Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

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  1. Suresh N, Chandrasekaran B, Muthusamy S, Kannan S, Muthu K
    Singapore Dent J, 2015 Dec;36:39-43.
    PMID: 26684495 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdj.2014.11.004
    BACKGROUND: Application of principles of electrocautery for hemostasis dates back to prehistoric times. Its modern implementation in various fields of general and head and neck surgeries have been well documented. However its usage in minor oral surgical procedures has gained popularity only recently. Complications associated with electro-surgery in the dental field are relatively rare and there is insufficient literature on its management.

    CASE REPORT: We present a case report on management of an electrosurgery induced osteonecrosis involving maxillary alveolus of left premolars.

    DISCUSSION: Inadvertent contact of the electrosurgery tip on bone can result in necrosis making it necessary to remove the sequestrum and graft the defect. Platelet rich fibrin in combination with bone grafts have been well documented to provide successful periodontal regeneration.

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our aim of presenting this report is to create awareness among the health care providers regarding electrosurgical injuries. To our knowledge, this is the first time platelet rich fibrin has been used in the management of intraoral electrosurgical injury. Combining bone grafts with platelet rich fibrin is a good alternative as it can be done with relative ease and predictable outcome.

  2. Ong RM, Luddin N, Ahmed HM, Omar NS
    Singapore Dent J, 2012 Dec;33(1):19-23.
    PMID: 23739319 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdj.2012.11.001
    The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of accelerated-set white MTA (AWMTA) and accelerated-set Malaysian white PC (AMWPC) on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). The test materials were introduced into paraffin wax moulds after mixing with calcium chloride dihydrate and sterile distilled water. Subsequently, the set cement specimens were sterilized, incubated in a prepared Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for seven days. The biomarker CD166 was used for characterization of SHED using flow cytometry. The material extracts were diluted at five different concentrations and incubated for 72h with SHED. The cell viability was evaluated using Dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the data was analysed using Mann-Whitney test (P<0.05). The results showed that AWMTA revealed significantly greater cell viability at 25 and 12.5mg/ml concentrations (P<0.05). Concomitantly, AMWPC exhibited greater cell viability at concentrations <12.5mg/ml and the results were significant at 1.563mg/ml (P<0.05). Both materials demonstrated moderate cytotoxicity at 25mg/ml and slight cytotoxicity at 6.25 and 3.125mg/ml. At 1.563mg/ml, no cytotoxic activity was merely observed with AMWPC. In conclusion, AMWPC exhibited favourable and comparable cell viability to that of AWMTA, and has the potential to be used as an alternative and less costly material in dental applications.
  3. Ngeow WC, Dionysius DD, Ishak H, Nambiar P
    Singapore Dent J, 2010 Jun;31(1):15-9.
    PMID: 23739252 DOI: 10.1016/S0377-5291(12)70004-4
    Mental foramen is an opening of the mental canal onto the lateral surface of the mandible. In this pilot radiographical study, in Malay population the effects of ageing towards the location and visibility of the mental foramen were determined. Most of the mental foramina were found to be located inferior to the apex of the second premolar. Non-visibility of the foramen was greatly increased in patients aged 50 years and above (Pearson Chi-square; p = 0.00). This finding may provide a guide to dental surgeries in Malay patients of different age groups.
  4. Loh JC, Mansor M, Gendeh BS, Mangat PK
    Singapore Dent J, 2010 Jun;31(1):20-5.
    PMID: 23739253 DOI: 10.1016/S0377-5291(12)70005-6
    Any foreign body in the paranasal sinuses can cause chronic complications. It is therefore important to remove these foreign bodies meticulously. Various approaches are available to accomplish this. This article is a case report of a patient who had gutta-percha as a foreign body in left maxillary sinus, after a gutta-percha point had been used to trace a sinus to confirm that it was an oroantral fistula. Traditional surgical approaches to the maxillary sinus require invasive techniques, such as radical antrostomy and the Caldwell-Luc approach. These may result in further complications and morbidity. The gutta-percha point in this case report was removed endoscopically in an otolaryngology clinic with local anaesthesia using a sublabial antroscopy. There is only one case reported in the dental literature regarding the endoscopically-assisted technique for removal of displaced gutta-percha using the sublabial antroscopy approach (Yura S, Ohga N, Ooi K, Izumiyama Y. Procedure of endoscopic removal of a gutta-percha point in maxillary sinus mucosa by ultrathin arthroscope.
    Study site: ENT clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  5. Abu Asab S, Noor SN, Khamis MF
    Singapore Dent J, 2011;32(1):19-27.
    PMID: 23739283 DOI: 10.1016/S0377-5291(12)70012-3
