METHODS: Thirteen medical oncologists and five radiation oncologists currently practising in Australia participated in this study. Data collection involved individual semi-structured interviews via telephone. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach.
RESULTS: Four key themes emerged: (1) beliefs about the impact of priming on cancer survivors' perceived cognitive function, (2) perceptions of who is more likely to raise concerns of cognitive change, (3) uncertainty of how to best manage CRCC, and (4) the perceived role of oncologists in the management of CRCC.
CONCLUSIONS: CRCC and its impact on the cancer survivor's journey have been under-addressed by oncology specialists, and they are uncertain of potential management strategies. With cancer survival rates increasing, there is a need for specific interventions and management guidelines addressing CRCC and their effects on cancer survivors. Future exploration should focus on the survivor as central to their care and holistic approaches to CRCC management involving all members of the multidisciplinary team.
METHODS: A systematic search for studies concerning the perception of financial burden among cancer patients and their families was conducted. Several electronic resources such as Medline, Elsevier (Science Direct), Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus (SciVerse) were searched. Additionally, manual search through indices citation was also thoroughly utilized. The main outcome of interest was the prevalence of perceived financial hardship among cancer patients and their families. Studies reported only the cost of cancer treatment and qualitative studies were excluded. Our search was limited to articles that were published from 2003 to 2013.
RESULT: Ten studies were included in this review and with a majority originating from high-income countries. The prevalence of the financial burden perception was reported between 14.8 and 78.8 %. The most frequent and significant risk factor reported associated with the perception of financial difficulty was the households with low income. Discontinuation of treatment and poverty were conversely the important consequences of financial burden in cancer patients and their families.
CONCLUSION: Evidently, cancer is a long-term illness that requires a high financial cost, and a significant number of cancer patients and families struggle with financial difficulty. Identifying such groups with a high risk of facing financial difficulty is a crucial measure to ensure safety nets are readily available for these targeted population.
METHODS: This mixed-methods study includes (a) a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) following PRISMA guidelines and (b) a constant-comparative qualitative analysis of effective intervention protocols.
RESULTS: Eleven published randomized clinical trials were reviewed. A total of 831 individuals were studied. Geographic settings include the USA, Australia, China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Qigong therapy was found to have positive effects on the cancer-specific QOL, fatigue, immune function, and cortisol levels of individuals with cancer. Qigong therapy protocols varied supporting a plurality of styles. Qualitative analyses identified common programming constructs. Content constructs included exercise (gentle, integrated, repetitious, flowing, weight-bearing movements), breath regulation, mindfulness and meditation, energy cultivation including self-massage, and emphasis on relaxation. Logistic constructs included delivery by qualified instructors, home practice, and accommodation for impaired activity tolerance.
CONCLUSIONS: There is global interest and a growing body of research providing evidence of therapeutic effect of Qigong therapy in supportive cancer care. While Qigong therapy protocols vary in style, construct commonalities do exist. Knowledge of the common constructs among effective programs revealed in this research may be used to guide future research intervention protocol and community programming design and development.
METHODS: Data on patient costs were collected prospectively in the first year following diagnosis by using a self-administered questionnaire and telephone interviews at three time points for all four stages of colorectal cancer. The patient cost data consisted of direct out-of-pocket payments for medical-related expenses such as hospital stays, tests and treatment and for non-medical items such as travel and food associated with hospital visits. In addition, indirect cost data related to the loss of productivity of the patient and caregiver(s) was assessed. The patient's perceived level of financial difficulty and types of coping strategy were also explored.
RESULT: The total 1-year patient cost (both direct and indirect) increased with the stage of colorectal cancer: RM 6544.5 (USD 2045.1) for stage I, RM 7790.1 (USD 2434.4) for stage II, RM 8799.1 (USD 2749.7) for stage III and RM 8638.2 (USD 2699.4) for stage IV. The majority of patients perceived paying for their healthcare as somewhat difficult. The most frequently used financial coping strategy was a combination of current income and savings.
CONCLUSION: Despite the high subsidisation in public hospitals, the management of colorectal cancer imposes a substantial financial burden on patients and their families. Moreover, the majority of patients and their families perceive healthcare payments as difficult. Therefore, it is recommended that policy- and decision-makers should further consider some financial protection strategies and support for cancer treatment because cancer is a very costly and chronic disease.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey carried out in two hospitals in Malaysia. Patients with underlying hematological cancers were asked to complete the questionnaires on CAM and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
RESULTS: A total of 245 patients participated. The prevalence of CAM use was 70.2 %. The most common types of CAM used are biological-based therapies (90.2 %) and mind-body interventions (42 %). Vitamin and diet supplements (68.6 %) and folk/herb remedies (58 %) are the most common biological-based therapies used. There is no significant association of CAM use with age, gender, education level, and household income. Female patients are more likely to use more than one CAM therapies. The most common reason reported for CAM use was to boost immunity (57 %) and cure (24 %). Majority of patients (65 %) felt CAM was effective, and 60 % did not inform their physicians regarding CAM usage.
