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  1. Shah SA, Sultan S, Hassan NB, Muhammad FK, Faridz MA, Hussain FB, et al.
    Steroids, 2013 Dec 20;78(14):1312-24.
    PMID: 24135562 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2013.10.001
    Structural modification of steroids through whole-cell biocatalysis is an invaluable procedure for the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and key intermediates. Modifications could be carried out with regio- and stereospecificity at positions hardly available for chemical agents. Much attention has been focused recently on the biotransformation of 17α-ethynyl substituted steroidal drugs using fungi, bacteria and plant cell cultures in order to obtained novel biologically active compounds with diverse structure features. Present article includes studies on biotransformation on 17α-ethynyl substituted steroidal drugs using microorganisms and plant cell cultures. Various experimental and structural elucidation methods used in biotransformational processes are also highlighted.
  2. Wah LK, Abas F, Cordell GA, Ito H, Ismail IS
    Steroids, 2013 Feb;78(2):210-9.
    PMID: 23178158 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2012.09.011
    Seven new 23-oxo-cholestane derivatives named as grandol A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6), and G (7) were isolated from Dysoxylum grande leaves alongside with a new 3,4-secodammar-4(28)-en-3-oic acid derivative (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on the interpretation of spectroscopic data, and their relative configurations were established by NOESY 2D NMR data. All of the isolates were tested for anti-acetylcholinesterase activity using thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography with fast blue B salt. Only grandol A (1) and B (2) showed positive results, with clear discoloration at a concentration of 12.5 ppm. However, the obtained IC(50) values for grandol A and B, when using Ellman's method, were not significant (>200 μg/ml).
    Matched MeSH terms: Steroids/isolation & purification*; Steroids/chemistry
  3. Nwe KH, Hamid A, Morat PB, Khalid BA
    Steroids, 2000 Jan;65(1):40-5.
    PMID: 10624835
    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) Type I enzyme is found in testis and liver. In Leydig cell cultures, 11beta-HSD activity is reported to be primarily oxidative while another report concluded that is primarily reductive. Hepatic 11beta-HSD preferentially catalyzes reduction and the reaction direction is unaffected by the external factors. Recent analysis of testicular 11beta-HSD revealed two kinetically distinct components. In the present study, various steroid hormones or glycyrrhizic acid (GCA), given for 1 week, or thyroxine given for 5 weeks to normal intact rats had different effects on the 11beta-HSD oxidative activity in testis and liver. Deoxycorticosterone, dexamethasone, progesterone, thyroxine, and clomiphene citrate increased testicular 11beta-HSD oxidative activity, but decreased hepatic enzyme activity except for deoxycorticosterone (unchanged). Corticosterone and testosterone decreased 11beta-HSD oxidative activity in testis but not that of liver (which was unchanged). Estradiol, GCA and adrenalectomy lowered oxidative activity of 11beta-HSD in testis and liver, but the degrees of reduction were different. The in vivo effects of glucocorticoids too were different, even in the same organ. Dexamethasone, a pure glucocorticoid, has greater affinity for glucocorticoid receptors (GR) than corticosterone. The direct effects of dexamethasone via GR in increasing testicular 11beta-HSD oxidative activity may override its indirect effects. Possibly, the reverse occurs with corticosterone treatment, as it has both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects. Because both organs have Type I isoenzyme, the difference in 11beta-HSD oxidative activities of these two organs could be attributable to the presence of an additional isozyme in testis or differences in tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms.
  4. Lajis NH, Abdullah AS, Salim SJ, Bremner JB, Khan MN
    Steroids, 1993 Aug;58(8):387-9.
    PMID: 8212090
    Spectroscopic examination of purified extracts of the rumen content of sheep intoxicated by Brachiaria decumbens revealed the presence of two spirostanes, identified as epi-sarsasapogenin and epi-smilagenin. Sarsasapogenone was obtained by the oxidation of sarsasapogenin. The reduction of sarsasapogenone using lithium aluminum hydride yielded isomeric products, sarsasapogenin (20%) and epi-sarsasapogenin (80%).
  5. Idrus RB, Mohamad NB, Morat PB, Saim A, Abdul Kadir KB
    Steroids, 1996 Aug;61(8):448-52.
    PMID: 8870163
    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-OHSD) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of cortisol (F) to cortisone (E) in man and corticosterone (B) to 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A) in rats. 11 beta-OHSD has been identified in a wide variety of tissues. The differential distribution of 11 beta-OHSD suggests that this enzyme has locally defined functions that vary from region to region. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the glucocorticoids B and dexamethasone (DM), the mineralocorticoid deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and the inhibitors of 11 beta-OHSD glycyrrhizic acid (Gl) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GE) on 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity at the hypothalamus (HT) and anterior pituitary (AP). Male Wistar rats were treated with GI or were adrenalectomized (ADX) and treated with either B, DM, or DOC for 7 days. All treatments were in vivo except GE, which was used in vitro. At the end of treatment, homogenates of HT and AP were assayed for 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity, expressed as the percentage conversion of B to A in the presence of NADP, 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity is significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the AP compared with the HT. Adrenalectomy significantly increased the enzyme activity in the AP (P < 0.05), an effect reversed by B or DM. ADX rats treated with DOC showed decreased enzyme activity in the AP (P < 0.001) but increased the activity in the HT (P < 0.0001). Gl increased activity in both HT and AP, whereas GE decreased activity significantly. We conclude that the modulation of 11 beta-OHSD is both steroid specific and tissue specific.
  6. Chinigarzadeh A, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    Steroids, 2016 11;115:47-55.
    PMID: 27521800 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2016.08.007
    In this study, effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine aquaporin (AQP)-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression were investigated in sex-steroid deficient state which could help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying uterine fluid volume changes that were reported under these hormone and hormone-like compound influences.

