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  1. Usman UB, Kwaga JK, Kabir J, Olonitola OS, Radu S, Bande F
    Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, 2016;2016:4313827.
    PMID: 27597873 DOI: 10.1155/2016/4313827
    In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from "Manshanu," and 1 (2.8%) from "Kindrimo." Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A), when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A) phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A) clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis) and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis) is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified.
  2. Wong WK, Foo PC, Roze MN, Pim CD, Subramaniam P, Lim BH
    Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, 2016;2016:1326085.
    PMID: 27366156 DOI: 10.1155/2016/1326085
    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.
  3. Rao M, Rashid FA, Shukor S, Hashim R, Ahmad N
    Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, 2020;2020:5021064.
    PMID: 32318127 DOI: 10.1155/2020/5021064
    Background: The spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CrAb) is gaining worldwide attention. The spread of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to acquire various resistance genes of intrinsic and extrinsic origins that confer unpredictable susceptibility to β-lactams. The aim of this study was to analyze β-lactamase genetic compositions of CrAb in Malaysia.

    Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out on 13 CrAb isolates from clinical samples in Malaysia from 2011 to 2016.

    Results: Endotracheal aspirate was the dominant clinical sample source (n = 6), and only one isolate was obtained from wound swab. A total of 6 sequence types (STs) of the Oxford scheme were identified, including 4 reported STs and 2 novel STs. Eleven isolates were classified into clonal complex 92 (CC92/ICII), among which ST195 and ST208 were the most prevalent STs. All 13 CrAb isolates harbored multiple β-lactamase genes. blaOXA-23 (n = 13) and blaOXA-66 (n = 11) were the dominant carbapenemase gene families found in these isolates. All isolates harbor blaADC, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-23-like genes. blaTEM (n = 7), blaNDM-1 (n = 3), blaCARB-8 (n = 1), and blaPER-3 (n = 1) are amongst other β-lactamase genes found in this study. ISAba1 was found upstream to blaOXA-23 (n = 13), blaOXA-66 (n = 1), and blaADC (n = 11). All blaNDM-1 isolates had ISAba125 (mobile genetic element) upstream to the genes. All isolates were positive for Tn2006/2008 and Tn2009 but were negative for Tn2007.

    Conclusion: Most of the isolates were grouped under the CC92 clonal complex which belongs to international clonal lineage 2. These findings predict that carriage of carbapenem-resistant genes possibly constitutes the underlying basis of high level of international clone II prevalence. Therefore, molecular surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship are essential in implementing policies to prevent and control the spread of CrAb in hospital settings.

  4. Rao M, Amran F, Aqilla N
    Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, 2019;2019:5763595.
    PMID: 30881530 DOI: 10.1155/2019/5763595
    Introduction: Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness, known for its protean clinical manifestations and the challenge in differentiating from other infectious diseases. Standardized confirmatory test is antibody dependent and not accessible by the suburban community. This study measures efficiency of an immune-chromatographic assay, Leptocheck WB, in detecting acute leptospirosis.

    Methods: A total of 142 sera were used for kit evaluation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated by comparing rapid kit results with gold standard laboratory, microscopic agglutination test (MAT).

    Results: We found this rapid kit to have a sensitivity and specificity of 66.6% and 78.9%, respectively, whereas the PPV and NPV of the kit appeared to be 73.3% and 73.2%, respectively.

    Discussion: Test efficiency of this rapid kit is reasonable. It is specific in detecting leptospiral antibody and assures clinician of accurate diagnosis by having higher PPV and NPV. It is prompt and efficient in comparison with conventional methods in assisting differential diagnosis. High sensitivity and specificity leptospirosis rapid test is indeed a crucial measure to assist the diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses.

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