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  1. Azmi ID, Moghimi SM, Yaghmur A
    Ther Deliv, 2015 Dec;6(12):1347-64.
    PMID: 26652281 DOI: 10.4155/tde.15.81
    Nonlamellar liquid crystalline phases are attractive platforms for drug solubilization and targeted delivery. The attractiveness of this formulation principle is linked to the nanostructural versatility, compatiblity, digestiblity and bioadhesive properties of their lipid constituents, and the capability of solubilizing and sustaining the release of amphiphilic, hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. Nonlamellar liquid crystalline phases offer two distinct promising strategies in the development of drug delivery systems. These comprise formation of ISAsomes (internally self-assembled 'somes' or particles) such as cubosomes and hexosomes, and in situ formation of parenteral dosage forms with tunable nanostructures at the site of administration. This review outlines the unique features of cubosomes and hexosomes and their potential utilization as promising platforms for drug delivery.
  2. Katas H, Wen CY, Siddique MI, Hussain Z, Mohd Fadhil FH
    Ther Deliv, 2017 01;8(3):137-150.
    PMID: 28145827 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2016-0075
    AIM: Chitosan (CS) has been extensively studied as drug delivery systems for wound healing. Results/methodology: CS nanoparticles were loaded with curcumin (Cur) and DsiRNA against prostaglandin transporter gene and they were incorporated into 20 and 25% w/v Pluronic F-127. The gels were later analyzed for their rheology, gelation temperature (Tgel), morphology, drug incorporation and in vitro drug release. The particle size was in the range of 231 ± 17-320 ± 20 nm, depending on CS concentration. The gels had Tgel of 23-28°C and exhibited sustained drug release with high accumulated amount of drugs over 48 h.

    CONCLUSION: A thermo-sensitive gel containing Cur/DsiRNA CS nanoparticles was successfully developed and has a great potential to be further developed.

  3. Bor G, Mat Azmi ID, Yaghmur A
    Ther Deliv, 2019 02;10(2):113-132.
    PMID: 30678550 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2018-0062
    The emergence of nanomedicine as an innovative and promising alternative technology shows many advantages over conventional cancer therapies and provides new opportunities for early detection, improved treatment, and diagnosis of cancer. Despite the cancer nanomedicines' capability of delivering chemotherapeutic agents while providing lower systemic toxicity, it is paramount to consider the cancer complexity and dynamics for bridging the translational bench-to-bedside gap. It is important to conduct appropriate investigations for exploiting the tumor microenvironment, and achieving a more comprehensive understanding of the fundamental biological processes in cancer and their roles in modulating nanoparticle-protein interactions, blood circulation, and tumor penetration. This review provides an overview of the current cancer nanomedicines, the major challenges, and the future opportunities in this research area.
  4. Bonthagarala B, Dasari V, Kotra V
    Ther Deliv, 2019 May 01;10(5):295-310.
    PMID: 31094300 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2019-0020
    Aim: The present study revolved around determining the effect of increase in the solubility of these drugs at the absorption site using ritonavir as a drug model. Materials & methods: Ritonavir per-oral tablets were prepared using versatile and nonionic surfactants having high solubilization rate, which were further marked with high rate of dissolution. The high rate of dissolution formula applied to the solid state characterization by means of transition electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Results & conclusion: The drug bioavailability was seen to increase expressively by administration of liquisolid tablets as compared with conventional tablets.
  5. Chellappan DK, Yee NJ, Kaur Ambar Jeet Singh BJ, Panneerselvam J, Madheswaran T, Chellian J, et al.
    Ther Deliv, 2019 May 01;10(5):281-293.
    PMID: 31094299 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2019-0019
    Aim: Our aim was to develop and characterize a nanogel formulation containing both glibenclamide and quercetin and to explore the permeation profile of this combination. Methods: Drug-loaded nanogel was prepared by ionic gelation. In addition, optimum encapsulation efficiencies of glibenclamide and quercetin were also obtained. The average nanoparticle size at optimum conditions was determined by Zetasizer. Results: The particle size of the nanogel was found to be 370.4 ± 4.78 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.528 ± 0.04, while the λ potential was positive in a range of 17.6 to 24.8 mV. The percentage cumulative drug release also showed favorable findings. Conclusion: The chitosan nanogel could be a potential alternative for delivering glibenclamide and quercetin through skin.
  6. Shahcheraghi SH, Ayatollahi J, Aljabali AA, Shastri MD, Shukla SD, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Ther Deliv, 2021 03;12(3):235-244.
    PMID: 33624533 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2020-0129
    The COVID-19 pandemic continues to endanger world health and the economy. The causative SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has a unique replication system. The end point of the COVID-19 pandemic is either herd immunity or widespread availability of an effective vaccine. Multiple candidate vaccines - peptide, virus-like particle, viral vectors (replicating and nonreplicating), nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), live attenuated virus, recombinant designed proteins and inactivated virus - are presently under various stages of expansion, and a small number of vaccine candidates have progressed into clinical phases. At the time of writing, three major pharmaceutical companies, namely Pfizer and Moderna, have their vaccines under mass production and administered to the public. This review aims to investigate the most critical vaccines developed for COVID-19 to date.
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