    METHODS: Uteri from ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats receiving seven days estradiol, progesterone or genistein (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) were harvested and levels of AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 proteins and mRNAs were determined by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. Distribution of these proteins in uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry.

    RESULTS: Genistein caused a dose-dependent increase in uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression, however at the levels lower than following estradiol or progesterone stimulations. Effects of genistein were antagonized by estradiol receptor blocker, ICI 182780. Estradiol caused the highest AQP-2 protein and mRNA expression while progesterone caused the highest AQP-1, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression in uterus. AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein were found to be distributed in the myometrium as well as in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia and endometrial blood vessels. In conclusion, the observed effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression could help to explain the differences in the amount of fluid accumulated in the uterus under these different conditions.

  7. Khadijah Ramli NS, Giribabu N, Salleh N
    Steroids, 2018 10;138:117-133.
    PMID: 30003911 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2018.06.012
    Effects of testosterone on expression and functional activity of ENaC, CFTR and NHE in vas deferens were investigated.

    METHODS: Orchidectomized, adult male rats were given 125 and 250 μg/kg/day testosterone subcutaneously, with or without flutamide and finasteride for seven consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, rats were anesthetized and vas deferens were perfused. Changes in vas deferens fluid secretion rate, pH, HCO3-, Cl- and Na+ concentrations were recorded in the presence of amiloride and Cftr inh-172. Rats were then sacrificed and vas deferens were harvested and subjected for molecular biological analysis.

    RESULTS: Testosterone treatment caused the fluid pH and HCO3- concentrations to decrease but secretion rate, Cl- and Na+ concentrations to increase, where upon amiloride administration, the pH and HCO3- concentration increased but Cl- and Na+ concentrations further increased. In testosterone-treated rats, administration of Cftr inh-172 caused all fluid parameters to decrease. In testosterone-treated rats co-administered with flutamide or finasteride, pH and HCO3- concentration increased but fluid secretion rate, Cl- and Na+ concentrations decreased and these parameters were not affected by amiloride or Cftr inh-172 administration. Under testosterone influence, CFTR and γ-ENaC were highly expressed at the apical membrane while NHE-1 and 4 were highly expressed at the basolateral membrane of vas deferens epithelium. Meanwhile, NHE-2 and 3 were highly expressed at the apical membrane.

    CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of ENaC, CFTR and NHE in vas deferens under testosterone influence indicated the important role of these transporters in creating optimal fluid microenvironment that is essential for preserving male fertility.

