Displaying all 11 publications

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  1. Poi PJ, Chuah SY, Srinivas P, Liam CK
    Eur Respir J, 1998 May;11(5):1147-9.
    PMID: 9648970
    In the world of medical literature, little has been reported about the fears of patients undergoing bronchoscopy. The aim of this study was to identify the common fears of patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy and to determine whether any factors might contribute to reducing these fears. One hundred and four consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy were interviewed. Sixty one patients expressed fear about the procedure, as follows: afraid of pain (33); afraid of breathing difficulties (11); afraid of oropharyngeal irritation (5); afraid of the bronchoscopy findings (2); afraid of sedation, cross-infection and nasal lignocaine spray, respectively (3); and unable to be specific (7). There was no difference between the "no fear" and "fearful" groups in ethnicity, source of referral, education, previous endoscopy, doctors' explanation and the patients' understanding of the procedure and its indication. "Fearful" patients were significantly younger (t=2.082, p=0.037) and female (chi2=4.180, p=0.038). Doctors were more likely to explain the indication for bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=6.403; p=0.011), and patients were more likely to understand why they needed a bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=21.505; p<0.001). Fear preceding bronchoscopy is independent of patients' demographic features except for age and gender. Doctors tend to explain "why" but not "how" the procedure is performed. Provision of detailed information about sensations that are likely to be experienced in bronchoscopy could be used to allay some of these common fears.
  2. Johan A, Chan CC, Chia HP, Chan OY, Wang YT
    Eur Respir J, 1997 Dec;10(12):2825-8.
    PMID: 9493668
    Maximal static inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PI,max and PE,max, respectively) enable the noninvasive measurement of global respiratory muscle strength. The aim of this study was primarily to obtain normal values of PI,max and PE,max for adult Chinese, Malays and Indians and, secondarily, to study their effect on lung volumes in these subjects. Four hundred and fifty two healthy subjects (221 Chinese, 111 Malays, 120 Indians) were recruited. Measurements of PI,max from residual volume (RV), PE,max from total lung capacity (TLC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in the seated position. There were significant ethnic differences in PI,max and PE,max measurements obtained in males, and FVC measurements in both males and females. Chinese males had higher PI,max values (mean (+/-SD) 88.7+/-32.5 cmH2O) and higher PE,max values (113.4+/-41.5) than Malay males (PI,max 74.0+/-22.7 cmH2O, PE,max 94.7+/-23.4 cmH2O). Chinese males had higher PE,max than Indian males (PI,max = 83.7+/-30.0 cmH2O, PE,max 98.4+/-29.2 cmH2O). There were no significant differences among Chinese females (PI,max 53.6+/-2.3 cmH2O, PE,max 68.3+/-24.0 cmH2O), Malay females (PI,max 50.7+/-18.3 cmH2O, PE,max 63.6+/-21.6 cmH2O) and Indian females (PI,max 50.0+/-15.2 cmH2O, PE,max 60.7+/-20.4 cmH2O). In both sexes, the Chinese had a higher FVC compared with Malays and Indians. After adjusting for age, height and weight, race was still a determinant for PE,max in males, and FVC in both sexes. The FVC only correlated weakly with PI,max and PE,max in both sexes. Ethnic differences in respiratory muscle strength, and lung volumes, occur among Asians. However, respiratory muscle strength does not explain the differences in lung volumes in healthy Asian subjects.
  3. Ng TP, Seow A, Tan WC
    Eur Respir J, 1998 Jul;12(1):198-203.
    PMID: 9701437
    This study investigated the prevalence of snoring and symptoms of sleep breathing-related disorders in the multi-ethnic population of Singapore (3 million people, comprising 75% Chinese, 15% Malay and 7% Indian). A multistaged, area cluster, disproportionate stratified, random sampling of adults aged 20-74 yrs was used to obtain a sample of 2,298 subjects (65% response), with approximately equal numbers of Chinese, Malay and Indian and in each 10 yr age group. An interviewer-administered field questionnaire was used to record symptoms of snoring and breathing disturbances during sleep witnessed by a room-mate and other personal and health-related data. The weighted point estimate (and 95% confidence interval) of the whole population prevalence of snoring was 6.8% (53-83). There were pronounced ethnic differences among Chinese, 6.2% (4.4-8.1); Malay, 8.1% (6.1-10.2) and Indian, 10.9% (85-13.4). The minimum whole population prevalence by the most restricted symptom criteria for defining sleep breathing-related disorder was 0.43% (0.05-0.8%). Similar marked ethnic differences in rates were observed using various symptom criteria. The ethnic differences in sleep breathing symptoms paralleled the differences in body mass index, neck circumference and hypertension, but statistically significant differences remained after adjustment for sex, age and these known associated factors. Marked ethnic differences in snoring and sleep breathing-related disorders were observed in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore, which were only partly explained by known factors of sex, age and body habitus.
