Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

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  1. Ademola James, Rohani JM, Olusegun AG, Rani MR
    Work, 2014;47(2):173-81.
    PMID: 23324693 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-121530
    OBJECTIVE: The unavailability of anthropometric data especially in developing countries has remained a limiting factor towards the design of learning facilities with sufficient ergonomic consideration. Attempts to use anthropometric data from developed countries have led to provision of school facilities unfit for the users. The purpose of this paper is to use factor analysis to investigate the suitability of the collected anthropometric data as a database for school design in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
    PARTICIPANTS: Anthropometric data were collected from 288 male students in a Federal Polytechnic in North-West of Nigeria. Their age is between 18-25 years.
    METHODS: Nine vertical anthropometric dimensions related to heights were collected using the conventional traditional equipment. Exploratory factor analysis was used to categorize the variables into a model consisting of two factors. Thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate the fit of the data to the proposed model.
    RESULTS: A just identified model, made of two factors, each with three variables was developed. The variables within the model accounted for 81% of the total variation of the entire data. The model was found to demonstrate adequate validity and reliability. Various measuring indices were used to verify that the model fits the data properly. The final model reveals that stature height and eye height sitting were the most stable variables for designs that have to do with standing and sitting construct.
    CONCLUSION: The study has shown the application of factor analysis in anthropometric data analysis. The study highlighted the relevance of these statistical tools to investigate variability among anthropometric data involving diverse population, which has not been widely used for analyzing previous anthropometric data. The collected data is therefore suitable for use while designing for Nigerian students.
    KEYWORDS: Exploratory factor analysis; measurement model; school ergonomics
  2. Rahman MN, Rani MR, Rohani JM
    Work, 2012;43(4):507-14.
    PMID: 22927603 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-1404
    The aim of this study was to investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among workers in wall plastering jobs within the construction industry.
  3. Ibrahim NI, Mohanadas D
    Work, 2012;41 Suppl 1:2452-60.
    PMID: 22317086 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0480-2452
    This study was conducted to investigate pervasiveness of the musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among staffs in a specialized healthcare centre. Sixty-eight staffs from three departments namely Cardiovascular Lab (CVL), Nuclear Radiology, and General Radiography were recruited in this study. A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was distributed among study population. The result shows that the prevalence of MSD was highest in lower back (88.2%), neck (76.5%) and shoulder (60.3%) for the past 12 months followed by lower back and elbow (44.1%), and wrist (39.1%) correspondingly, for the past 7 days. Present results suggest that healthcare professionals - radiographers, patient assistants and nurses incurs MSD risks through work tasks as well as psychosocial factors. These include awkward posture during patient handling, workload, work stress and time pressure. Therefore, an ergonomics improvement on the job design and workspace are needed in order to reduce the MSD risks.
  4. Hashim AM, Dawal SZ, Yusoff N
    Work, 2012;41 Suppl 1:827-31.
    PMID: 22316824 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0249-827
    The objective of this study is to compare the evaluation of postural analysis between a self-report questionnaire and physical assessments methods for students aged 13 to 15 years old in school workshop. 336 students were volunteered as participants to fill in the questionnaire and being observed in the workshop. Total of 104 positions were selected and analyzed while students performing their tasks. Questionnaire data was examined to specify the prevalence of postural stress symptoms. The relationship of postural stress by physical assessment methods (RULA and REBA methods) was defined to identify the risk level of students' working posture. From the results, comparison of four factors categorized from total of 22 questions among ages, the mean values were lower for 13 years old students meaning that they were faced higher posture problems while using the workstation. The obtained results from both physical assessment methods and questionnaire analysis have identified 13 years old students faced higher risk exposure. Analysis results emphasized the fact that self-reports questionnaire method has almost accurate as postural evaluation methods to identify physical risks in workplace. The result also shows that an intervention is needed to overcome the posture problems.
  5. Ibrahim NI, Davies S
    Work, 2012;41 Suppl 1:5152-9.
    PMID: 22317518 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0804-5152
    It is known that many older people have difficulties in performing daily living activities such as cooking. These are due to the demands of the tasks and the changes in functional capabilities of the older people. This study examines cooking tasks performed by the aged that includes preparing and cooking meals, and storing kitchen tools in the kitchen. The objectives are to investigate the cooking difficulties encounter by older people and the safety concerning cooking tasks. This study focuses on individuals of age 65 years and above who can cook for themselves and/or family. Data were collected through observation, interviews, questionnaires and role play methods. The findings revealed that the common problems were due to the awkward body position where subjects had to bend down to take things from lower shelves, taking/storing things on higher shelves and cleaning the cooker. Moreover, the safety concerns were the layout of work centres (storage, cooker and sink), the use of cooker and opening packaging. It can be concluded that cooking difficulties are caused by inappropriate kitchen design and the decline of functional capabilities in older people.
  6. Shariat A, Tamrin SB, Arumugam M, Danaee M, Ramasamy R
    Work, 2016 Jun 8.
    PMID: 27286077
    The accuracy of instruments such as questionnaires and the goniometer are critical for measuring the severity of musculoskeletal disorders among office workers.
  7. Shariat A, Tamrin SB, Arumugam M, Ramasamy R
    Work, 2016 Mar 09;54(1):171-8.
    PMID: 26967034 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-162269
    BACKGROUND: The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) was developed to assess the level of musculoskeletal discomfort among office workers related to their ergonomic situation.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this initial study is to analyze the validity and dependability of the Malay translation of the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire.