  8. Yenn TW, Arslan Khan M, Amiera Syuhada N, Chean Ring L, Ibrahim D, Tan WN
    Steroids, 2017 Dec;128:68-71.
    PMID: 29104098 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2017.10.016
    The emergence of beta lactamase producing bacterial strains eliminated the use of beta lactam antibiotics as chemotherapeutic alternative. Beta lactam antibiotics can be coupled with non-antibiotic adjuvants to combat these multidrug resistant strains. We study the synergistic antibiotic effect of stigmasterol as adjuvant of ampicillin against clinical isolates. Ampicillin was used in this study as a beta lactam antibiotic model. All test bacteria were beta lactamase producing clinical isolates. The combination showed significantly better antibiotic activity on all bacteria tested. The two test substances have synergistic antibiotic activity, and the effect was observed in both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The synergistic antibiotic effect of stigmasterol and ampicillin was evident by the low fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index on Checkerboard Assay. The results suggest that the combination of ampicillin and stigmasterol acts additively in the treatment of infections caused by beta-lactamase producing pathogens. In bacterial growth reduction assay, ampicillin and stigmasterol alone exhibited very weak inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth, relative to ethanol control. Comparatively, combination of stigmasterol-ampicillin greatly reduced the colony counts at least by 98.7%. In conclusion, we found synergistic effects of stigmasterol and ampicillin against beta lactamase producing clinical isolates. This finding is important as it shows potential application of stigmasterol as an antibiotic adjuvant.
  9. Harvey BJ, Thomas W
    Steroids, 2018 05;133:67-74.
    PMID: 29079406 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2017.10.009
    Aldosterone acts through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to modulate gene expression in target tissues. In the kidney, the principal action of aldosterone is to promote sodium conservation in the distal nephron and so indirectly enhance water conservation under conditions of hypotension. Over the last twenty years the rapid activation of protein kinase signalling cascades by aldosterone has been described in various tissues. This review describes the integration of rapid protein kinase D signalling responses with the non-genomic actions of aldosterone and transcriptional effects of MR activation.
  10. Loh SY, Giribabu N, Salleh N
    Steroids, 2017 Dec;128:128-135.
    PMID: 28954214 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2017.09.008
    We hypothesized that testosterone-induced increase in blood pressure involve changes in aldosterone levels and expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the kidneys.

    METHODS: Ovariectomized female normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) rats were given six weeks treatment with testosterone via subcutaneous silastic implant. The rats were anesthetized and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured via direct cannulation of the carotid artery. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed and subjected for α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blotting and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. Distributions of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins in kidneys were observed by immunofluorescence. Plasma testosterone, aldosterone, electrolytes, osmolality, urea and creatinine levels were determined by biochemical assays. Analysis were also performed in non-testosterone treated orchidectomized and sham-operated male WKY and SHR rats.

    RESULTS: Treatment of ovariectomized female WKY and SHR rats with testosterone causes increased in MAP but decreased in plasma aldosterone, sodium (Na+), osmolality and expression and distribution of α, β and γ-ENaC subunits in the kidneys. Orchidectomy decreased the MAP but increased plasma aldosterone, Na+, osmolality and α, β and γ-ENaC expression and distribution in the kidneys of male WKY and SHR rats.

    CONCLUSIONS: Decreased in plasma aldosterone, Na+ and ENaC levels in kidneys under testosterone influence indicated that testosterone-induced increased in MAP were not due to increased plasma aldosterone and ENaC levels in kidneys, and thus the testosterone effect on MAP likely involve other mechanisms.