  4. Mac Aogáin M, Chandrasekaran R, Lim AYH, Low TB, Tan GL, Hassan T, et al.
    Eur Respir J, 2018 07;52(1).
    PMID: 29880655 DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00766-2018
    Understanding the composition and clinical importance of the fungal mycobiome was recently identified as a key topic in a "research priorities" consensus statement for bronchiectasis.Patients were recruited as part of the CAMEB study: an international multicentre cross-sectional Cohort of Asian and Matched European Bronchiectasis patients. The mycobiome was determined in 238 patients by targeted amplicon shotgun sequencing of the 18S-28S rRNA internally transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2. Specific quantitative PCR for detection of and conidial quantification for a range of airway Aspergillus species was performed. Sputum galactomannan, Aspergillus specific IgE, IgG and TARC (thymus and activation regulated chemokine) levels were measured systemically and associated to clinical outcomes.The bronchiectasis mycobiome is distinct and characterised by specific fungal genera, including Aspergillus, Cryptococcus and ClavisporaAspergillus fumigatus (in Singapore/Kuala Lumpur) and Aspergillus terreus (in Dundee) dominated profiles, the latter associating with exacerbations. High frequencies of Aspergillus-associated disease including sensitisation and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis were detected. Each revealed distinct mycobiome profiles, and associated with more severe disease, poorer pulmonary function and increased exacerbations.The pulmonary mycobiome is of clinical relevance in bronchiectasis. Screening for Aspergillus-associated disease should be considered even in apparently stable patients.
  5. Townend J, Minelli C, Mortimer K, Obaseki DO, Al Ghobain M, Cherkaski H, et al.
    Eur Respir J, 2017 06;49(6).
    PMID: 28572124 DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01880-2016
    Poverty is strongly associated with mortality from COPD, but little is known of its relation to airflow obstruction.In a cross-sectional study of adults aged ≥40 years from 12 sites (N=9255), participating in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study, poverty was evaluated using a wealth score (0-10) based on household assets. Obstruction, measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (%) after administration of 200 μg salbutamol, and prevalence of FEV1/FVC
  6. Sembajwe G, Cifuentes M, Tak SW, Kriebel D, Gore R, Punnett L
    Eur Respir J, 2010 Feb;35(2):279-86.
    PMID: 19741032 DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00027509
    The aims of this study were to quantify and describe the variations in respiratory symptoms and diagnosis prevalence across regions of the world according to national income. In 2002 and 2003, the World Health Organization implemented the World Health Survey (WHS), which used a standardised survey instrument to compile comprehensive baseline information on health and healthcare expenditure. We analysed the WHS data to assess the global patterns of self-reported wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma, two commonly reported measures of respiratory health. In total there were 308,218 participants with complete records, from 64 countries. The weighted mean age of the survey population was 43 yrs. Global prevalence of current wheezing symptoms ranged from 2.4% in Vietnam to 24% in Brazil; the prevalence of diagnosed asthma ranged from 1.8% in Vietnam to 32.8% in Australia. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms and diagnosis showed a U-shaped pattern with the largest prevalence reported in low- and high-income countries. The smallest prevalence was consistently found in middle-income countries. These WHS analyses have provided global prevalence estimates of wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma using data gathered simultaneously and consistently across six continents. These findings support the need for continued global respiratory illness surveillance for disease prevention, health policy and management.
    Study name: World Health Survey (Malaysia is a study site)
  7. Tiew PY, Ko FWS, Pang SL, Matta SA, Sio YY, Poh ME, et al.
    Eur Respir J, 2020 08;56(2).
    PMID: 32341102 DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00418-2020
    INTRODUCTION: Allergic sensitisation to fungi such as Aspergillus are associated to poor clinical outcomes in asthma, bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis; however, clinical relevance in COPD remains unclear.