    METHODS: The questionnaire was self-administered two times, with an interval of two weeks in order to evaluate the accuracy of the original findings with a retest. The study involved 115 participants.

    RESULTS: The range of Cronbach Alpha coefficient showed a considerable consistency of the items for each sub-scale (Cronbach's a > 0.95). The range of Kappa coefficients was between (ICC = 0.690-0.949, p 

  8. Auyong HN, Zailani S, Surienty L
    Work, 2016 Mar 09;53(4):729-35.
    PMID: 26967037 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-162272
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia's progress on logistics has been slowed to keep pace with its growth in trade. The Government has been pressing companies to improve the safety of their activities in order to reduce society's loss due to occupational accidents and illnesses. Occupational safety and health is a crucial part of a workplace because every worker has to take care of his/her own safety and health. The main occupational safety and health (OSH) national policy in Malaysia is the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994. Only those companies which have excellent health and safety care have good quality and productive employees. This study investigated safety management practices in the logistics sector.

    OBJECTIVES: The present study is concerned with the human factors to safety in the logistics industry. The authors examined the perceived safety management practices of workers in the logistics sector. The purpose was to identify the perception of safety management practices of Malaysian logistics personnel.

    METHODS: Survey questionnaires were distributed to assess logistics personnel about management commitment. The quantitative method using the availability sampling method was applied. The data gathered from the survey were analysed using SPSS software. The responses to the survey were rated according to the Likert scale type, with '1' indicating strongly disagree and '5' indicating strongly agree. One hundred and three employees of logistics functions completed the survey.

    RESULTS: The highest mean scores were found for fire apparatus, prioritisation of safety, and safety policy.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study also emphasise the importance of the management's commitment in enhancing workplace safety. Specifically, companies should maintain good relations between the employer and the employee to help reduce workplace injuries.

  9. Adeyemi AJ, Rohani JM, Rani MR
    Work, 2015;52(3):677-86.
    PMID: 26409348 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-152102
    The complex and limited understanding of the interactions among multiple factors associated with back pain occurrence among schoolchildren might explain the current inconclusive and contradictory findings on the issue. The global increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, which reportedly affects children's physical abilities, calls for concern among school/children ergonomists and other stakeholders.
  10. Taib MFM, Bahn S, Yun MH, Taib MSM
    Work, 2017;57(2):297-308.
    PMID: 28582951 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-172559
    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) have been recognized as one of the main occupational health problems for dentists. Many studies have suggested that dentists experience work-related pain or discomfort in the neck, shoulder, and back, as well as in other parts of the body.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between specific physical and psychosocial factors and/or ergonomic conditions on MSD symptoms among dentists in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A group of 85 dentists was asked to complete a questionnaire to determine whether their complaints were related to physical and psychosocial factors and/or ergonomic conditions in their practices.