CONCLUSION: In view of the high prevalence of CAM use in patients with hematological cancers, it is important that the physicians play an active role in seeking information from patients and to monitor possible drug-vitamin-herbal interactions.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey study. Oncology practitioners were recruited from a major cancer center in Singapore and through two regional cancer meetings that took place in Singapore and Malaysia in 2013.
RESULTS: A total of 126 oncology practitioners from various Southeast Asian countries, mostly nurses (58.7 %) and physicians (37.3 %), were recruited. The majority of the respondents agreed that fatigue (78.4 %) and anxiety (69.1 %) were the most common physical and psychosocial problems experienced by BCS. Monitoring for physical and treatment-related adverse effects (80.7 %) and reviewing patients' noncancer medical history (65.3 %) were the most practiced aspects of follow-up care. Compared with the other practitioners, the physicians were more likely to communicate with other healthcare professionals (adjusted OR = 4.24, 95 % CI 1.54 to 11.72; p = 0.005). Most of the respondents also agreed that patient-specific barriers were the main impediments to follow-up care.
CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into the various aspects of breast cancer survivorship care from the perspectives of oncology practitioners and shows that survivorship care is relatively inadequate in Asia. There is a need for new survivorship care models to meet the needs of Asian BCS and to complement the unique healthcare systems of Asia.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer requiring radiation to the oropharyngeal mucosal area were divided in to two groups to receive either radiation alone or radiation plus topical application of pure natural honey. Patients were treated using a 6-MV linear accelerator at a dose rate of 2 Gy per day five times a week up to a dose of 60-70 Gy. In the study arm, patients were advised to take 20 ml of pure honey 15 min before, 15 min after and 6 h post-radiation therapy. Patients were evaluated every week for the development of radiation mucositis using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading system.
MAIN RESULTS: There was significant reduction in the symptomatic grade 3/4 mucositis among honey-treated patients compared to controls; i.e. 20% versus 75% ( p 0.00058). The compliance of honey-treated group of patients was better than controls. Fifty-five percent of patients treated with topical honey showed no change or a positive gain in body weight compared to 25% in the control arm ( p 0.053), the majority of whom lost weight.
CONCLUSIONS: Topical application of natural honey is a simple and cost-effective treatment in radiation mucositis, which warrants further multi-centre randomised trials to validate our finding.
METHODS: Patients with previous diagnosis of lymphoma who remained in remission were recruited from a major hospital in Malaysia. Quality of life of these patients was measured using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C30). Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS).
RESULTS: A total of 156 patients participated in this study. Eighteen percent (18 %) of patients had symptoms of anxiety, and 10 % had symptoms of depression. Patients who had higher depression scores were older, of lower education level and had more than one comorbidity illness. Patients with anxiety were associated with lower overall quality of life (QOL) score, lower emotional and cognitive functioning and complained more of fatigue and insomnia (p
METHODS: Using a decision tree model, clinical and economic outcomes associated with olanzapine-containing regimen and standard antiemetic regimen (doublet antiemetic regimen: dexamethasone+first generation 5HT3RA) in most SEA countries except in Singapore (triplet antiemetic regimen: dexamethasone+first generation 5HT3RA + aprepitant) for CINV prevention following HEC were evaluated. This analysis was performed in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore, using societal perspective method with 5-day time horizon. Input parameters were derived from literature, network meta-analysis, government documents, and hospital databases. Outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in USD/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of sensitivity analyses including probabilistic sensitivity analysis were also performed.
RESULTS: Compared to doublet antiemetic regimen, addition of olanzapine resulted in incremental QALY of 0.0022-0.0026 with cost saving of USD 2.98, USD 27.71, and USD 52.20 in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, respectively. Compared to triplet antiemetic regimen, switching aprepitant to olanzapine yields additional 0.0005 QALY with cost saving of USD 60.91 in Singapore. The probability of being cost-effective at a cost-effectiveness threshold of 1 GDP/capita varies from 14.7 to 85.2% across countries.
CONCLUSION: The use of olanzapine as part of standard antiemetic regimen is cost-effective for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving HEC in multiple SEA countries.