    METHODS: Patients with stable COPD (n=446) and nondiseased controls (n=51) were prospectively recruited across three countries (Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong) and screened against a comprehensive allergen panel including house dust mites, pollens, cockroach and fungi. For the first time, using a metagenomics approach, we assessed outdoor and indoor environmental allergen exposure in COPD. We identified key fungi in outdoor air and developed specific-IgE assays against the top culturable fungi, linking sensitisation responses to COPD outcomes. Indoor air and surface allergens were prospectively evaluated by metagenomics in the homes of 11 COPD patients and linked to clinical outcome.

    RESULTS: High frequencies of sensitisation to a broad range of allergens occur in COPD. Fungal sensitisation associates with frequent exacerbations, and unsupervised clustering reveals a "highly sensitised fungal predominant" subgroup demonstrating significant symptomatology, frequent exacerbations and poor lung function. Outdoor and indoor environments serve as important reservoirs of fungal allergen exposure in COPD and promote a sensitisation response to outdoor air fungi. Indoor (home) environments with high fungal allergens associate with greater COPD symptoms and poorer lung function, illustrating the importance of environmental exposures on clinical outcomes in COPD.

    CONCLUSION: Fungal sensitisation is prevalent in COPD and associates with frequent exacerbations representing a potential treatable trait. Outdoor and indoor (home) environments represent a key source of fungal allergen exposure, amenable to intervention, in "sensitised" COPD.

  8. Tiew PY, Dicker AJ, Keir HR, Poh ME, Pang SL, Mac Aogáin M, et al.
    Eur Respir J, 2021 03;57(3).
    PMID: 32972986 DOI: 10.1183/13993003.02050-2020
    INTRODUCTION: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) bacteriome associates with disease severity, exacerbations and mortality. While COPD patients are susceptible to fungal sensitisation, the role of the fungal mycobiome remains uncertain.

    METHODS: We report the largest multicentre evaluation of the COPD airway mycobiome to date, including participants from Asia (Singapore and Malaysia) and the UK (Scotland) when stable (n=337) and during exacerbations (n=66) as well as nondiseased (healthy) controls (n=47). Longitudinal mycobiome analysis was performed during and following COPD exacerbations (n=34), and examined in terms of exacerbation frequency, 2-year mortality and occurrence of serum specific IgE (sIgE) against selected fungi.

    RESULTS: A distinct mycobiome profile is observed in COPD compared with controls as evidenced by increased α-diversity (Shannon index; p<0.001). Significant airway mycobiome differences, including greater interfungal interaction (by co-occurrence), characterise very frequent COPD exacerbators (three or more exacerbations per year) (permutational multivariate ANOVA; adjusted p<0.001). Longitudinal analyses during exacerbations and following treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids did not reveal any significant change in airway mycobiome profile. Unsupervised clustering resulted in two clinically distinct COPD groups: one with increased symptoms (COPD Assessment Test score) and Saccharomyces dominance, and another with very frequent exacerbations and higher mortality characterised by Aspergillus, Curvularia and Penicillium with a concomitant increase in serum sIgE levels against the same fungi. During acute exacerbations of COPD, lower fungal diversity associates with higher 2-year mortality.

    CONCLUSION: The airway mycobiome in COPD is characterised by specific fungal genera associated with exacerbations and increased mortality.

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