    RESULTS: Among the nine reviewed body areas, the shoulders were most often affected by symptoms of MSDs (92.7%). Moreover, MSDs of the neck and upper back were most likely to prevent these practitioners from engaging in normal activities (32.9%). In general, no significant differences were found in the prevalence of MSD symptoms in relation to gender, age, body mass index, years in practice, number of patients, and frequency of breaks.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results were consistent with those reported in other studies that focused on MSD problems among dentists in other countries. To reduce the prevalence of MSDs, more attention should be paid to instituting ergonomically sensible approaches in the dental practice setting.

  11. Ya'acob NA, Abidin EZ, Rasdi I, Rahman AA, Ismail S
    Work, 2018;60(1):143-152.
    PMID: 29733032 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182711
    BACKGROUND: Work tasks in pineapple plantations in Malaysia are characterised by non-ergonomic work postures, repetitive tasks, awkward posture and manual handling of work tools that contribute to the reporting of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS). There have been very limited studies performed among pineapple plantation workers focusing on ergonomic intervention programs to specifically reduce MSS.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of work improvement module using a Kiken Yochi participatory approach intervention in reducing MSS among male migrant pineapple farm plantation workers in Pontian, Johor.

    METHODOLOGY: In this interventional study, a total of 68 male migrant workers from two plantation farms were invited to become a participant in this study. In total, 45 participants that consisted of 27 workers for the intervention group and 18 workers for the control group were recruited. The background of workers and MSS were assessed using questionnaires. Ergonomic and postural risks were evaluated and the work tasks with the highest risk were used as a basis for the development of the Kiken Yochi training module. MSS education and training intervention that provided information on proper lifting techniques and education on body mechanics and ergonomics to reduce MSS were implemented to both groups of workers. Kiken Yochi Training was given to the intervention group only. MSS were reassessed after 2 months of the follow-up period. Data was entered into statistical software and were analysed according to objectives.

    RESULTS: In terms of the postural risk assessment, almost two-third of the participants (68.5%) had working postures categorized as high risk for MSS. Ergonomic risk assessment identified cultivation, manual weeding and harvesting of pineapples as the work tasks contributing the highest health risks to workers. The most commonly reported MSS between both groups of workers were at the knees, lower back and shoulder area. Upon completion of the delivery of intervention module to both groups of workers, the MSS prevalence reported (after 2 months) were significantly lower for the ankles and feet area within the intervention group.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggested that development and implementation of programs using effective participatory approach training methods are able to prevent selected musculoskeletal problems for this occupation. To enhance the effects of such trainings, modifications of work tools in this occupation are desirable.

  12. Shawal FNS, Guan NY, Mohd Suadi Nata DH, How V, Tamrin SBM
    Work, 2018;60(1):153-162.
    PMID: 29733040 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182725
    BACKGROUND: People who work with the steam boilers in palm oil mills are vulnerable to accidents, notably to explosions, whenever failures of any kind occur during their operation.

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was conducted in palm oil mills to determine the knowledge, attitude, and perception (KAP) concerning the risk management of steam boilers among workers in palm oil mills.

    METHODS: A total of 50 workers who were working with steam boilers and/or involved in managing the operation of steam boilers with at least three years of working experience in the palm oil industry were purposively sampled. A self-administrated questionnaire consisting of four main parts - socio-demographic and occupational information, knowledge, attitude, and perception of the risk management of steam boilers was distributed. The knowledge, attitude, and perception were calculated based on a Likert-type scale.

