), hypertension (96.6%), diabetes (51.7%), and anemia (25.9%). The patients were interested to know the complications of kidney disease (57.8%), management of diseases like hypertension (58.6%), complications like edema (55.2%), indications for medication (73.3%), self-management or fluid control (37.9%), hemodialysis (37.1%), and financial status (21.6%). Thus, strengthening patient education strategies in the clinics, hospitals, and community settings should be given due attention by relevant healthcare professionals.