DESIGN: Saliva samples were collected after the morning meal by placing a sterile cotton swab in the vestibule of the oral cavity from cleft lip and palate patients immediately preoperative and 12 weeks postoperative. Normal children were examined as a control group. Samples were cultured; Staphylococcus and Streptococcus isolates were identified and quantified.
PATIENTS: Fifteen cleft lip and palate patients and 22 normal children, aged 3 to 39 months were examined.
RESULTS: Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis of the viridans group of streptococci were the most commonly found in normal children, as well as in cleft lip and palate children. In the cleft lip and palate group, mean streptococcal count was 32.41 (29.80) and 46.46 (42.80) in the pre- and postoperative periods, respectively; in the normal group, the count was 20.93 (27.93) and 49.92 (34.72) at 0 week and 12 weeks, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common Staphylococcus species found in CLP patients, representing 47.4% postoperatively. In the cleft lip and palate children, mean staphylococcal count was 5.34 (8.13) and 0.56 (0.92) in the pre- and postoperative periods, respectively; in normal children, the count was 0.82 (1.98) and 0.60 (2.55) at 0 and 12 weeks, respectively. The differences were statistically significant only for the staphylococcal count between pre- and postoperative periods in children with cleft lip and palate as tested by analysis of variance (p < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: Cleft lip and palate patients had more colonization by S. aureus compared with normal children, and the colony count decreased significantly following surgical repair of the cleft lip and palate.
DESIGN: Retrospective study.
SETTING: School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
SUBJECTS: Eighty-four Bangladeshi children with nonsyndromic UCLP who received cheiloplasty and palatoplasty.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental models were taken at 5 to 12 years of age (man: 7.69), and dental arch relationships were assessed using modified Huddart/Bodenham index (mHB) by two raters. Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and interexaminer agreements, chi-square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR.
RESULTS: The total mHB score (mean [SD]) was -8.261 (7.115). Intra- and interagreement was very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analysis, significant association was found between positive history of class III (P = .025, P = .030, respectively) and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = .003) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR.
CONCLUSION: This multivariate study suggested complete type of UCLP and positive history of class III had a significantly unfavorable effect on the DAR.
DESIGN: Retrospective observational study.
SETTING: Two regional cleft-referral centers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In the current study, 101 pairs of dental models of non-syndromic CUCLP patients were retrieved from hospital archives. Each occlusal relationship from central incisor till the first permanent molars were scored except the lateral incisor. Sum of 10 occlusal relationships in each study sample gave a total occlusion score. The primary outcome was the mean total occlusion score.
RESULTS: According to MHB, a mean (standard deviation) total occlusion score of -8.92 (6.89) was determined. Based on treatment outcome, 66 cases were favorable (grades 1, 2, and 3) and 35 cases were unfavorable (grades 4 and 5). Chi-square tests indicated, difference of cheiloplasty ( P = .001) and palatoplasty ( P < .001) statistically significant. Five variables-gender, family history of cleft, cleft side, cheiloplasty, and palatoplasty-were analyzed with a logistic regression model.
CONCLUSIONS: Final model indicated that cases treated with modified Millard technique (cheiloplasty) and Veau-Wardill-Kilner method (palatoplasty) had higher odds of unfavorable treatment outcome.
SEARCH METHODS:: Electronic and manual search was done up to October 2017.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:: Clinical and observational studies that compared GPP to control; patients without GPP evaluated either before or after the age for secondary bone graft (SBG).
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:: Studies selection was done by 2 authors independently. Risk ratio and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models.
RESULTS:: Thirteen articles were included in the review. All studies were at high risk of bias. Poorer alveolar bone quality was found in the GPP group compared to the SBG group. The pooled data showed a statistically significant increase in the incidence of Bergland type III in the GPP group compared to SBG (risk ratio: 11.51, 95% CI: 3.39-35.15). As for facial growth, GPP group resulted in a more retruded maxillary position (as indicated by "Sella-Nasion-Subspinale" angle [SNA value]) compared to control group by -1.36 (CI: -4.21 to 1.49) and -1.66 (CI: -2.48 to -0.84) when evaluated at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The protocol for presurgical infant orthopedics used in conjunction with the GPP procedure might have affected the results of the alveolar bone and facial growth outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS:: Definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of GPP cannot be drawn. Very weak evidence indicated that GPP might not be an efficient method for alveolar bone reconstruction for patients with unilateral and bilateral CLP. Gingivoperiosteoplasty surgery could lead to maxillary growth inhibition in patients with CLP.