    RESULTS: This study found that 56% of boiler workers had a good level of knowledge (mean score = 77.22±19.6), 72% had a good attitude toward risk (mean score = 83.17±5.85), and 64% had a good perception of risk (mean score = 79.50±11.22). The prevalence of accidents was 16%, and, for near misses, it was 24%. The cause of the reported accidents was largely attributed to carelessness, specifically at 80%. Apart from that, there was a positive association (χ2 = 6.56; p = 0.010) between attitude and accidents.

    CONCLUSION: This study found that the workers had good KAP levels of risk management of steam boilers in palm oil mills. However, there is a need for the employers to revise the training of workers and ensure its effectiveness in heightening the awareness of risks and accidents despite the high level of KAP.

  13. Mohd Shukoor NS, Mohd Tamrin SB, Guan NY, Mohd Suadi Nata DH
    Work, 2018;60(1):129-134.
    PMID: 29843301 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182741
    BACKGROUND: Hard hats are among the personal protective equipment (PPE) used in many industries to reduce the impact of any falling object on the skull and also to prevent head and brain injuries. However, the practice of wearing a safety helmet during working hours is still low. This is due to the physical discomfort perceived by safety helmet users.

    OBJECTIVE: Given the unpopularity of the current hard hat, the general perception of workers concerning its use and its measurements are the determining factors in the development of a new hard hat.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 132 male oil palm harvesters between 19 and 60 years of age were selected from among the employees of the same oil palm harvesting company. A set of questionnaires was developed to collect their socio-demographic information as well as their perceptions of comfort and the prevalence of head injury. In addition, a set of measuring instruments, including Martin's anthropometry set, was used for head measurement and data collection in respect of the current hard hat. In this research, six respondents were randomly selected to attend an interview session for qualitative assessment.RESULTSBased on the questionnaires, the unpopularity in the use of the hard hat was largely influenced by factors related to poor design, in general, and, specifically, poor ventilation (64%), load (67% ), and physical discomfort (42% ). The measurements of the anthropometric parameters and the dimensions of the hard hat also showed a significant mismatch.

    CONCLUSION: The unpopularity of the current hard hat among oil palm harvesters stemmed from the discomfort from wearing, which showed that the development of a new hard hat could lead to better usage and the greater likelihood of wearing a hard hat throughout the working day.

  14. Shariat A, Cardoso JR, Cleland JA, Danaee M, Ansari NN, Kargarfard M, et al.
    Work, 2018;60(2):191-199.
    PMID: 29865103 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182738
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian office workers often experience Musculoskeletal Discomfort (MSD) which is typically related to the low back, shoulders, and neck.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of lower back, shoulder, and neck pain among Malaysian office workers.

    METHODS: 752 subjects (478 women and 274 men) were randomly selected from the Malaysian office workers population of 10,000 individuals. The participants were aged between 20-50 years and had at least one year of work experience. All participants completed the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ). Instructions to complete the questinnaire were given to the participants under the researchers supervision in the morning before they started a day of work. The participants were then classified into four categories based on body mas index (BMI) (BMI:≤18.4, 18.5-24.99, 25-29.99, ≥30) and age (Age: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, ≥50).

    RESULTS: There was a significant association between pain severity in gender and right (p = 0.046) and left (p = 0.041) sides of the shoulders. There was also a significant association between BMI and severity of pain in the lower back area (p = 0.047). It was revealed that total pain score in the shoulders was significantly associated with age (p = 0.041).

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that a significant correlation existed between pain servity for gender in both right and left shoulder. These findings require further scientific investigation as do the identification of effective preventative stratgies.

