Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 51 in total

  1. Rahman MN, Rani MR, Rohani JM
    Work, 2012;43(4):507-14.
    PMID: 22927603 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-1404
    The aim of this study was to investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among workers in wall plastering jobs within the construction industry.
  2. Hashim AM, Dawal SZ, Yusoff N
    Work, 2012;41 Suppl 1:827-31.
    PMID: 22316824 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0249-827
    The objective of this study is to compare the evaluation of postural analysis between a self-report questionnaire and physical assessments methods for students aged 13 to 15 years old in school workshop. 336 students were volunteered as participants to fill in the questionnaire and being observed in the workshop. Total of 104 positions were selected and analyzed while students performing their tasks. Questionnaire data was examined to specify the prevalence of postural stress symptoms. The relationship of postural stress by physical assessment methods (RULA and REBA methods) was defined to identify the risk level of students' working posture. From the results, comparison of four factors categorized from total of 22 questions among ages, the mean values were lower for 13 years old students meaning that they were faced higher posture problems while using the workstation. The obtained results from both physical assessment methods and questionnaire analysis have identified 13 years old students faced higher risk exposure. Analysis results emphasized the fact that self-reports questionnaire method has almost accurate as postural evaluation methods to identify physical risks in workplace. The result also shows that an intervention is needed to overcome the posture problems.
  3. Ibrahim NI, Davies S
    Work, 2012;41 Suppl 1:5152-9.
    PMID: 22317518 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0804-5152
    It is known that many older people have difficulties in performing daily living activities such as cooking. These are due to the demands of the tasks and the changes in functional capabilities of the older people. This study examines cooking tasks performed by the aged that includes preparing and cooking meals, and storing kitchen tools in the kitchen. The objectives are to investigate the cooking difficulties encounter by older people and the safety concerning cooking tasks. This study focuses on individuals of age 65 years and above who can cook for themselves and/or family. Data were collected through observation, interviews, questionnaires and role play methods. The findings revealed that the common problems were due to the awkward body position where subjects had to bend down to take things from lower shelves, taking/storing things on higher shelves and cleaning the cooker. Moreover, the safety concerns were the layout of work centres (storage, cooker and sink), the use of cooker and opening packaging. It can be concluded that cooking difficulties are caused by inappropriate kitchen design and the decline of functional capabilities in older people.
  4. Ibrahim NI, Mohanadas D
    Work, 2012;41 Suppl 1:2452-60.
    PMID: 22317086 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0480-2452
    This study was conducted to investigate pervasiveness of the musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among staffs in a specialized healthcare centre. Sixty-eight staffs from three departments namely Cardiovascular Lab (CVL), Nuclear Radiology, and General Radiography were recruited in this study. A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was distributed among study population. The result shows that the prevalence of MSD was highest in lower back (88.2%), neck (76.5%) and shoulder (60.3%) for the past 12 months followed by lower back and elbow (44.1%), and wrist (39.1%) correspondingly, for the past 7 days. Present results suggest that healthcare professionals - radiographers, patient assistants and nurses incurs MSD risks through work tasks as well as psychosocial factors. These include awkward posture during patient handling, workload, work stress and time pressure. Therefore, an ergonomics improvement on the job design and workspace are needed in order to reduce the MSD risks.
  5. Ademola James, Rohani JM, Olusegun AG, Rani MR
    Work, 2014;47(2):173-81.
    PMID: 23324693 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-121530
    OBJECTIVE: The unavailability of anthropometric data especially in developing countries has remained a limiting factor towards the design of learning facilities with sufficient ergonomic consideration. Attempts to use anthropometric data from developed countries have led to provision of school facilities unfit for the users. The purpose of this paper is to use factor analysis to investigate the suitability of the collected anthropometric data as a database for school design in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
    PARTICIPANTS: Anthropometric data were collected from 288 male students in a Federal Polytechnic in North-West of Nigeria. Their age is between 18-25 years.
    METHODS: Nine vertical anthropometric dimensions related to heights were collected using the conventional traditional equipment. Exploratory factor analysis was used to categorize the variables into a model consisting of two factors. Thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate the fit of the data to the proposed model.
    RESULTS: A just identified model, made of two factors, each with three variables was developed. The variables within the model accounted for 81% of the total variation of the entire data. The model was found to demonstrate adequate validity and reliability. Various measuring indices were used to verify that the model fits the data properly. The final model reveals that stature height and eye height sitting were the most stable variables for designs that have to do with standing and sitting construct.
    CONCLUSION: The study has shown the application of factor analysis in anthropometric data analysis. The study highlighted the relevance of these statistical tools to investigate variability among anthropometric data involving diverse population, which has not been widely used for analyzing previous anthropometric data. The collected data is therefore suitable for use while designing for Nigerian students.
    KEYWORDS: Exploratory factor analysis; measurement model; school ergonomics
  6. Adeyemi AJ, Rohani JM, Rani MR
    Work, 2015;52(3):677-86.
    PMID: 26409348 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-152102
    The complex and limited understanding of the interactions among multiple factors associated with back pain occurrence among schoolchildren might explain the current inconclusive and contradictory findings on the issue. The global increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, which reportedly affects children's physical abilities, calls for concern among school/children ergonomists and other stakeholders.
  7. Shariat A, Tamrin SB, Arumugam M, Ramasamy R
    Work, 2016 Mar 09;54(1):171-8.
    PMID: 26967034 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-162269
    BACKGROUND: The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) was developed to assess the level of musculoskeletal discomfort among office workers related to their ergonomic situation.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this initial study is to analyze the validity and dependability of the Malay translation of the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire.