    This study is aimed to evaluate the accuracy of Demirjian method in estimating the chronological age of male and female Kelantanese Malay children between 6 and 16 years of age and to establish a new dental age (DA) curve if the Demirjian method was not found to be accurate. About 905 panoramic radiographs of healthy Malay children between 6 and 16 years of age were collected from the radiographic unit in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and the orthodontic clinic in Hospital Kota Bharu (HKB). Children who had any disease affecting the dental development, or have agenesis in the lower arch and poor quality radiographic images were excluded. The results showed that Demirjian method overestimated the chronological age (CA) by 1.23 years for boys and 1.20 years for girls and it was less accurate for the Kelantanese Malay children. Thus new standard curve were produced and tested on external samples. Results showed that the mean difference between the chronological age and DA is about 0.17 years for boys and 0.11 years for girls. DA was more advanced in the Kelantanese Malay boys and girls as compared to French-Canadian children in all age groups. It is concluded that the Demirjian method tends to be less accurate in estimating the chronological age in Malay children. The new curve that was produced is more applicable to the Kelantanese Malay children.
  6. Zaman JQ, Yahaya N, Razali M, Ibrahim N, Nor GM, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2007 Dec;29(1):41-5.
    PMID: 18472529
    Obstruction remains as an important cause of failure in the eruption of a tooth. In this article, a 15-year-old girl was presented with retained upper left primary canine (63) and first primary molar (64), while the contralateral permanent canine (13) and premolars (14 and 15) have erupted. Upon radiographic examination, a mass which was diagnosed later to be compound odontome was detected. The treatment consisted of surgical removal of the odontome, extraction of the primary canine (63) and left permanent canine (23), and transplantation of the permanent canine (23). The management of this case and the literature related to autotransplantation are discussed.
  7. Saini R, Ghani ZI, Rahman NA
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):34-9.
    PMID: 17378340
    Lack of awareness of signs and symptoms and risk factors of oral cancer can lead to late presentation of the disease that contributes to poor survival of patients who contract it. This study aims to determine the level of awareness regarding oral cancer in adult patients attending School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
  8. Chai WL, Ngeow WC, Ramli R, Rahman RA
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):4-6.
    PMID: 17378334
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral complications after radiation therapy. The management of xerostomia has been reviewed in Part I of this series. In this article, the management of dental caries, a sequalae of xerostomia following radiation therapy is reviewed.
  9. Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Rahman RA, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):1-3.
    PMID: 17378333
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they receive radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. Part I of this series reviews the management of xerostomia. The management of the effect of xerostomia to the dentition/oral cavity is discussed in Part II.
  10. Ramli R, Ngeow WC, Rahman RA, Chai WL
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):11-5.
    PMID: 17378336
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Pretreatment dental assessment should be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally and, as a result, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a severe debilitating condition that impairs healing due to reduction in vascularity and osteocyte population in the affected bone. This article reviews methods of treatment used to treat ORN such as antibiotics, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, surgery, and other modalities.
  11. Rahman RA, Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):7-10.
    PMID: 17378335
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Pretreatment dental assessment should be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally and, as a result, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. The management of radiation-induced caries, a sequelae of xerostomia has been reviewed in Part II of this series. In this article, the management of difficulty with dentures, another sequelae of xerostomia following radiation therapy is reviewed.
  12. Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Ramli R, Rahman RA
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):19-21.
    PMID: 17378338
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. The last part of this series reviews the opportunistic infections that can occur to the perioral structure. Their management is briefly discussed.
  13. Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Rahman RA, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):16-8.
    PMID: 17378337
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. The second last part of this series reviews and discusses the management of complication that commonly occur to the oral mucosa, i.e. mucositis.
  14. Rosli TI, Abdul Rahman R, Abdul Rahman SR, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2005 Dec;27(1):17-22.
    PMID: 16438264
    The objectives of this study were to determine the sources of stress among undergraduate dental students, and to compare the sources of stress among the 5 years of undergraduate study, between gender, and with other studies done elsewhere. A total of 325 students across the 5 academic years (88.8% response rate) of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, completed the modified Dental Environment Stress questionnaire. All respondents reported that they experienced some form of stress. The preclinical students reported that examinations and fear of failure caused the most stress. The main stressor for clinical students was clinical training, particularly factors relating to meeting clinical requirements. Female students perceived more stress generally than male students. However, male students were more stressed when faced with factors related to clinical training.
