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  1. Beevi Z, Low WY, Hassan J
    Am J Clin Hypn, 2016 Apr;58(4):368-82.
    PMID: 27003486 DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2015.1063476
    Physical symptoms (e.g., vomiting) and psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression) during pregnancy are common. Various strategies such as hypnosis are available to reduce these symptoms. The objective of the authors in this study is to investigate the impact of a hypnosis intervention in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The hypnosis intervention was given to the experimental group participants at weeks 16 (baseline), 20 (time point 1), 28 (time point 2), and 36 (time point 3) of their pregnancy. Participants in the control group received only the traditional antenatal care. Participants from both groups completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and a Pregnancy Symptoms Checklist at weeks 16, 20, 28 and 36 of pregnancy. Results indicated that stress and anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Although mean differences for the depressive symptoms were not significant, the experimental group had lower symptoms at time point 3. The physical symptoms' results showed significant group differences at time point 3, indicating a reduction in the experience of physical symptoms for the experimental group participants. Our study showed that hypnosis intervention during pregnancy aided in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy.
  2. Beevi Z, Low WY, Hassan J
    Am J Clin Hypn, 2015 Oct;58(2):215-23.
    PMID: 26264544 DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2015.1013186
    Ptyalism gravidarum, or sialorrhea, is the excessive secretion of saliva during pregnancy. Treatment of ptyalism gravidarum is often challenging due to its unknown etiologies. This article discusses a case of ptyalism gravidarum with concomitant hyperemesis in which the condition was successfully treated with hypnosis. A 28-year-old woman presented with ptyalism 2 months into her pregnancy and hyperemesis 3 months into pregnancy with associated vomiting that occurred following every meal. Hypnosis was administered at week 16 of pregnancy to eliminate ptyalism and hyperemesis, to prepare for childbirth, and to increase overall psychological well-being. Ptyalism resolved by week 36, concurrent with the final hypnosis session.
  3. Beevi Z, Low WY, Hassan J
    Am J Clin Hypn, 2017 Oct;60(2):172-191.
    PMID: 28891771 DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2017.1280659
    Hypnosis has been shown to help pregnant women experience improved labor and postpartum periods. The present study compares the differences between experimental (n = 23) and control groups (n = 22) on specific variables measured both during labor and 24 hr postpartum. The participants in the experimental group received the hypnosis intervention at weeks 16, 20, 28, and 36 of pregnancy, while those in the control group received only routine antenatal care. The data collected at the labor stage describe the length of the labor stage, pain relief used during labor, the method of delivery, and the type of assisted vaginal delivery. Within 24 hr of delivery, data on neonatal birth weight, neonatal Apgar scores, and self-reported pain were obtained. The labor stage results showed no significant differences in the length of the second and third stages of labor. Although the participants in the experimental group reported higher pain levels immediately prior to, during, and immediately after delivery, their use of pethidine during labor was significantly lower than the control group participants. None of the experimental group participants opted for an epidural, and they had a greater number of assisted vaginal deliveries than the control group participants. The 24 hr postpartum results showed that the neonates of the experimental group participants had nonsignificantly higher Apgar scores than those of the women in the control group. Group differences in neonatal weight were not significant. The results of the present study indicate that hypnosis is useful for assisting pregnant women during labor and the postpartum period.
  4. Beevi Z, Low WY, Hassan J
    Am J Clin Hypn, 2019 Apr;61(4):409-425.
    PMID: 31017553 DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2018.1538870
    Psychological symptoms, particularly postpartum depression, may impair women's well-being after childbirth. Mind-body treatments such as hypnosis are available to help prepare women to maintain or improve their well-being postpartum. The aims of the present study are to determine the effectiveness of a hypnosis intervention in alleviating psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression) and the symptoms of postpartum depression. A quasi-experimental design was utilized in this study. The experimental group participants (n = 28) received a hypnosis intervention at weeks 16, 20, 28, and 36 of their pregnancies. Participants in the control group (n = 28) received routine prenatal care. The final data collection, occurring at two months postpartum, included 16 women from the experimental group and 11 women from the control group. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was used to measure psychological symptoms, and postpartum depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The results at two months postpartum showed that the experimental group had significantly lower postpartum anxiety than the control group (M = 2.88 versus M = 38.36, p = .023). Similarly, the experimental group had significantly lower postpartum depressive symptoms than the control group (M = 1.25 versus M = 6.73, p
  5. Roslim NA, Ahmad A, Mansor M, Aung MMT, Hamzah F, Shahril MR, et al.
    Am J Clin Hypn, 2022 Feb 02.
    PMID: 35108492 DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2021.2010642
    Hypnosis has been increasingly used in recent years as an alternative treatment to maintain well-being. Yet, limited evidence is available regarding its role in weight management, especially in Malaysia. Hence, this quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of hypnosis on weight loss and body composition (body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage) among staff and students of a public university in Terengganu, Malaysia. Participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to either intervention group (IG = 53) or control group (CG = 54), for 12 weeks. All participants received health education (diet + exercise + behavioral recommendations) with those in IG had additional three hypnotherapy sessions, once a month. Body weight was measured at week 1, 7, and 12 while body compositions were measured at weeks 1 and 12. Descriptive, univariate, and repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were utilized. A total of 104 participants completed the trial (mean age = 26.28 ± 8.01; female = 82.2%; BMI = 31.39 ± 4.89). A significant weight loss was observed in the intervention (-4.61%) and control (-3.04%) groups (mean difference = -1.57; 95%CI: -2.59, -0.54; p = .003) after 12 weeks. Participants that frequently practiced self-hypnosis lost more weight (-6.27%; t(50) = -5.331, p < .001). Body fat percentage and waist circumference did not significantly change from baseline in both groups. Essentially, the positive outcomes indicated the promising potential of hypnosis as an alternative tool in facilitating weight loss efforts for those in need.
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