METHODS: In three double-blind phase 3 studies, patients receiving HEC or MEC were randomized 1:1 to receive oral rolapitant 180 mg or placebo prior to chemotherapy plus 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone therapy. Patients completed the FLIE questionnaire on day 6 of cycle 1. Endpoints included FLIE total score, nausea and vomiting domain scores, and the proportion of patients with no impact on daily life (total score >108 [range 18-126]). We performed a prespecified analysis of the MEC/anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC) study and a post hoc analysis of two pooled cisplatin-based HEC studies.
RESULTS: In the pooled HEC studies, rolapitant significantly improved the FLIE total score (114.5 vs 109.3, p
METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used in this research. The data was collected via interview using a validated questionnaire. Logistic regression models were developed to discover the significant determinants of RTW and of wage loss among BC survivors.
RESULTS: A total of 256 BC survivors were included in this study. The analysis showed that there was a 21% loss of or reduction in mean income within 1 year after diagnosis. The significant predictors of RTW are being a government employee, having reduced wages or wage loss, and if the case had been diagnosed 1 year or more ago. Being a private sector employee and having a late stage of cancer was a barrier to RTW. The main risk factors for reduced wages or wage loss were belonging to the age group of 40-59 years, being of Chinese or Indian ethnicity, having low educational status, and not returning to work. However, belonging to the higher monthly income group (earning > RM 2000) is a protective factor against the risk of reduced wages or wage loss.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-RTW and wage loss after diagnosis of BC may result in the survivors experiencing a significant financial burden. Assessment of these patients is becoming more crucial because more women participate in the workforce in Malaysia nowadays and because BC is managed using multiple treatment modalities with their consequences could lead to long absences from work.
METHOD: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 482 Iranian cancer patients. Participants completed demographic and health, death depression, and religious coping surveys.
RESULTS: After controlling for demographic and health characteristics, positive and negative religious coping behaviors were significantly related to the experience of death depression. There was an interaction effect between negative religious coping and extent of disease with significant positive relationships to the experience of death depression.
CONCLUSIONS: Negative religious coping was found to be more closely associated with death depression in patients with earlier stage disease than those with advanced stages of cancer in this sample of patients with cancer from Iran. Findings support assessing patients for use of religious coping strategies. Muslim patients who are religiously alienated and have existential anguish may be vulnerable and need heightened support following diagnosis and during treatment of early stage cancer.
METHODS: Oncologists involved in OM management (n = 105), and patients who developed OM during cancer treatment (n = 175), were recruited from seven Asian countries. Oncologists completed a face-to-face, quantitative interview; patients completed a face-to-face interview, and a self-reported questionnaire.
RESULTS: Oncologists and patients ranked treatment-induced OM among the three most important toxicities of cancer therapy requiring intervention. The most frequent OM symptoms reported by patients were oral ulcers (74%), dry mouth (73%), and difficulty swallowing (62%). Oncologists expected mild OM symptoms to last slightly longer than 1 week, whereas patients reported mild symptoms for more than 2 weeks. In mild-to-moderate OM, oncologists underestimated patients' pain experience. Overall, only 45% of oncologists said they would initiate OM prophylaxis when cancer therapy started. Of the 87% of patients who said they used their prescribed medications, only 16% reported using prophylactically prescribed medication. While oncologists' concerns related to the delays and interruptions of cancer treatment, patients tended to focus on the effects of OM on eating, drinking, and talking.
CONCLUSIONS: Oncologists' and patients' perceptions about treatment-induced OM differ. To overcome discordant perspectives, there is a need to raise general awareness and improve proactive management of OM. As noted in recent guidelines, supportive cancer care is critical for ensuring optimal therapy and for improving the patient's experience.
METHODS: A total of 323 dyads of GI cancer patients and their caregivers completed the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form (MOS SF-12) questionnaire to measure their HRQOL during face-to-face interviews. The analyses were performed using SF-12 scoring software to compute PCS and MCS scores (HRQOL parameters). The independent t test, one-way ANOVA, and the Pearson correlation test were conducted to determine the demographic factors related to the HRQOL of the dyads.
RESULTS: The caregivers had higher scores in all domains for the SF-12 than the patients. There were significant differences found in the MCS scores of the patients according to ethnicity, origin of cancer, duration of cancer, and surgery. None of these factors had a significant relationship with the caregivers' HRQOL.
CONCLUSION: Caregivers had better HRQOL than cancer patients. Early intervention for cancer patients in the form of counselling and personalised pain management may enhance the HRQOL of patients.
METHODS: A total of 429 respondents diagnosed with urologic cancers (prostate cancer, bladder and renal cancer) from Sarawak General Hospital and Subang Jaya Medical Centre in Malaysia were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Objective and subjective FT were measured by catastrophic health expenditure (healthcare-cost-to-income ratio greater than 40%) and the Personal Financial Well-being Scale, respectively. HRQoL was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - General 7 Items scale.