  15. Taib MF, Bahn S, Yun MH
    Work, 2016 Jun 27.
    PMID: 27372893
    The popularity of mobile computing products is well known. Thus, it is crucial to evaluate their contribution to musculoskeletal disorders during computer usage under both comfortable and stressful environments.
  16. Buntat Y, Saud MS, Mokhtar M, Kamin Y, Feh LS
    Work, 2016 Oct 17;55(2):481-487.
    PMID: 27689600
    Increase in the occurrence of existing diseases, continual emergence of new or exotic diseases and re-emergence of old diseases have placed increasing demands on biomedical services in Malaysia. Biomedical technicians play an important role in operating biomedical instruments. However, there are no clear specifications about characteristics and traits for these semi-professional employees. Employers in a few studies claimed that biomedical graduates are not ready to enter and face challenges in the job market.
  17. Nurul AH, Shamsul BM, Hassim IN
    Work, 2016 Oct 28.
    PMID: 27792033
    Steel manufacturing produces dust, fumes, and pollutant gases that may give adverse health effects to the respiratory function of workers. Improper occupational hygiene practice in the workplace will affect both workers wellbeing and productivity.
  18. Shariat A, Lam ET, Kargarfard M, Tamrin SB, Danaee M
    Work, 2017;56(3):421-428.
    PMID: 28269804 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-172508
    BACKGROUND: Previous research support the claim that people who work in offices and sit for a long time are particularly prone to musculoskeletal disorders.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this paper is to introduce an exercise training program designed to decrease muscle stiffness and pain that can be performed in the office setting.

    METHODS: Forty healthy office workers (age: 28±5.3 years old; body mass: 87.2±10.2 kg; height: 1.79±0.15 m) apart from suffering from any sub-clinical symptoms of muscle and joint stiffness, and who had at least two years of experience in office work were chosen and randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). The experimental group performed the exercise training program three times a week for 11 weeks. The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire was used to measure the pain levels in the neck, shoulders, and lower back areas. The Borg CR-10 Scale was used to measure their perceived exertion when doing the exercises, and a goniometer was used to measure the changes in range of motion (ROM) of the neck, hips, knees, and shoulders.

    RESULTS: The overall results indicated that the exercise program could significantly (p 

  19. Javaid MU, Bano S, Mirza MZ, Isha ASN, Nadeem S, Jawaid A, et al.
    Work, 2019;64(3):551-561.
    PMID: 31658088 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-193016
    BACKGROUND: Psychological conditions are experiences of the conscious and unconscious elements of the work context, which revolve around workers' perceptions of feeling either engaged or disengaged with the assigned tasks. In the psychosocial work environment of hazardous industries like petrochemicals where production lasts twenty-four hours a day and continues seven-days-a-week, a psychologically available worker is extremely important. Psychological availability refers to when workers who are physically, emotionally and psychologically engaged at the moment of performing tasks.

    OBJECTIVE: The broad objective of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of behavioral factors on the psychological and physiological health of workers.

    METHODS: The latest, second generation technique, which is structural equation modeling, is used to identify the relationships between behavioral antecedents and health outcomes. A total of 277 technical workers participated, aged between 20 and 49 and were healthy in all aspects.

    RESULTS: The study results showed quantitative demands, emotional demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity were significantly associated with both psychological (stress) and physiological (Body Mass Index) factors. The social support of colleagues produced mixed findings with direct and indirect paths. Stress also significantly mediates the psychosocial factors and burnout of the workers.

    CONCLUSION: The study concluded that workers were physically available, but they experienced distractions as members of social systems, affecting their physiological and psychological health.

  20. Shariat A, Cleland JA, Danaee M, Alizadeh R, Sangelaji B, Kargarfard M, et al.
    Work, 2018;60(4):549-554.
    PMID: 30103362 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182762
    BACKGROUND: There are many potential training exercises for office workers in an attempt to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. However, to date a suitable tool to monitor the perceived exertion of those exercises does not exist.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Borg CR-10 scale to monitor the perceived exertion of office exercise training.

    METHODS: The study involved 105 staff members employed in a government office with an age range from 25 to 50 years. The Borg CR-10 scale was self-administered two times, with an interval of two weeks in order to evaluate the accuracy of the original findings with a retest. Face validity and content validity were also examined.

    RESULTS: Reliability was found to be high for the Borg CR-10 scale (0.898). Additionally a high correlation between the Borg CR-10 scale and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was identified (rs = 0.754, P 

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