METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was completed by national representatives in all ASEAN countries (Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam).
RESULTS: Overall facilities for initial epilepsy pre-surgical evaluation are available in most countries, but further non-invasive and invasive investigations are limited. Three countries (Brunei, Cambodia, and East Timor) have no epilepsy center, and 2 countries (Laos, Myanmar) have level 2 centers doing tumor surgery only. Level-3 epilepsy centers are available in 6 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippine, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam); only 5 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippine, Singapore, Thailand) has at least one level-4 epilepsy care facility. Indonesia with 261 million population only has one level 3 and another level 4 center. The costs of presurgical evaluation and brain surgery vary within and among the countries. The main barriers towards epilepsy surgery in ASEAN include lack of expertise, funding and facilities.
CONCLUSIONS: Epilepsy surgery is underutilized in ASEAN with low number of level 3 centers, and limited availability of advanced presurgical evaluation. Lack of expertise, facilities and funding may be the key factors contributing to the underutilization.
METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study in which participants responded to questionnairesregarding perceived burden (ZBI), quality of life (IEQoL), psychological distress (DASS-21), family functioning (FAD) and perceived social support (MSPSS). Additional measures include socio-demographics and clinical characteristics of the care-recipient.
RESULTS: A total of 111 caregivers participated, of whom 72.1% were females, 55% parents, 59.5% Chinese, 51.4% unemployed and 46.0% with tertiary education.Approximately half (42.3%) reported mild-to-moderate levels of burden (mean ZBI score 29.93, SD 16.09).Furthermore, multiple regression analysisidentified10 predictors of caregiver burden, namely family functioning, weekly caregiving hours, number of caregivers per family, attitude towards epilepsy, family support, caregivers' gender, personal income and as well as care-recipients' age of onset, seizure frequency and ADL dependency (F(10, 85) = 11.37, p
METHODS: Cross-sectional study of Malaysian ambulant CWE on antiseizure medication for >1 year. Sixteen SNPs in 8 genes (GC, VDR, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, CYP27A1, CYP3A4, NADSYN1/DHCR7) were genotyped. Linear and logistic regression models and co-variates adjusted analyses were used. SNPs with significant associations were further analysed in a group of ethnically-matched healthy Malaysian children.
RESULTS: 239 CWE were recruited (52.7% Malay, 24.3% Chinese and 23.0% Indian) with mean serum 25(OH)D of 58.8 nmol/L (SD 25.7). Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (≤37.5 nmol/L) was 23.0%. Minor allele of GC-rs4588-A was associated with lower serum 25(OH)D in the meta-analysis of both CWE (β -8.11, P = 0.002) and Malaysian healthy children (β -5.08, P < 0.001), while VDR-rs7975232-A was significantly associated with reduced odds of vitamin D deficiency in Malay subgroup of CWE (OR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.06-0.49; P = 0.001) and this association was not found in the healthy children group.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that GC-rs4588 is associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentration in both Malaysian CWE and healthy children, while VDR-rs7975232A is associated with lower risk of vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian CWE of Malay ethnicity. Our findings may assist in the genetic risk stratification of low vitamin D status among CWE.