RESULTS: Objective and subjective FT were experienced by 16.1 and 47.3% of the respondents, respectively. Respondents who sought treatment at a private hospital and had out-of-pocket health expenditures were more likely to experience objective FT, after adjustment for covariates. Respondents who were female and had a monthly household income less than MYR 5000 were more likely to experience average to high subjective FT. Greater objective FT (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.95) and subjective FT (OR = 4.68, 95% CI 2.63-8.30) were associated with poor HRQoL.
CONCLUSIONS: The significant association between both objective and subjective FT and HRQoL highlights the importance of reducing FT among urologic cancer patients. Subjective FT was found to have a greater negative impact on HRQoL.
METHODS: The video was developed using the BC delay explanatory model. A self-administered pre- and post-survey on 241 newly diagnosed BC patients in University Malaya Medical Center was performed. The Wilcoxon matched paired signed rank test was used to evaluate patients' pre and post perceived knowledge using a Likert scale 0 to 4 (0 = "no knowledge," 4 = "a great degree of knowledge"). Treatment adherence among participants were measured after 1-year follow-up.
RESULTS: Eighty percent of the patients reported that the video met or exceeded their expectations. In total 80.5% reported that the video was very effective and effective in improving their perspective on BC treatments. There was improvement in perceived knowledge for treatment options (mean scores; M = 0.93 versus M = 2.97) (p < 0.001) and also for perceived knowledge on types of operation, information on chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, healthy diet, physical activity after treatments, and care of the arm after operation(p < 0.001). In total 89.4%, 79.3%, and 85.9% adhered to surgical, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy recommended treatment, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The video improved patients' perceived knowledge and satisfaction. The program improved access not only to new BC patients but also the public and found sustainable using the YouTube platform.
METHODS: We identified articles published Jan 1, 2005, to March 7, 2019, describing financial burden/toxicity experienced by cancer patients and/or informal caregivers using OVID Medline Embase and PsychInfo, CINAHL, Business Source Complete, and EconLit databases. Only English language peer-reviewed full papers describing studies conducted in very high development index countries with predominantly publicly funded healthcare were eligible (excluded the USA). All stages of the review were evaluated in teams of two researchers excepting the final data extraction (CJL only).
RESULTS: The searches identified 7117 unique articles, 32 of which were eligible. Studies were undertaken in Canada, Australia, Ireland, UK, Germany, Denmark, Malaysia, Finland, France, South Korea, and the Netherlands. Eighteen studies reported patient/caregiver out-of-pocket costs (range US$17-US$506/month), 18 studies reported patient/caregiver lost income (range 17.6-67.3%), 14 studies reported patient/caregiver travel and accommodation costs (range US$8-US$393/month), and 6 studies reported financial stress (range 41-48%), strain (range 7-39%), or financial burden/distress/toxicity among patients/caregivers (range 22-27%). The majority of studies focused on patients, with some including caregivers. Financial toxicity was greater in those with early disease and/or more severe cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite government-funded universal public healthcare, financial toxicity is an issue for cancer patients and their families. Although levels of toxicity vary between countries, the findings suggest financial protection appears to be inadequate in many countries.
METHODS: A parallel RCT was conducted in two hospitals in Malaysia, where 129 CML patients were randomised to MMS or control (usual care) groups using a stratified 1:1 block randomisation method. The 6-month MMS included three face-to-face medication use reviews, CML and TKI-related education, two follow-up telephone conversations, a printed information booklet and two adherence aids. Medication adherence (primary outcome), molecular responses and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores were assessed at baseline, 6th and 12th month. Medication adherence and HRQoL were assessed using medication possession ratio and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment in Cancer questionnaire (EORTC_QLQ30_CML24) respectively.
RESULTS: The MMS group (n = 65) showed significantly higher adherence to TKIs than the control group (n = 64) at 6th month (81.5% vs 56.3%; p = 0.002), but not at 12th month (72.6% vs 60.3%; p = 0.147). In addition, a significantly higher proportion of participants in the MMS group achieved major molecular response at 6th month (58.5% vs 35.9%; p = 0.010), but not at 12th month (66.2% vs 51.6%; p = 0.092). Significant deep molecular response was also obtained at 12th month (24.6% vs 10.9%; p = 0.042). Six out of 20 subscales of EORTC-QLQ30-CML24 were significantly better in the MMS group.
CONCLUSIONS: The MMS improved CML patients' adherence to TKI as well as achieved better clinical outcomes.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrial.gov (ID: NCT03090477).