METHODS: Uteri from ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats receiving seven days estradiol, progesterone or genistein (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) were harvested and levels of AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 proteins and mRNAs were determined by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. Distribution of these proteins in uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Genistein caused a dose-dependent increase in uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression, however at the levels lower than following estradiol or progesterone stimulations. Effects of genistein were antagonized by estradiol receptor blocker, ICI 182780. Estradiol caused the highest AQP-2 protein and mRNA expression while progesterone caused the highest AQP-1, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression in uterus. AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein were found to be distributed in the myometrium as well as in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia and endometrial blood vessels. In conclusion, the observed effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression could help to explain the differences in the amount of fluid accumulated in the uterus under these different conditions.
METHODS: Orchidectomized, adult male rats were given 125 and 250 μg/kg/day testosterone subcutaneously, with or without flutamide and finasteride for seven consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, rats were anesthetized and vas deferens were perfused. Changes in vas deferens fluid secretion rate, pH, HCO3-, Cl- and Na+ concentrations were recorded in the presence of amiloride and Cftr inh-172. Rats were then sacrificed and vas deferens were harvested and subjected for molecular biological analysis.
RESULTS: Testosterone treatment caused the fluid pH and HCO3- concentrations to decrease but secretion rate, Cl- and Na+ concentrations to increase, where upon amiloride administration, the pH and HCO3- concentration increased but Cl- and Na+ concentrations further increased. In testosterone-treated rats, administration of Cftr inh-172 caused all fluid parameters to decrease. In testosterone-treated rats co-administered with flutamide or finasteride, pH and HCO3- concentration increased but fluid secretion rate, Cl- and Na+ concentrations decreased and these parameters were not affected by amiloride or Cftr inh-172 administration. Under testosterone influence, CFTR and γ-ENaC were highly expressed at the apical membrane while NHE-1 and 4 were highly expressed at the basolateral membrane of vas deferens epithelium. Meanwhile, NHE-2 and 3 were highly expressed at the apical membrane.
CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of ENaC, CFTR and NHE in vas deferens under testosterone influence indicated the important role of these transporters in creating optimal fluid microenvironment that is essential for preserving male fertility.
METHODS: Ovariectomized female normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) rats were given six weeks treatment with testosterone via subcutaneous silastic implant. The rats were anesthetized and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured via direct cannulation of the carotid artery. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed and subjected for α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blotting and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. Distributions of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins in kidneys were observed by immunofluorescence. Plasma testosterone, aldosterone, electrolytes, osmolality, urea and creatinine levels were determined by biochemical assays. Analysis were also performed in non-testosterone treated orchidectomized and sham-operated male WKY and SHR rats.
RESULTS: Treatment of ovariectomized female WKY and SHR rats with testosterone causes increased in MAP but decreased in plasma aldosterone, sodium (Na+), osmolality and expression and distribution of α, β and γ-ENaC subunits in the kidneys. Orchidectomy decreased the MAP but increased plasma aldosterone, Na+, osmolality and α, β and γ-ENaC expression and distribution in the kidneys of male WKY and SHR rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Decreased in plasma aldosterone, Na+ and ENaC levels in kidneys under testosterone influence indicated that testosterone-induced increased in MAP were not due to increased plasma aldosterone and ENaC levels in kidneys, and thus the testosterone effect on MAP likely involve other mechanisms.