OBJECTIVES: To estimate a EQ-5D value set for Malaysia by using time trade-off (TTO) and visual analogue scale (VAS) valuation methods.
METHODS: TTO and VAS valuations were obtained from face-to-face surveys of a convenience sample of patients, caregivers, and health professionals conducted at nine government hospitals in 2004 and 2005. Forty-five EQ-5D questionnaire health states were valued, divided into five sets of 15 health states. Analysis was conducted by using linear additive regression models applying N3 and D1 specifications. Model selection was based on criteria of coefficient properties, statistical significance, and goodness of fit.
RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two respondents were interviewed, yielding 2174 TTO and 2265 VAS valuations. Respondents found TTO valuations to be more difficult than VAS valuations, and there were more inconsistencies in TTO valuations. All the independent variables in the models were statistically significant and consistent with expected signs and magnitude, except for the D1 specification modeled on TTO valuations. The N3 model provided the best fit for the VAS valuation data, with a mean absolute error of 0.032.
CONCLUSION: This study provides a Malaysian EQ-5D questionnaire value set that can be used for cost-utility studies despite survey limitations.
Study site: convenience sampling from three categories of respondents (patients undergoing dialysis, patients’ carers, and dialysis center staff) from public hospitals
This article sought to describe the health-care data situation in six selected economies in the Asia-Pacific region. Authors from Thailand, China mainland, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia present their analyses in three parts. The first part of the article describes the data-collection process and the sources of data. The second part of the article presents issues around policies of data sharing with the stakeholders. The third and final part of the article focuses on the extent of health-care data use for policy reform in these different economies. Even though these economies differ in their economic structure and population size, they share some similarities on issues related to health-care data. There are two main institutions that collect and manage the health-care data in these economies. In Thailand, China mainland, Taiwan, and Malaysia, the Ministry of Health is responsible through its various agencies for collecting and managing the health-care data. On the other hand, health insurance is the main institution that collects and stores health-care data in South Korea and Japan. In all economies, sharing of and access to data is an issue. The reasons for limited access to some data are privacy protection, fragmented health-care system, poor quality of routinely collected data, unclear policies and procedures to access the data, and control on the freedom on publication. The primary objective of collecting health-care data in these economies is to aid the policymakers and researchers in policy decision making as well as create an awareness on health-care issues for the general public. The usage of data in monitoring the performance of the heath system is still in the process of development. In conclusion, for the region under discussion, health-care data collection is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health and health insurance agencies. Data are collected from health-care providers mainly from the public sector. Routinely collected data are supplemented by national surveys. Accessibility to the data is a major issue in most of the economies under discussion. Accurate health-care data are required mainly to support policy making and evidence-based decisions.
This paper discusses national programs implemented in India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Philippines to generate and apply evidence in making informed policy decisions on the approval, pricing, reimbursement and financing of medicines, diagnostics, and medical devices.
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem. Medication adherence is a key determinant of therapeutic success in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to assess medication adherence and its potential association with diabetes related knowledge in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: This study was carried out at the outpatient clinics of a public sector teaching hospital in Sargodha, Pakistan. Besides demographic and disease-related questions, previously validated questionnaires, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and Michigan diabetes knowledge test was used to assess the medication adherence and diabetes related knowledge, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients while Spearman rank correlation was employed to measure the association between medication adherence and knowledge.
Results: Three hundred and ninety two patients were interviewed. Out of 392 patients, 245 (62.5%) of the patients had average knowledge about diabetes while 282 (71.9 %) were categorized as poor adherent. Only 13 patients (3.3 %) were considered as good adherent in the study. The correlation coefficient between total scores of knowledge and total medication adherence score was 0.036 (p< 0.05), indicating a weak correlation between knowledge scores and adherence level.
Conclusions: Knowledge of diabetes mellitus among these patients was average; however, adherence to drug therapy was also poor. Patients’ knowledge about diabetes had positive association with medication adherence. Improving diabetes knowledge of people can result in better adherence, which may result in better control of diabetes.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the association of waist circumference with glycaemic control in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: We utilised data of type 2 diabetes patients followed up in Malaysian public sector primary care clinics contained in the National Diabetes Registry in the year 2012. The variable of interest was poor glycaemic control, defined as HbA1c≥ 6.5%. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the association between glycaemic control and waist circumference, which was adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, use of insulin and other medications.
Results: A total of 98,825 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 59.9 years (SD: 10.9) and 38.9% were males. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.8 years (SD: 5.0) and 76.2% of patients had HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The mean waist circumference was 94.0 cm (SD: 11.8) for male and 90.7 cm (SD: 11.8) for female; while 78.3% of the patients had waist circumference above the cut-off (≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women). Larger waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with HbA1c≥ 6.5% (adj. OR 1.009; p< 0.001; 95% CI: 1.007–1.011) after adjusting for confounding factors.
Conclusions: Analysis showed that glycaemic control was poorer in patients with higher waist circumference than in patients with lower waist circumference.
Endocrinologists and other clinicians who provide care to diabetic patients have ideal teaching opportunities to connect and deliver tobacco cessation interventions in diabetes care. This study aimed to develop, validate and measure the reliability of a new tool that would be used to evaluate physicians’ attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation counselling in patients with diabetes, as well as barriers to deliver tobacco cessation counselling in their clinics.
This study was conducted from March till December 2012 in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. A standardised, 22-item, self-administered questionnaire was developed to determine (i) physicians’ attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation counselling in patients with diabetes, and (ii) barriers in delivering tobacco cessation counselling in their clinics. Face and content validity were assessed. Six pharmacists, whom were faculty members with experience and expertise in research and in the development of surveys, reviewed the questionnaire to assess its content validity.Reliability test was run along to check whether the new tool questions are correlated with one another adequatly or no.
