A nested PCR assay was used to determine the viral RNA and proviral DNA status of naturally infected cats. Selected samples that were FeLV-positive by PCR were subjected to sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and motifs search. Of the 39 samples that were positive for FeLV p27 antigen, 87.2% (34/39) were confirmed positive with nested PCR. FeLV proviral DNA was detected in 38 (97.3%) of p27-antigen negative samples. Malaysian FeLV isolates are found to be highly similar with a homology of 91% to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Malaysian FeLV isolates divided into two clusters, with a majority (86.2%) sharing similarity with FeLV-K01803 and fewer isolates (13.8%) with FeLV-GM1 strain. Different enhancer motifs including NF-GMa, Krox-20/WT1I-del2, BAF1, AP-2, TBP, TFIIF-beta, TRF, and TFIID are found to occur either in single, duplicate, triplicate, or sets of 5 in different positions within the U3-LTR-gag region. The present result confirms the occurrence of FeLV viral RNA and provirus DNA in naturally infected cats. Malaysian FeLV isolates are highly similar, and a majority of them are closely related to a UK isolate. This study provides the first molecular based information on FeLV in Malaysia. Additionally, different enhancer motifs likely associated with FeLV related pathogenesis have been identified.
The study of pathological conditions of the male reproductive system is paramount to understanding reproductive inefficiency in the Sahel goat. In this study, 1048 Sahel bucks presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri metropolitan abattoir were evaluated for the presence of various pathological abnormalities of the reproductive system. A total incidence of 15.08% was recorded for various pathological conditions, with testicular, penile, and scrotal conditions having incidences of 7.82%, 4.80 and 2.50%, respectively. Bilateral testicular hypoplasia and atrophy and unilateral cryptorchidism accounted for incidences of 4.10%, 2.38%, and 1.24%, respectively, while paraphimosis and scrotal laceration had incidences of 1.72% and 1.05%, respectively. Age specific incidence of pathological conditions were not significant (P > 0.05) between bucks aged <1-1.5 and 2-2.5 years. However, bucks aged 3-3.5 year a had lower (P < 0.05) incidence of pathological conditions than other age groups. Histopathological evidence of inflammation, degeneration, and atrophy was observed in the testes, while inflammatory changes were observed in the prepuce.
Testicular sizes of animals are important for identification of those with adequate sperm production. The aim of this study was to define the testicular and related size estimates that would be associated with optimal cauda epididymal sperm counts (ESC) in Sahel goats based on postmortem evaluations. A stratified quota sample population of 125 male goats inclusive of all testicular sizes was taken at a slaughterhouse in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The bucks were aged 18-30 months and weighed 17.04 ± 2.99 (12-25) kg. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights of each goat with other related size measurements were estimated. ESC was determined from homogenized tissue using a manual cytometer. At the cut-off ESC of >1.1 × 10(9) sperm heads, 66 (52.80%) of the goats had optimal ESC which was associated with testicular weight of 59.90 ± 16.10 (31.40-86.20) g, gonadosomatic index of 3.51 ± 0.69 (2.00-4.50) g/kg, and scrotal circumference of 19.07 ± 1.29 (17.00-21.80) cm. The size variables of the scrotum and testis correlated with one another and with the ESC. These findings provide data that may be used to anticipate adequate antemortem sperm reserve based on testicular size during preliminary selection of sires for breeding from a sexually mature Sahel buck population.
Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis.
This study was carried out to test two different anastomotic techniques to identify advantages and disadvantages of each technique in goats. All animals were under local infiltration anaesthesia. A five-cm length of jejunum was resected from the first part of the jejunum and end to end anastomosis using 3-0 Polygalactin-910 with one row of sero-submoucosal interrupted sutures (SSIS) group, and one row of horizontal mattress interrupted sutures (HMIS) group. Two animals from each group were euthanized on the 4th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. A 7-cm segment of jejunum including the anastomosed area was resected from each animal. There was no significant adhesion between anastomosis area and surrounded tissues observed in SSIS animals, while there was significant adhesion between anastomosis area and surrounded tissues which were observed in HMIS animals. Stenosis degree was lower in the SSIS than the HMIS group. The bursting pressure was higher in the SSIS than the HMIS group. Macroscopic evaluation indicated that the anastomotic line mucosa was abridged better with less local edema in the SSIS group. Histological evaluation in the SSIS group showed almost all parameters such as epithelial recovery and repair of submucosal-mucosal layer demonstrated better healing compared to the HMIS group.
Newcastle disease virus strains are velogenic, mesogenic, and lentogenic. This study aims to design a scoring system for lesions induced by different strains of Newcastle disease virus in chicken. Three experiments were conducted. In experiments 1 and 2, chickens were divided into infected and control groups. Infected groups of experiments 1 and 2 consisted of 6 and 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, respectively. Control groups in experiments 1 and 2 consisted of 6 and 15 SPF chickens, respectively. In infected groups, infection was induced by intranasal administration of 105 50% EID50/0.1 mL of velogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (vNDV). Infected chickens in experiment 1 were euthanised by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, and 7 postinoculation (pi). Infected chickens in experiment 2 were euthanised at hours (hrs) 2, 4, 6, 12 and days 1, 2, 4, and 6 pi. Chickens of the control group in experiment 1 were euthanised on days 3 and 7 pi, whereas control group chickens in experiment 2 were euthanised on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 pi. Then in experiment 3, 15 SPF chickens were divided into three groups; in the first group, 5 SPF chickens were infected with vNDV, in the second group, 5 SPF chickens were infected with lentogenic NDV (lNDV) (103.0 EID50/0.1 mL), and the third group was kept without infection as a control group. Chickens were euthanised on day 5 pi. In all previous experiments, tissues of brain, trachea, lung, caecal tonsil, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, proventriculus, intestine, and thymus were collected, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. HS staining was applied. Tissues were examined under light microscope and changes were recorded. A scoring system was designed for lesions induced by different strains of NDV and, accordingly, lesions were scored. The scoring system was found helpful in the evaluation of disease severity.