    METHODS: The questionnaire was self-administered two times, with an interval of two weeks in order to evaluate the accuracy of the original findings with a retest. The study involved 115 participants.

    RESULTS: The range of Cronbach Alpha coefficient showed a considerable consistency of the items for each sub-scale (Cronbach's a > 0.95). The range of Kappa coefficients was between (ICC = 0.690-0.949, p 

  8. Auyong HN, Zailani S, Surienty L
    Work, 2016 Mar 09;53(4):729-35.
    PMID: 26967037 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-162272
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia's progress on logistics has been slowed to keep pace with its growth in trade. The Government has been pressing companies to improve the safety of their activities in order to reduce society's loss due to occupational accidents and illnesses. Occupational safety and health is a crucial part of a workplace because every worker has to take care of his/her own safety and health. The main occupational safety and health (OSH) national policy in Malaysia is the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994. Only those companies which have excellent health and safety care have good quality and productive employees. This study investigated safety management practices in the logistics sector.

    OBJECTIVES: The present study is concerned with the human factors to safety in the logistics industry. The authors examined the perceived safety management practices of workers in the logistics sector. The purpose was to identify the perception of safety management practices of Malaysian logistics personnel.

    METHODS: Survey questionnaires were distributed to assess logistics personnel about management commitment. The quantitative method using the availability sampling method was applied. The data gathered from the survey were analysed using SPSS software. The responses to the survey were rated according to the Likert scale type, with '1' indicating strongly disagree and '5' indicating strongly agree. One hundred and three employees of logistics functions completed the survey.

    RESULTS: The highest mean scores were found for fire apparatus, prioritisation of safety, and safety policy.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study also emphasise the importance of the management's commitment in enhancing workplace safety. Specifically, companies should maintain good relations between the employer and the employee to help reduce workplace injuries.

  9. Sarfaraz S, Ahmed N, Abbasi MS, Sajjad B, Vohra F, Al-Hamdan RS, et al.
    Work, 2020;67(4):791-798.
    PMID: 33325429 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203332
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-perceived competency (FSPC) of medical faculty in E-Teaching and support received during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    METHODS: An online well-structured and validated faculty self-perceived competency questionnaire was used to collect responses from medical faculty. The questionnaire consisted of four purposely build sections on competence in student engagement, instructional strategy, technical communication and time management. The responses were recorded using a Likert ordinal scale (1-9). The Questionnaire was uploaded at www.surveys.google.com and the link was distributed through social media outlets and e-mails. Descriptive statistics and Independent paired t-test were used for analysis and comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total of 738 responses were assessed. Nearly 54% (397) participants had less than 5 years of teaching experience, 24.7% (182) had 6-10 years and 11.7% (86) had 11-15 years teaching expertise. 75.6% (558) respondents have delivered online lectures during the pandemic. Asynchronous methods were used by 61% (450) and synchronous by 39% (288) of participants. Moreover, 22.4% (165) participants revealed that their online lectures were evaluated by a structured feedback from experts, while 38.3% participants chose that their lectures were not evaluated. A significant difference (p 

  10. Jing W, Tao H, Rahman MA, Kabir MN, Yafeng L, Zhang R, et al.
    Work, 2021;68(3):923-934.
    PMID: 33612534 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203426
    BACKGROUND: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is incorporated with a variety of applications for input processing and response actions. Facial recognition systems in workplaces and security systems help to improve the detection and classification of humans based on the vision experienced by the input system.