Reliability test for the tool was pretested on a sample of 25 physicians physicians who ran the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Reliability analyses for the attitude domain and practice domain were 0.710 and 0.720, respectively.
The questionnaire was valid and reliable to be use for the evaluation of physician’s barriers, attitude and practice regarding tobacco cessation counselling in the diabetics clinics.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the association of waist circumference with microvascular complications in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: We utilised data of type 2 diabetes patients followed up in Malaysian public sector primary care clinics contained in the National Diabetes Registry in the year 2012. Variables of interest were the presence of microvascular complications, namely nephropathy and retinopathy. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the association between presence of microvascular complications and waist circumference, which was adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, insulin use, total cholesterol and HbA1c.
Results: A total of 114,719 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 59.8 years (SD: 11.2) with mean duration of diabetes of 6.8 years (SD: 5.1). Male
patients comprised 39.9% of the sample population and 83.5% of the patients were overweight with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2. Nephropathy and retinopathy was present in 9.1% and 7.9% of patients respectively. The mean waist circumference was 94.1 cm (SD: 11.8) for males and 90.8 cm (SD: 11.8) for females; while 78.4% of the patients had waist circumference above the cut off (≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women). Larger waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with nephropathy (adj. OR 1.005; p-value< 0.001; 95% CI: 1.003–1.008) after adjusting for confounding factors. However, waist circumference was not significantly associated with retinopathy (adj. OR 0.998; p= 0.209; 95% CI: 0.996–1.001).
Conclusions: Analysis showed that patients with higher waist circumference were more likely to have nephropathy than patients with lower waist circumference. The analysis also showed that waist circumference
was not associated with retinopathy in the study population.
Objectives: An adequate disease-related knowledge is important in treatment and management of ailments. Within this context, patients are needed to have correct knowledge and positive attitude especially when they are faced with an emergence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study therefore is to assess the level of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) awareness and disease related attitude among general population at Bujang Valley, Merbok, Kedah, Malaysia.
Methods: A questionnaire based, cross sectional study was conducted. The Diabetes Attitude Scale was used to assess the knowledge and attitude of respondents towards T2DM. Data was described descriptively and SPSS v.22 was used for data analysis.
Results: Out of three hundred and seventy seven respondents, majority of the respondents (n=156, 41.4%) were in age group of more than 40 years old and the cohort was dominated by Malay ethnic group. Females subjugated over males (n=229, 60.7%) and the highest number of respondents were working as businessman (n=115, 30.5%). Corresponding to the marital status, majority of the respondent were married (n=247, 65.5%). Majority of the respondents (n=274, 72.7%) were reported as healthy with no chronic disease. The respondents reported certain misapprehensions where they believed that T2DM have lesser complications, blood glucose control is needed for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus only and the emotional effects of T2DM are minor.
Conclusions: The study reported insufficient level of knowledge among the respondents in management of T2DM. General population needs to have good collaboration with healthcare professionals to get more education and knowledge related to T2DM for their empowerment.
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and patterns of CAM use among diabetes patients in Pakistan. In addition, the study also focused on the perceived effectiveness of CAM over conventional therapies, information seeking behavior and CAM disclosure to healthcare providers.
Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional and self-administered questionnaire based study was conducted in tertiary care public hospitals in Pakistan. A prevalence based sample of 350 diabetes patients attending the tertiary hospital in Punjab, Pakistan were selected for the study. All obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: Overall, 327 questionnaires were completed and included in the analysis, showing that 52.8% of diabetics had used CAM, with most (62.4%) believing that CAM therapies assist body’s natural forces to heal. CAM usage was significantly associated with gender (P=0.001), level of education (P=0.001), employment status (P=0.03) and monthly income (P<0.001).
Conclusions: Diabetes treatment and management requires compliance to effective therapies at early stages. Healthcare providers should engage diabetics in an open non-judgmental dialogue to ascertain better understanding of diabetes and its management options.
Objectives: To evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of RMTAC (an adjunct
pharmaceutical asthma management) vs. usual physician care clinic by using decision analytic modelling method. Methods: A dynamic adherence asthma Markov
cohort model was developed. The economic evaluation was based on a lifetime
horizon and cycle length of one month, from the healthcare provider‘s (Ministry
of Health) perspective, with the outcomes assessed in cost per QALY gained and
cost per hospitalization averted. Probabilities of asthma control-adherence states
from RMTAC database, costs from national sources, utilities using standard gamble method on Malaysia’s asthma patients, and other inputs from secondary data
sources were used to inform the probabilistic model, according to gender and age
subgroups. A scenario analysis was conducted to test the structural assumption on
follow-up visits after the final treatment visit. Results: In female subgroup, RMTAC
management dominates the usual care by having 0.91 (95% CI 0.24 – 1.69) QALY
gained and 0.58 (95% CI -2.30 – 6.23) hospitalization averted, at a lower cost. For male
subgroup, the ICERs were RM10 (95% CI -RM14431 – RM8323) per QALY gained and
RM18 (95% CI -RM35790 – RM30266) per hospitalization averted. At the willingnessto-pay threshold of RM29000 per an additional QALY gained, the RMTAC intervention
is likely to be cost-effective 99% and 57% of the time (for QALY and hospitalization
outcome, respectively). The analysis was robust to assumptions of follow-up visits
frequency and patients’ gender. Conclusions: Implementing RMTAC in Malaysia
has high probability of being more cost-effective than the usual care management
for both male and female subgroups across all age groups. Further investigation is
necessary to ensure that implementing this decision does not exceed the overall
national healthcare expenditure
Study site : Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia