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  1. Yee A, Loh HS, Hisham Hashim HM, Ng CG
    J Sex Med, 2014 Jan;11(1):22-32.
    PMID: 24344738 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12352
    INTRODUCTION: For many years, methadone has been recognized as an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. However, of the many adverse events reported, sexual dysfunction is one of the most common side effects.

    AIM: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatments.

    METHODS: Relevant studies published from inception until December 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, OVID, and Embase. Studies were selected using prior defined criteria. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and odds ratio were assessed thoroughly.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine the prevalence and odds ratio of sexual dysfunctions among the methadone and buprenorphine groups.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,570 participants from 16 eligible studies were identified in this meta-analysis. The studies provided prevalence estimates for sexual dysfunction among methadone users with a meta-analytical pooled prevalence of 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.65). Only four studies compared sexual dysfunction between the two groups, with a significantly higher combined odds ratio in the methadone group (OR = 4.01, 95% CI, 1.52-10.55, P = 0.0049).

    CONCLUSIONS: Evidence showed that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was higher among the users of methadone compared with buprenorphine. Patients with sexual difficulty while on methadone treatment were advised to switch to buprenorphine.

  2. Nik Jaafar NR, Mislan N, Abdul Aziz S, Baharudin A, Ibrahim N, Midin M, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2013 Aug;10(8):2069-76.
    PMID: 23445463 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12105
    INTRODUCTION: While methadone effectively treats opiate dependence, the side effect of erectile dysfunction (ED) may interfere with treatment adherence and benefits.
    AIM:To determine the rate of ED and the associated factors which predict ED in male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a Malaysian population.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were the International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
    METHODS: A total of 108 participants diagnosed with heroin dependence were assessed. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I) on subjects who received MMT, and they were assessed using the IIEF-15, the BDI, and measures of other clinical and sociodemographic variables.
    RESULTS: The rate of ED among men on MMT was 68.5% (mild ED, 36.1%; mild to moderate ED, 22.2%; severe ED, 3.7%). The mean age of the participants was 43.45 years. Older age (P = 0.002), concurrent illicit heroin use (P = 0.024), and having an older partner (P = 0.039) were significantly associated with ED. Following multivariate analysis, it was found that older age was the only significant predictor of ED, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.07 (95% CI = 1.02-1.16). Methadone dose and duration of methadone treatment were not significantly associated with ED.
    CONCLUSION: ED was highly prevalent among male patients on MMT. This suggests that there is a need for routine assessment of sexual function in patients on methadone. Among the risk factors, age was the only factor that was significantly associated with ED. The current use of MMT in Malaysia in terms of dosage and duration did not pose a significant risk for ED.
    KEYWORDS: Erectile Dysfunction; Methadone Therapy; Opiate Dependence
    Study site: outpatient clinic for opiate substitution therapy, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Malaysia
  3. Kheng Yee O, Muhd Ramli ER, Che Ismail H
    J Sex Med, 2014 Apr;11(4):956-965.
    PMID: 23845160 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12246
    INTRODUCTION: Despite the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction among male schizophrenia patients, there is still a paucity of research on this area.
    AIMS: The study aims to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and any association between male patients with schizophrenia in remission and the sociodemographic profile, medication, depression, anxiety, psychopathology of illness, body mass index, and waist circumference.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study with nonprobability sampling method was conducted in a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Taiping Hospital (Perak, Malaysia) over a 7-month period. A total of 111 remitted male schizophrenia patients were recruited. The validated Malay version of the International Index of Erectile Function (Mal-IIEF-15) was administered to the patients and assessed over 4-week duration in the domains of erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was employed.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and associated factors for sexual dysfunction in each domain are the main outcome measures.
    RESULTS: All five domains of sexual functioning in patients showed a high prevalence of dysfunction ranging from 78.4% to 97.1% with orgasmic dysfunction being the least impaired and intercourse satisfaction the worst impaired. Among the domains, only orgasmic dysfunction was significantly associated with race, i.e., Chinese at lower risk for impairment than the Malays (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.76; P = 0.018); education, i.e., patients with education higher than primary level were at higher risk for dysfunction (OR = 6.49; 95% CI: 1.32, 32.05; P = 0.022); and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-positive subscale, i.e., higher PANSS-positive score was a protective factor for orgasmic dysfunction (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.89; P = 0.015).
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was generally high. Malay patients and those with education higher than primary level were at higher risk for orgasmic dysfunction whereas higher PANSS-positive score was protective against the impairment. The high rate of sexual dysfunction in schizophrenia patients warrants a routine inquiry into patients' sexuality and the appropriate problems being addressed.
    Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Hospital Taiping, Perak, Malaysia
  4. Mahadevan R, Nik Jaafar NR, Sidi H, Midin M, Das S
    J Sex Med, 2013 Mar;10(3):883-6.
    PMID: 23036068 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02949.x
    Decreased libido is recognized as one of the vegetative symptoms of depression. Increased libido has not been acknowledged as one of its symptoms, neither has it been reported, particularly in depressed bipolar patients.
  5. Tan HM, Tong SF, Ho CC
    J Sex Med, 2012 Mar;9(3):663-71.
    PMID: 22188573 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02582.x
    INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction in men, such as erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and premature ejaculation, generates considerable attention. Its association with physical and psychological health is an issue which should be addressed seriously.
    AIM: A review of the literature pertaining to the correlation between sexual dysfunction and physical and psychological health.
    METHODS: PubMed search for relevant publications on the association between sexual dysfunction in men and physical and psychological health.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical and epidemiological evidence that demonstrates the association between sexual dysfunction in men and physical and psychological health.
    RESULTS: Sexual dysfunction, i.e., erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and premature ejaculation, has been shown to be associated with physical and psychological health. There is a strong correlation between sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, quality of life, and depression.
    CONCLUSION: The association between men's sexual dysfunction and physical and psychological health is real and proven. Therefore, it should not be taken lightly but instead treated as a life-threatening medical problem.
  6. Tang WS, Khoo EM
    J Sex Med, 2011 Jul;8(7):2071-8.
    PMID: 21492404 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02280.x
    INTRODUCTION: Premature ejaculation (PE) is common. However, it has been underreported and undertreated.
    AIMS: To determine the prevalence of PE and to investigate possible associated factors of PE.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a primary care clinic over a 3-month period in 2008. Men aged 18-70 years attending the clinic were recruited, and they completed self-administered questionnaires that included the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), International Index of Erectile Function, sociodemography, lifestyle, and medical illness. The operational definition of PE included PE and probable PE based on the PEDT.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of PE.
    RESULTS: A total of 207 men were recruited with a response rate of 93.2%. There were 97 (46.9%) Malay, 57 (27.5%) Chinese, and 53 (25.6%) Indian, and their mean age was 46.0 ± 12.7 years. The prevalence of PE was 40.6% (N = 82) (PE: 20.3%, probable PE: 20.3% using PEDT). A significant association was found between ethnicity and PE (Indian 49.1%, Malay 45.4%, and Chinese 24.6%; χ(2) = 8.564, d.f. = 2, P = 0.014). No significant association was found between age and PE. Multivariate analysis showed that erectile dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.907, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.271, 10.604), circumcision (adjusted OR 4.881, 95% CI 2.346, 10.153), sexual intercourse ≤5 times in 4 weeks (adjusted OR 3.733, 95% CI 1.847, 7.544), and Indian ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.323, 95% CI 1.489, 7.417) were predictors of PE.
    CONCLUSION: PE might be frequent in men attending primary care clinics. We found that erectile dysfunction, circumcision, Indian ethnicity, and frequency of sexual intercourse of ≤5 times per month were associated with PE. These associations need further confirmation.
    Study site: primary care clinic at the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  7. Sidi H, Asmidar D, Hod R, Guan NC
    J Sex Med, 2012 May;9(5):1392-9.
    PMID: 21477024 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02256.x
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is one of the most widely used antidepressant and commonly associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD).
  8. Ishak IH, Low WY, Othman S
    J Sex Med, 2010 Sep;7(9):3080-7.
    PMID: 20584130 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01848.x
    INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a highly prevalent sexual health problem but poorly investigated at the primary care level.
    AIM: This article examines the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its possible risk factors associated with women at high risk of FSD in a hospital-based primary practice.
    METHODS: A validated Malay version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) was utilized to determine FSD in a cross-sectional study design, involving 163 married women, aged 18-65 years, in a tertiary hospital-based primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic, marital profile, health, and lifestyle for women at high risk of FSD and those who were not at high risk were compared and their risk factors were determined.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of FSD in Malaysian women based on the MVFSFI, and its risk factors for developing FSD.
    RESULTS: Some 42 (25.8%) out of 163 women had sexual dysfunction. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction increased significantly with age. Sexual dysfunctions were detected as desire problem (39.3%), arousal problem (25.8%), lubrication problem (21.5%), orgasm problem (16.6%), satisfaction problem (21.5%) and pain problems (16.6%). Women at high risk of FSD were significantly associated with age (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 9.0), husband's age (OR 4.3 95% C.I 1.9 to 9.3), duration of marriage (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.8), medical problems (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.3 to 21.7), menopausal status (OR 6.6, 95% CI 3.1 to 14.3), and frequency of sexual intercourse (OR 10.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 31.7). Multivariate analysis showed that medical problem (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 14.0) and frequency of sexual intercourse (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.1 to 24.0) were associated with increased risk of having FSD. Those who practiced contraception were less likely to have FSD.
    CONCLUSION: Sexual health problems are prevalent in women attending primary care clinic where one in four women were at high risk of FSD. Thus, primary care physician should be trained and prepared to address this issue.

