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  1. Zyroul R, Hossain MG, Azura M, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    Knee, 2014 Mar;21(2):557-62.
    PMID: 23473894 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2012.12.013
    BACKGROUND: Knee laxity measurements have been shown to be associated with some medical conditions such as chronic joint pain and collagen tissue diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of demographic factors and anthropometric measures on knee laxity.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from 521 visitors, staffs and students from the University Malaya Medical Centre and University of Malaya between December 2009 and May 2010. Knee laxity was measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. Multiple regression analysis was used to find the association of knee laxity with age and anthropometric measures.
    RESULTS: Using ANOVA, knee laxity did not show significant differences among ethnic groups for both genders. The average knee laxity in men was 3.47 mm (right) and 3.49 mm (left); while in women were 3.90 mm (right) and 3.67 mm (left). Knee laxity in women was significantly higher (right knee p<0.01 and left knee p<0.05) than men. Right knee laxity of men was negatively associated with height (p<0.05) and BMI (p<0.05); also a negative association was observed between left knee laxity and BMI (p<0.05). Overweight and obese men had less knee laxity than normal weight and underweight individuals. Elderly men and women (age 55 and above) had lower knee laxity (p<0.01) than young adults (ages 21-39).
    CONCLUSION: These results suggest that age and body size are important factors in predicting knee laxity.
    KEYWORDS: Age; Anthropometric measures; Joint mobility; KT 1000; Knee laxity
  2. Iranpour F, Merican AM, Teo SH, Cobb JP, Amis AA
    Knee, 2017 Jun;24(3):555-563.
    PMID: 28330756 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2017.01.011
    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral instability is a major cause of anterior knee pain. The aim of this study was to examine how the medial and lateral stability of the patellofemoral joint in the normal knee changes with knee flexion and measure its relationship to differences in femoral trochlear geometry.

    METHODS: Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were used. Five components of the quadriceps and the iliotibial band were loaded physiologically with 175N and 30N, respectively. The force required to displace the patella 10mm laterally and medially at 0°, 20°, 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion was measured. Patellofemoral contact points at these knee flexion angles were marked. The trochlea cartilage geometry at these flexion angles was visualized by Computed Tomography imaging of the femora in air with no overlying tissue. The sulcus, medial and lateral facet angles were measured. The facet angles were measured relative to the posterior condylar datum.

    RESULTS: The lateral facet slope decreased progressively with flexion from 23°±3° (mean±S.D.) at 0° to 17±5° at 90°. While the medial facet angle increased progressively from 8°±8° to 36°±9° between 0° and 90°. Patellar lateral stability varied from 96±22N at 0°, to 77±23N at 20°, then to 101±27N at 90° knee flexion. Medial stability varied from 74±20N at 0° to 170±21N at 90°. There were significant correlations between the sulcus angle and the medial facet angle with medial stability (r=0.78, p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results provide objective evidence relating the changes of femoral profile geometry with knee flexion to patellofemoral stability.

  3. Koh SM, Chan CK, Teo SH, Singh S, Merican A, Ng WM, et al.
    Knee, 2020 Jan;27(1):26-35.
    PMID: 31917106 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2019.10.028
    PURPOSE: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a multifactorial degenerative disease typically defined as the 'wear and tear' of articular joint cartilage. However, recent studies suggest that OA is a disease arising from chronic low-grade inflammation. We conducted a study to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammatory mediators present in both the systemic peripheral blood system and localised inflammation in synovial fluid (SF) of OA and non-OA knees; and subsequently made direct comparative analyses to understand the mechanisms that may underpin the processes involved in OA.

    METHODS: 20-Plex proteins were quantified using Human Magnetic Luminex® assay (R&D Systems, USA) from plasma and SF of OA (n = 14) and non-OA (n = 14) patients. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to predict the relationship and possible interaction of molecules pertaining to OA.