  15. Ramli R, Abdul Rahman R
    Singapore Dent J, 2005 Dec;27(1):13-6.
    PMID: 16438263
    Minor oral surgery in warfarinized patients can be performed without stopping or altering the dose of the drug. Thirty patients underwent various types of oral surgical procedures without interruption of their anticoagulant therapy and their therapeutic international normalized ratio maintained. Local measures such as pressure, packing the sockets with oxidized regenerated cellulose, and suturing were applied. In some patients, tranexamic acid mouthwashes were prescribed to further enhance haemostasis. Four patients had minimal postoperative bleeding in the form of bloodstained saliva, which lasted for 24 hours. This study highlights the importance of local measures in controlling postoperative bleeding in warfarinized patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures.
  16. Nik-Hussein NN, Abdul Muttalib K, Junid NZ, Wan MN, Abang A
    Singapore Dent J, 2004 Dec;26(1):30-8.
    PMID: 15736839
    The aim of the present study was to determine the oral health status of 16-year-old Malaysian school children. The prevalence of caries was 75.5%. More than 60% of subjects had caries experience by teeth (DMFT) scores of 0-3. The largest component of the DMFT and caries experience by surface index was the filled component. Females had higher caries prevalence and caries scores than males. The mouth and tooth prevalences of enamel defects were 56% and 21.8%, respectively. The most common type of enamel defects observed were diffuse opacities, affecting 95.5% of affected subjects and 92.1% of affected teeth. One-third of subjects had healthy gingival conditions, 8.6% had bleeding gingivae, 55.1% had calculus and 3% had pockets. Less than 1% of subjects wore or required dentures. Cleft lip and/or palate was uncommon. This study shows that the prevalence of caries and DMFT scores have declined over the last 30 years.
  17. Wong ML, Che Fatimah Awang, Ng LK, Norlian D, Rashidah Dato Burhanudin, Gere MJ
    Singapore Dent J, 2004 Dec;26(1):10-4.
    PMID: 15736836
    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes and remove or suppress those that are unfavourable. Early interceptive orthodontics can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. It also improves self-esteem in the subjects and parental satisfaction. Early detection and appropriate referral of cases requiring interceptive orthodontics are important. However, lack of awareness among school children, parents and primary-care personnel (dental nurses and dental officers) may result in patients not being referred for timely interceptive intervention. This article presents a general view of the scope of interceptive orthodontics that can be carried out in early mixed dentition, i.e. when the permanent incisors and molars are erupting into the oral cavity.
  18. Jaafar N, Nor GM
    Singapore Dent J, 2000 Feb;23(1):24-8.
    PMID: 11602946
    The aim of this retrospective study is to report on the prevalence of post-extraction complications among patients attending the Oral Surgery outpatient clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya over a 12-month period from January to December, 1992. The prevalence of post-extraction complications which required further treatment was only 3.4% (n = 100), out of a total of 2968 patients who had extraction of one or more permanent teeth. Analysis based on complete clinical reports (n = 79) showed that dry socket accounted for nine out of ten cases of post-extraction complications. However the aetiology was largely unknown. No obvious association with medical history could be made. Lower teeth were more likely to have complications. The most common teeth associated with dry socket were the molars (76%) and premolars (19%). The most common molars to be affected are the first, followed by the third and lastly the second molars. A brief review of current aetiological factors of dry socket was discussed.
  19. Rahimah AK
    Singapore Dent J, 1994 Jan;19(1):4-7.
    PMID: 9582675
    To obtain the profile of periodontal conditions in West Malaysian adults, five small scale surveys were carried out on selected occupational adult groups, 20-54 years old, between 1987 to 1990. Periodontal assessment was made using the CPITN index. In all, 779 subjects were examined. Results indicated that only 16% of the adults examined had healthy gingivae. Bleeding of the gingivae was limited to the younger (20-24 years) age group. Calculus is highly prevalent in at least 65.5% of all the subjects examined. Periodontal pockets were limited to mostly shallow pockets and the risk of developing pockets increased with increasing age. Both navy personnel and factory workers showed a higher number of healthy sextants across all ages as compared to the other three occupational groups; viz., rubber tappers, villagers and government workers. The rubber tappers were the only group with deep pockets, with the prevalence ranging between 8 to 25%. Implications of the findings to the Malaysian dental delivery system are discussed.
  20. Kamin S
    Singapore Dent J, 1994 Jan;19(1):22-4.
    PMID: 9582680
    A case report of sequestra formation in the oral cavity most probably as a sequelae of periodontal abscess in a diabetic patient is presented. The sequestra probably formed as a complication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus rather than erythroleukemia. The lesion was located at the bifurcation area of the lower left second molar. Removal of the sequestra, scaling and a course of antibiotics managed to control the lesion.
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