    Study site: oss-sectional, clinic-based study conducted at the Primary Care Clinic, University of
    Malaya Medical Centre (UMCC)
  9. Masiran R, Sidi H, Mohamed Z, Mohd Nazree NE, Nik Jaafar NR, Midin M, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2014 Apr;11(4):1047-1055.
    PMID: 24533444 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12452
    INTRODUCTION: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known for their sexual side effects. Different SSRIs may affect different areas of sexual function at different rates.
    AIMS: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), its clinical correlates, and association with 5HT2A (rs6311) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who were on SSRI therapy.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 95 female outpatients with MDD treated with SSRI. The patients were in remission as determined by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal swabs and samples were processed using a real time polymerase chain reaction.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence or absence of FSD as measured by the Malay Version of Female Sexual Function Index and 5HT2A-1438 G/A (rs6311) SNP.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of FSD was 32.6%. After controlling for age, number of children, education level, total monthly income, SSRI types, and SSRI dosing, being employed significantly enhanced FSD by 4.5 times (odds ratio [OR] = 4.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 20.30; P = 0.05). Those having marital problems were 6.7 times more likely to have FSD (OR = 6.67; 95% CI 1.57, 28.34). 5HT2A-1438 G/A (rs6311) SNP was not significantly associated with FSD.
    CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between FSD and the 5HT2A (rs6311) SNP in patients with MDD on SSRI therapy. Employment status and marital state were significantly associated with FSD among these patients.
    Study site: Psychiatry clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  10. Aziz HA, Peh KK, Tan YT
    J Sex Med, 2009 Mar;6(3):682-95.
    PMID: 19143913 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01157.x
    Khat (Catha edulis) is an evergreen tree/shrub that is thought to affect sexual motivation or libido. Its positive effect on sexual desire is more frequently observed in females than in males and occurs when khat is chewed. Thus, khat's effects on sexual behavior may depend on the release mode of its active constituent.
  11. Ellis L, Lykins A, Hoskin A, Ratnasingam M
    J Sex Med, 2015 Dec;12(12):2364-77.
    PMID: 26663858 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.13070
    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent.
  12. Sidi H, Naing L, Midin M, Nik Jaafar NR
    J Sex Med, 2008 Oct;5(10):2359-66.
    PMID: 18086161
    The concept of a sexual response cycle (SRC) for women has gained interest lately with the reintroduction of terms with new definitions and a new model for the sexual response, especially the Basson's circular model.
  13. Quek KF, Sallam AA, Ng CH, Chua CB
    J Sex Med, 2008 Jan;5(1):70-6.
    PMID: 17362280
    INTRODUCTION: Sexual problems are common in the general population. Studies have shown that most of these sexual problems are related to their social lives, medical illnesses, and psychological status. Among the sexual problems in men, premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most frequent, yet it is the least well-understood of the sexual dysfunctions of men.
    AIM: To determine the prevalence of sexual problem particularly PE and erectile dysfunction (ED) among people living in urban areas and to investigate the characteristics associated with these sexual problems in a Malaysian population.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The PE which is defined as an intravaginal ejaculation latency time less than 2 minutes was assessed in the ED and non-ED group.
    METHODS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale is used as a measure of the psychological status [30]. The ED status was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported sexual problems for ED and PE were 41.6% and 22.3%, respectively. In those subjects with ED, 33.5% reported to have PE. Of the total of 430 subjects, anxiety was present in 8.1%, while depression was 5.3%. The prevalence of PE accounted for 25% anxiety and 14.6% for depression respectively in the population. EDs were associated with diabetes and hypertension (OR [95% CI]: 5.33 [2.33, 10.16], 3.40 [1.76, 6.57], P < 0.05), respectively, while factors associated with PE were anxiety and depression (OR [95% CI]: 1.29 [0.68, 2.45], 1.39 [0.69, 2.78]), respectively.
    CONCLUSION: Prevalence of ED is associated with medical symptoms such as diabetes and hypertension and a rise in the prevalence of age while psychological distress such as anxiety and depression also contribute to a higher PE rate.
  14. Khoo EM, Tan HM, Low WY
    J Sex Med, 2008 Dec;5(12):2925-34.
    PMID: 18761590 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00988.x
    INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression, and androgen deficiency are common conditions affecting aging men over 50 years. However, data were limited in developing countries.
    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of ED, LUTS, chronic diseases, depression, androgen deficiency symptoms, and lifestyle of aging men in Malaysia, and to examine their associations with sociodemographic factors.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ED, LUTS, chronic diseases, depression, positive Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire
    METHODS: A randomized survey of 351 men using structured questionnaires consisting of self-reported medical conditions, International Index for Erectile Function-5, International Prostate Symptom Score, Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and St Louis University questionnaire for ADAM. Blood samples were taken for glucose, lipid, prostate specific antigen (PSA), and hormones.