  11. Majid Shah S, Ullah F, Ayaz M, Sadiq A, Hussain S, Ali Shah AU, et al.
    Steroids, 2019 08;148:56-62.
    PMID: 31085212 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2019.05.001
    The current study was aimed to evaluate the anti-leishmanial potentials of β-sitosterol isolated from Ifloga spicata. The anti-leishmanial potential of β-sitosterol is well documented against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania amazonensis but unexplored against Leishmania tropica. Structure of the compound was elucidated by FT-IR, mass spectrometry and multinuclear (1H and 13C) magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was evaluated for its anti-leishmanial potentials against L. tropica KWH23 using in vitro anti-promastigote, DNA interaction, apoptosis, docking studies against leishmanolysin (GP63) and trypanothione reductase (TR) receptors using MOE 2016 software. β-sitosterol exhibited significant activity against leishmania promastigotes with IC50 values of 9.2 ± 0.06 μg/mL. The standard drug glucantaime showed IC50 of 5.33 ± 0.07 µg/mL. Further mechanistic studies including DNA targeting and apoptosis induction via acridine orange assay exhibited promising anti-leishmanial potentials for β-sitosterol. Molecular docking with leishmanolysin (GP63) and trypanothione reductase (TR) receptors displayed the binding scores of β-sitosterol with targets TR and GP63 were -7.659 and -6.966 respectively. The low binding energies -61.54 (for TR) and -33.24 (for GP63) indicate that it strongly bind to the active sites of target receptors. The results confirmed that β-sitosterol have considerable anti-leishmanial potentials and need further studies as potential natural anti-leishmanial agent against L. tropica.
  12. Thomas W, Dooley R, Quinn S, Robles MY, Harvey BJ
    Steroids, 2020 03;155:108553.
    PMID: 31836481 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2019.108553
    Protein kinase D2 (PKD2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase which plays an important role in vesicle fission at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to coordinate subcellular trafficking with gene expression. We found that in the rat kidney, PKD2 is specifically expressed in collecting duct principal cells predominantly at the apical membrane and with lower basal expression in cytosolic compartments. When rats were maintained on a Na+ depleted diet (<0.87 mmol Na+/kg) to increase plasma aldosterone levels, PKD2 became internalized to a cytoplasmic compartment. Treatment of murine M1 cortical collecting duct (M1-CCD) cells with aldosterone (10 nM) promoted PKD2 co-localization with the trans-Golgi network within 30 min. PKD2 underwent autophosphorylation at Ser876 within 10 min of aldosterone treatment and remained phosphorylated (active) for at least 24 h. A stable PKD2 shRNA knock-down (PKD2 KD) M1-CCD cell line was developed to study the role of PKD2 in epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) trafficking and transepithelial Na+ transport (SCC) in epithelial monolayers grown in Ussing chambers. The PKD2 KD cells developed transepithelial resistance with kinetics equivalent to wild-type cells, however the transepithelial voltage and Na+ current were significantly elevated in PKD2 knock-down CCD epithelia. The higher basal SCC was due to increased ENaC activity. Aldosterone treatment for 24 h resulted in a decline in ENaC activity in the PKD2 KD cells as opposed to the increase observed in the wild-type cells. The paradoxical inhibition of SCC by aldosterone in PKD2 KD epithelium was attributed to a reduction in ENaC current and lower membrane abundance of ENaC, demonstrating that PKD2 plays a critical tonic role in ENaC trafficking and channel subunit stability. The rapid activation of PKD2 by aldosterone is synergistic with the transcriptional activity of MR and contributes to increased ENaC activity.
  13. Nurfazilah Wan Yusop S, Imran S, Ilham Adenan M, Ashraf K, Sultan S
    Steroids, 2021 07;171:108832.
    PMID: 33831403 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2021.108832
    The fungal transformations of ethynodiol diacetate (1) were investigated for the first-time using Botrytis cinerea, Trichothecium roseum, and R3-2 SP 17. The metabolites obtained are as following: 17α-Ethynyl-17β-acetoxyestr-4-en-3-one-15β-ol (2), 19-nor-17a-ethynyltestosterone (3), and 17α-ethynyl-3β-hydroxy-17β-acetoxyestr-4-ene (4). The new metabolite, 2 (IC50 = 104.8 µM), which has ketone group at C-3, and the β-hydroxyl group at C-15, resulted in an almost equipotent strength with the parent compound (IC50 = 103.3 µM) against proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells. The previously reported biotransformed product, 3, showed almost equal strength to 1 against acetylcholinesterase. Molecular modelling studies were carried out to understand the observed experimental activities, and also to obtain more information on the binding mode and the interactions between the biotransformed products, and enzyme.
  14. Yusop SNW, Imran S, Adenan MI, Sultan S
    Steroids, 2020 12;164:108735.
    PMID: 32976918 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2020.108735
    The fungal transformations of medroxyrogesterone (1) were investigated for the first time using Cunninghamella elegans, Trichothecium roseum, and Mucor plumbeus. The metabolites obtained are as following: 6β, 20-dihydroxymedroxyprogesterone (2), 12β-hydroxymedroxyprogesterone (3), 6β, 11β-dihydroxymedroxyprogesterone (4), 16β-hydroxymedroxyprogesterone (5), 11α, 17-dihydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione (6), 11-oxo-medroxyprogesterone (7), 6α-methyl-17α-hydroxypregn-1,4-diene-3,20-dione (8), and 6β-hydroxymedroxyprogesterone (9), 15β-hydroxymedroxyprogesterone (10), 6α-methyl-17α, 11β-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-3, 20-dione (11), 11β-hydroxymedroxyprogesterone (12), and 11α, 20-dihydroxymedroxyprogesterone (13). Among all the microbial transformed products, the newly isolated biotransformed product 13 showed the most potent activity against proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells. Compounds 12, 5, 6, 9, 11, and 3 (in descending order of activity) also showed some extent of activity against SH-SY5Y tumour cell line. The never been reported biotransformed product, 2, showed the most potent inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase. Molecular modelling studies were carried out to understand the observed experimental activities, and also to obtain more information on the binding mode and the interactions between the biotransformed products, and enzyme.
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