    OBJECTIVES: In this manuscript, the Robotic Facial Recognition System using the Compound Classifier (RERS-CC) is introduced to improve the recognition rate of human faces. The process is differentiated into classification, detection, and recognition phases that employ principal component analysis based learning. In this learning process, the errors in image processing based on the extracted different features are used for error classification and accuracy improvements.

    RESULTS: The performance of the proposed RERS-CC is validated experimentally using the input image dataset in MATLAB tool. The performance results show that the proposed method improves detection and recognition accuracy with fewer errors and processing time.

    CONCLUSION: The input image is processed with the knowledge of the features and errors that are observed with different orientations and time instances. With the help of matching dataset and the similarity index verification, the proposed method identifies precise human face with augmented true positives and recognition rate.

  11. Zhang G, Jing W, Tao H, Rahman MA, Salih SQ, Al-Saffar A, et al.
    Work, 2021;68(3):935-943.
    PMID: 33612535 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203427
    BACKGROUND: Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) has become a prominent solution to improve the robustness of real-time service provisioning through assisted functions for day-to-day activities. The application of the robotic system in security services helps to improve the precision of event detection and environmental monitoring with ease.

    OBJECTIVES: This paper discusses activity detection and analysis (ADA) using security robots in workplaces. The application scenario of this method relies on processing image and sensor data for event and activity detection. The events that are detected are classified for its abnormality based on the analysis performed using the sensor and image data operated using a convolution neural network. This method aims to improve the accuracy of detection by mitigating the deviations that are classified in different levels of the convolution process.

    RESULTS: The differences are identified based on independent data correlation and information processing. The performance of the proposed method is verified for the three human activities, such as standing, walking, and running, as detected using the images and sensor dataset.

    CONCLUSION: The results are compared with the existing method for metrics accuracy, classification time, and recall.

  12. Tao H, Rahman MA, Al-Saffar A, Zhang R, Salih SQ, Zain JM, et al.
    Work, 2021;68(3):853-861.
    PMID: 33612528 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203419
    BACKGROUND: Nowadays, workplace violence is found to be a mental health hazard and considered a crucial topic. The collaboration between robots and humans is increasing with the growth of Industry 4.0. Therefore, the first problem that must be solved is human-machine security. Ensuring the safety of human beings is one of the main aspects of human-robotic interaction. This is not just about preventing collisions within a shared space among human beings and robots; it includes all possible means of harm for an individual, from physical contact to unpleasant or dangerous psychological effects.

    OBJECTIVE: In this paper, Non-linear Adaptive Heuristic Mathematical Model (NAHMM) has been proposed for the prevention of workplace violence using security Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC). Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) is an area of research with a wide range of up-demands, future scenarios, and potential economic influence. HRC is an interdisciplinary field of research that encompasses cognitive sciences, classical robotics, and psychology.

    RESULTS: The robot can thus make the optimal decision between actions that expose its capabilities to the human being and take the best steps given the knowledge that is currently available to the human being. Further, the ideal policy can be measured carefully under certain observability assumptions.

    CONCLUSION: The system is shown on a collaborative robot and is compared to a state of the art security system. The device is experimentally demonstrated. The new system is being evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively.

  13. Zheyuan C, Rahman MA, Tao H, Liu Y, Pengxuan D, Yaseen ZM
    Work, 2021;68(3):825-834.
    PMID: 33612525 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203416
    BACKGROUND: The increasing use of robotics in the work of co-workers poses some new problems in terms of occupational safety and health. In the workplace, industrial robots are being used increasingly. During operations such as repairs, unmanageable, adjustment, and set-up, robots can cause serious and fatal injuries to workers. Collaborative robotics recently plays a rising role in the manufacturing filed, warehouses, mining agriculture, and much more in modern industrial environments. This development advances with many benefits, like higher efficiency, increased productivity, and new challenges like new hazards and risks from the elimination of human and robotic barriers.

    OBJECTIVES: In this paper, the Advanced Human-Robot Collaboration Model (AHRCM) approach is to enhance the risk assessment and to make the workplace involving security robots. The robots use perception cameras and generate scene diagrams for semantic depictions of their environment. Furthermore, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have utilized to develop a highly protected security robot based risk management system in the workplace.