    RESULTS: Mean age was 58+/-7 years. Prevalence of ED was 70.1% (mild ED 32.8%, mild to moderate ED 17.7%, moderate ED 5.1%, and severe ED 14.5%). There were 29% of men with moderate and severe LUTS; 11.1% had severe depression; 25.4% scored positive on ADAM questionnaire; 30.2% self-reported hypertension, 21.4% self-reported diabetes mellitus; 10.8% self-reported coronary artery disease; 19.1% were smokers; and 34% consumed alcohol. There were 78.6% of men that are overweight and obese; 28.8% had a fasting blood sugar (FBS) >or=6.1 mmol/L, 70.1% had total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/L, 19.1% had total testosterone >or=11.0 nmoL/L, 14.0% had calculated free testosterone <0.0225 nmoL/dL; 4% had PSA >4 microg/L; 9.4% had insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level below age specific range, 5.1% had abnormal sex hormone binding globulin (<15 nmoL/L and >70 nmol/L). ED was found to be significantly associated with LUTS, depression (P<0.001 respectively). Similarly, LUTS was significantly associated with depression and ADAM questionnaire status (P<0.001 respectively); and ADAM questionnaire status was also significantly associated with depression (P<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: ED, LUTS, depression, and androgen deficiency symptoms are common in urban aging men. As these conditions are possibly interrelated, strategies for early disease prevention and detection are warranted when one disease presents.
  15. Sidi H, Abdullah N, Puteh SE, Midin M
    J Sex Med, 2007 Nov;4(6):1642-54.
    PMID: 17608666
    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a prevalent sexual health problem that has been inadequately investigated in Malaysia, a nation with a conservative multiethnic society.
  16. Tan HM, Low WY, Ng CJ, Chen KK, Sugita M, Ishii N, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2007 Nov;4(6):1582-92.
    PMID: 17908233 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00602.x
    INTRODUCTION: There have been limited multiregional studies in Asia examining the parameters of men's general and sexual health and quality of life in the general population vs. those in clinical cohorts of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED).
    AIMS: The aims of the Asian Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (Asian MALES) study were to investigate the prevalence of ED, associated health conditions, and ED treatment-seeking patterns in the general male population in five regions of Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan).
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Standardized questionnaire previously used in a similar multiregional study and modified to ensure culturally appropriate content for Asia.
    METHODS: Phase I of the study involved 10,934 adult men, aged 20-75 years, who were interviewed using the standardized questionnaire. Phase II of the study involved men with self-reported ED recruited from Phase I and via physician referral, invitations in general practitioner offices, and street interception (total Phase II sample, N = 1,209).
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of self-reported ED in the Phase I study population was 6.4%. ED prevalence varied by region and significantly increased with age (P < 0.01). Men with ED reported significantly greater rates of comorbid illness (P < 0.0001) and a reduced quality of life (P = 0.0001), compared with men without ED. Phase II of the study revealed that fewer than half of men with self-reported ED had sought treatment for their problem. Men were more likely to seek help for erection difficulties from Western doctors than from traditional medicine practitioners (P = 0.0001). A man's partner/spouse was the most common influencer of treatment seeking in all regions except Malaysia.
    CONCLUSION: The findings confirm those of existing research on ED in both Asian and non-Asian males: ED is a prevalent condition; the prevalence of ED increases with age and is strongly associated with comorbid conditions; and the majority of men have never sought treatment for their condition. This study highlights a substantial need for the evaluation and treatment of ED in Asian men.
  17. Sidi H, Puteh SE, Abdullah N, Midin M
    J Sex Med, 2007 Mar;4(2):311-21.
    PMID: 17040486
    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a prevalent sexual health problem that does not spare the women in Malaysia, a nation with a conservative multiethnic society.
  18. Yee A, Loh HS, Danaee M, Riahi S, Ng CG, Sulaiman AH
    J Sex Med, 2018 Feb;15(2):159-166.
    PMID: 29275046 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2017.12.004
    BACKGROUND: Methadone has been recognized as an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. However, its use is associated with several complications, including sexual dysfunction in men.
    AIM: To assess plasma testosterone and sexual function in Southeast Asian men on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT).
    METHODS: 76 sexually active men on MMT (mean age = 43.30 ± 10.32 years) and 31 men on BMT (mean age = 41.87 ± 9.76 years) from a Southeast Asian community were evaluated using plasma total testosterone (TT) and prolactin levels, body mass index, social demographics, substance use measures, and depression severity scale.
    OUTCOMES: Prevalence and associated factors of TT level lower than the reference range in men on MMT or BMT.
    RESULTS: More than 1 third of men (40.8%, n = 31) on MMT had TT levels lower than the reference range, whereas 1 fourth of men (22.6%, n = 7) on BMT did. At univariate analysis, MMT vs BMT (β = 0.298, adjusted R2 = 0.08, P = .02) and body mass index (β = -0.23, adjusted R2 = 0.12, P = .02) were associated with changes in TT after stepwise regression. There were no significant associations with age; Opiate Treatment Index Q scores for alcohol, heroin, stimulant, tobacco, or cannabis use and social functioning domain; education levels; hepatitis C status; and severity of depression. Prolactin level did not differ between the MMT and BMT groups.
    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The sex hormonal assay should be used regularly to check men on MMT.
    STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This is the first study conducted in the Southeast Asian community. Our study was limited by the lack of a healthy group as the reference for serum levels of testosterone and prolactin.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that plasma testosterone levels are lower in MMT than in BMT users. Hence, men who are receiving MMT should be screened for hypogonadism routinely in the clinical setting.
  19. Choy CL, Sidi H, Koon CS, Ming OS, Mohamed IN, Guan NC, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2019 Jul;16(7):1029-1048.
    PMID: 31113742 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.04.007
    INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women is an often-neglected subject despite a reported prevalence of 42.1%. Although few reviews exist, a definitive relationship between hypertension and sexual dysfunction in women has not been clearly established.