    RESULTS: There were significant differences in plasma level for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, interleukin (IL)-27, IL-8, IL-4, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, MMP-1, IL-15, IL-21, IL-10, and IL-1 beta between the groups, as well as significant differences in SF level for IL-15, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), MMP-1, and IL-18. Our predictive OA model demonstrated that toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), TLR4 and IL-1 were the main regulators of IL-1B, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-21, IL-27, MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the plasma system; whilst IL-1B, TLR4, IL-1, and basigin (BSG) were the regulators of IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, IL-27, MMP-1, and MMP-3 in the SF system.

    CONCLUSION: The elevated plasma IL-8 and SF IL-18 may be associated with the pathogenesis of OA via the activation of MMP-3.

  4. Kim JE, Won S, Jaffar MSA, Lee JI, Kim TW, Lee YS
    Knee, 2020 Jun;27(3):940-948.
    PMID: 32331827 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2020.04.008
    BACKGROUND: Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) produces three- dimensional (3D) geometric changes. Among them, increased posterior tibial slope (PTS), and altered coronal inclination that induces unintended tibial translation may affect anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) status. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the geometric changes following OWHTO, such as increasing PTS and decreasing tibial subluxation, which may affect the status of ACL.

    METHODS: From April 2014 to December 2015, a total of 72 knees in 64 patients that underwent OWHTO, second-look arthroscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment, were enrolled. Preoperative and postoperative coronal and sagittal translation, joint line orientation angle, the distance between medial femoral notch marginal line and medial tibial spine, and PTS were evaluated. ACL status was arthroscopically graded from grade 1 (best) to 4 (worst). The MRI signal of the graft in three portions (proximal, middle, and distal) was graded from grade 1 (best) to 4 (worst).

    RESULTS: High grade (3: partial, and 4: complete rupture) was noted in 28 cases (38.9%) at the second-look arthroscopy compared with 10 cases (13.9%) at index arthroscopy. The MRI signal grade significantly increased at follow up MRI compared with preoperative MRI (P<0.01). An increased signal was commonly noted in the middle and distal portions of the graft.

    CONCLUSIONS: Geometric changes after OWHTO were related to ACL deterioration. The ACL was commonly affected at the middle and distal portions and rarely at the proximal portion. There is a possibility of impingement because of the geometric changes.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

  5. Bashaireh KM, Yabroudi MA, Nawasreh ZH, Al-Zyoud SM, Bashir NB, Aleshawi AJ, et al.
    Knee, 2020 Aug;27(4):1205-1211.
    PMID: 32711883 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2020.05.003
    BACKGROUND: A high incidence of joint laxity has been reported among Asians compared with Western populations, but clear differences between more specific ethnic populations have not been established. This study aimed to determine the average knee laxity in the Malaysian and Jordanian populations.

    METHODS: Jordanian and Malaysian medical students from our institution were invited to participate in the study. General demographic data and factors affecting joint laxity were obtained from each participant using a printed questionnaire. Both knees were examined using the anterior drawer test while in 90° of flexion. Knee laxity was measured by three separate independent investigators through a knee laxity tester.

    RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-six participants (95 females) were enrolled in the study. Among them, 108 Malaysians participated. The Jordanians had significantly higher knee laxity in both knees compared with the Malaysians. The mean average right knee laxity for Jordanians was 2.98 mm vs. 2.72 mm for Malaysians (P = 0.005). Similarly, the mean average left knee laxity for Jordanians was 2.95 mm, while for Malaysians, it was 2.62 mm (P = 0.0001). Furthermore, smokers had significantly more laxity in both knees. After performing a multivariate linear regression analysis for all factors, race was the only independent factor that affected knee laxity in both knees.

    CONCLUSIONS: Race is directly associated with knee laxity. Jordanians tend to have more laxity in knee joints compared with Malaysians. Larger multi-center and genetic studies are recommended to establish the racial differences between different ethnic groups.

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