    RESULTS: The experimental results show that the proposed AHRCM method achieves high performance in human-robot mutual adaption and reduce the risk.

    CONCLUSION: Through an experiment in the field of human subjects, demonstrated that policies based on the proposed model improved the efficiency of the human-robot team significantly compared with policies assuming complete human-robot adaptation.

  14. Wei H, Rahman MA, Hu X, Zhang L, Guo L, Tao H, et al.
    Work, 2021;68(3):845-852.
    PMID: 33612527 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203418
    BACKGROUND: The selection of orders is the method of gathering the parts needed to assemble the final products from storage sites. Kitting is the name of a ready-to-use package or a parts kit, flexible robotic systems will significantly help the industry to improve the performance of this activity. In reality, despite some other limitations on the complexity of components and component characteristics, the technological advances in recent years in robotics and artificial intelligence allows the treatment of a wide range of items.

    OBJECTIVE: In this article, we study the robotic kitting system with a Robotic Mounted Rail Arm System (RMRAS), which travels narrowly to choose the elements.

    RESULTS: The objective is to evaluate the efficiency of a robotic kitting system in cycle times through modeling of the elementary kitting operations that the robot performs (pick and room, move, change tools, etc.). The experimental results show that the proposed method enhances the performance and efficiency ratio when compared to other existing methods.

    CONCLUSION: This study with the manufacturer can help him assess the robotic area performance in a given design (layout and picking a policy, etc.) as part of an ongoing project on automation of kitting operations.

  15. Guangnan Z, Tao H, Rahman MA, Yao L, Al-Saffar A, Meng Q, et al.
    Work, 2021;68(3):871-879.
    PMID: 33612530 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203421
    BACKGROUND: An isolated robot must take account of uncertainty in its world model and adapt its activities to take into account such as uncertainty. In the same way, a robot interaction with security and privacy issues (RISAPI) with people has to account for its confusion about the human internal state, as well as how this state will shift as humans respond to the robot.

    OBJECTIVES: This paper discusses RISAPI of our original work in the field, which shows how probabilistic planning and system theory algorithms in workplace robotic systems that work with people can allow for that reasoning using a security robot system. The problem is a general way as an incomplete knowledge 2-player game.

    RESULTS: In this general framework, the various hypotheses and these contribute to thrilling and complex robot behavior through real-time interaction, which transforms actual human subjects into a spectrum of production systems, robots, and care facilities.

    CONCLUSION: The models of the internal human situation, in which robots can be designed efficiently, are limited, and achieve optimal computational intractability in large, high-dimensional spaces. To achieve this, versatile, lightweight portrayals of the human inner state and modern algorithms offer great hope for reasoning.

  16. Tao H, Rahman MA, Jing W, Li Y, Li J, Al-Saffar A, et al.
    Work, 2021;68(3):903-912.
    PMID: 33720867 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203424
    BACKGROUND: Human-robot interaction (HRI) is becoming a current research field for providing granular real-time applications and services through physical observation. Robotic systems are designed to handle the roles of humans and assist them through intrinsic sensing and commutative interactions. These systems handle inputs from multiple sources, process them, and deliver reliable responses to the users without delay. Input analysis and processing is the prime concern for the robotic systems to understand and resolve the queries of the users.

    OBJECTIVES: In this manuscript, the Interaction Modeling and Classification Scheme (IMCS) is introduced to improve the accuracy of HRI. This scheme consists of two phases, namely error classification and input mapping. In the error classification process, the input is analyzed for its events and conditional discrepancies to assign appropriate responses in the input mapping phase. The joint process is aided by a linear learning model to analyze the different conditions in the event and input detection.

    RESULTS: The performance of the proposed scheme shows that it is capable of improving the interaction accuracy by reducing the ratio of errors and interaction response by leveraging the information extraction from the discrete and successive human inputs.

    CONCLUSION: The fetched data are analyzed by classifying the errors at the initial stage to achieve reliable responses.

  17. Putri Anis Syahira MJ, Karmegam K, Nur Athirah Diyana MY, Irniza R, Shamsul Bahri MT, Vivien H, et al.
    Work, 2020;66(1):25-29.
    PMID: 32417810 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203147
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian traffic policemen are constantly exposed to unhealthy air in the outdoor environment, which results in various health problems. This study investigates the relationship of the personal exposure level to PM2.5 and lung functions in traffic policemen in Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru.