    AIM: To review the existing literature to definitively examine sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension, in both treated and untreated subjects.

    METHODS: We performed a systematic search for published literature of 3 electronic databases (Scopus, EBSCOhost Medline Complete, and Cochrane Library) in August 2018. The search terms with relevant truncation and Boolean were developed according to a population exposure-comparator-outcome model combining pilot searches. The quality of included studies was assessed with the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. Initial search, limited to the English language, included a total of 2,198 studies. 31 studies (18,260 subjects) met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Sexual dysfunction in these studies was measured using different tools. We extracted information of study setting, country, number of subjects, participants' age and blood pressure, comparators, and outcome. We ran a meta-analysis on the presence of sexual dysfunction as an outcome from the following comparisons: (i) hypertensive vs normotensive (ii) treated vs untreated hypertension, and (iii) exposure vs absence of specific class of anti-hypertensive drug.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women with sexual dysfunction and hypertension were included.

    RESULTS: We found significant sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension compared with the normotensive group (pooled odds ratio [OR] = 2.789, 95% CI = 1.452-5.357, P = .002). However, there was no statistical difference of sexual dysfunction in women with treated or untreated hypertension (OR = 1.229, 95% CI = 0.675-2.236, P = .5). Treatment with alpha-/beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics resulted in no statistical difference in sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women.

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Because sexual dysfunction is prevalent in women with hypertension, it is imperative to address the underlying medical condition to manage this important clinical problem.

    STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: Many studies had to be excluded from the meta-analysis, due to unavailability and incompleteness of data. Nevertheless, results of the review are useful to derive recommendations for alerting physicians of the need to routinely assess the sexual functioning of women with hypertension.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that women with hypertension are at increased risk for sexual dysfunction, and our findings imply that evaluation for sexual dysfunction needs to be part of the clinical management guidelines for women with hypertension. Choy CL, Sidi H, Koon CS, et al. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis for Sexual Dysfunction in Women With Hypertension. J Sex Med 2019;16:1029-1048.

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