    METHODS: A pulmonary function test using a spirometer was carried out to measure the lung function of the traffic policemen. The personal exposure level to PM2.5 was measured using a pump with a PVC filter and 5.0μm pore size. A questionnaire requesting the background data, such as age, height, and weight, was also used for testing lung function abnormalities.

    RESULTS: The PM2.5 personal exposure level was found to be significantly related to lung function (predicted FEV1 and predicted FVC) at p-value 

  18. Selvaraj S, Eusufzai SZ, Asif JA, Bin Jamayet N, Ahmad WMAW, Alam MK
    Work, 2021;69(1):173-180.
    PMID: 33998580 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-213466
    BACKGROUND: Sleep apnoea is a diagnosed condition in which appurtenances interrupt breathing whilst sleeping. The consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) includes road traffic accidents due to drowsiness, systemic hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and neurocognitive disorders. This condition extends the duration of recovery phase after traumatic brain injury.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was intended to assess the knowledge and attitude towards OSA and compare it among dental and medical undergraduate students of University Sains Malaysia (USM).

    METHODS: In this study, a total of 216 clinical undergraduate students (36 from each year; 108 from medical and 108 from dental school) of University Sains Malaysia (USM) Health campus were recruited for the study by non-probability stratified random sampling method. Total study period was October 2017 to October 2018. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the sociodemographic status and OSAKA questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitude regarding sleep apnoea of the respondents. Descriptive analysis was carried out to assess the knowledge and attitude of OSA amongst dental and medical undergraduate students of USM. The Mann-Whitney U test was carried out to compare the knowledge and attitude of OSA amongst dental and medical undergraduate students of USM.

    RESULTS: Our study findings revealed that 0.9 %and 6.5 %of the dental undergraduate students and medical undergraduate students could answer all the questions correctly regarding knowledge of OSA. Based on the assessment of the difference between medical and dental students in terms of knowledge towards OSA patients, significant difference was observed at the significance level of 95%, where p 

  19. Xin KY, Eusufzai SZ, Jamayet NB, Alam MK
    Work, 2020;67(1):165-171.
    PMID: 32955481 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203262
    BACKGROUND: Accidental occupational injuries increase the risk of communicable diseases like hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among dental personnel. Such occupational injuries affect healthcare quality by enhancing dissatisfaction and lack of motivation to work among dental personnel.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to assess knowledge and awareness regarding needle stick and sharp injury among dental personnel and compared the knowledge and awareness level about needle stick injuries between dental professionals and dental supporting staff working at the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2016 to March 2017. The total sample included 112 registered dental personnel including dental professionals (lecturers, dental officers, and postgraduate students) and dental supportive staff (including staff nurses and dental surgery assistant) who were selected from the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia at Kelantan District of Malaysia. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire.

    RESULTS: In our study 60.7% respondents answered correctly for all the statements regarding knowledge and 51.8% of the respondents answered correctly for the statements regarding awareness on needle stick and sharp injury. No significant difference of knowledge level has been observed between the dental professionals and dental supportive staff (p 

  20. Al-Oulabi A, Al Rawas M, Farook TH, Rashid F, Barman A, Jamayet NB, et al.
    Work, 2021 Jun 25.
    PMID: 34180457 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-213519
    BACKGROUND: Two patients received ocular injuries from rusted metallic projectiles at their industrial workplaces. Said injuries resulted in the loss of their eyes by evisceration surgeries to prevent fatal infections.

    CASE DESCRIPTION: The first case, a man in his twenties, received a stock conformer immediately after surgery and started prosthetic therapy within 2 months. The second case, a man in his forties, started prosthetic therapy after 10 years. Definitive custom ocular prostheses were fabricated and relined according to conventional protocol.

    RESULTS: On issue of the prosthesis, there was adequate retention, aesthetics and stability to extra-ocular movements and treatment was considered successful for both cases. However, follow-ups showed noticeable prosthetic eye movements for case 1 which, to some extent mimicked the physiologic movement of its fellow natural eye. Case 1 adjusted to his prosthesis better while case 2 was still adjusting with little to no physiologic movement.

    CONCLUSION: Prosthetic rehabilitation should be started as early as possible to obtain optimum rehabilitative results.

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