Kesan penggunaan kitosan terhadap nanozarah kuprum (Cu) yang disintesis menggunakan sinaran gama sebagai sumber agen penurunan telah dijalankan dalam sistem akues. Dos sinaran terserap yang digunakan adalah 50 kGy manakala penambahan isopropanol adalah penting sebagai penggarut kepada radikal pengoksidaan serta meningkatkan peranan agen penurun yang terhasil daripada proses radiolisis. Analisis serapan optik-uv telah mencirikan sifat optik larutan nanozarah Cu yang disintesis. Ketulenan fasa kristal nanozarah Cu yang terbentuk dalam matrix kitosan telah dibuktikan dengan pembelauan sinar-X (xRD). Berdasarkan imej mikroskop imbasan elektron (TEM), nanozarah Cu yang terhasil adalah berbentuk sfera dengan julat saiz 6-10 nm kecuali nanozarah Cu yang disintesis dalam kepekatan kitosan 03% wlv yang menunjukkan taburan bentuk yang tidak sekata. Analisis spektrofotometer transformasi Fourier inframerah (FHR) yang dijalankan telah mengesahkan kehadiran sebatian kitosan dalam sampel nanozarah Cu dengan kepekatan kitosan 0.1 dan 0.3% wlv. Kajian ini mendapati penggunaan kitosan dapat melindungi nanozarah Cu daripada pengoksidaan oleh persekitaran. Saiz nanozarah juga didapati meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan kepekatan kitosan yang digunakan.
In this work, the extraction of microalgal protein from wet Chlorella sorokiniana species using alcohol/salt liquid biphasic flotation (LBF) with the aid of ultrasonication for cell rupturing was proposed. The effect of varying crude feedstock concentration, flotation time, salt type, salt concentration, alcohol type, alcohol concentration, initial volumes of salt and alcohol were investigated. After the optimization process, the highest proportion of protein recovered in the top phase was achieved with 250g/L ammonium sulphate, 60% (v/v) 2-propanol, 1.0VR,initial, 20g/L crude biomass load, 4mm3/min air flowrate and 10min of flotation time. The recycling of phase components was introduced to minimize the use of alcohol and salt in the corresponding LBF. It was demonstrated that top phase (alcohol) recycling can achieve increasing performance for three consecutive recycling runs. Under optimized process conditions, the proportion of protein recovered in the top phase was 88.86% for the third recycle run.
In this letter, we investigate the fabrication of Silicon nanostructure patterned on lightly doped (10(15) cm(-3)) p-type silicon-on-insulator by atomic force microscope nanolithography technique. The local anodic oxidation followed by two wet etching steps, potassium hydroxide etching for silicon removal and hydrofluoric etching for oxide removal, are implemented to reach the structures. The impact of contributing parameters in oxidation such as tip materials, applying voltage on the tip, relative humidity and exposure time are studied. The effect of the etchant concentration (10% to 30% wt) of potassium hydroxide and its mixture with isopropyl alcohol (10%vol. IPA ) at different temperatures on silicon surface are expressed. For different KOH concentrations, the effect of etching with the IPA admixture and the effect of the immersing time in the etching process on the structure are investigated. The etching processes are accurately optimized by 30%wt. KOH +10%vol. IPA in appropriate time, temperature, and humidity.
Size-controlled and monodispersed silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an aqueous solution containing silver nitrate as a metal precursor, polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent, isopropyl alcohol as hydrogen and hydroxyl radical scavengers, and deionized water as a solvent with a simple radiolytic method. The average particle size decreased with an increase in dose due to the domination of nucleation over ion association in the formation of the nanoparticles by gamma reduction. The silver nanoparticles exhibit a very sharp and strong absorption spectrum with the absorption maximum λmax blue shifting with an increased dose, owing to a decrease in particle size. The absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles of various particle sizes were also calculated using a quantum physics treatment and an agreement was obtained with the experimental absorption data. The results suggest that the absorption spectrum of silver nanoparticles possibly derived from the intra-band excitations of conduction electrons from the lowest energy state (n = 5, l = 0) to higher energy states (n ≥ 6; Δl = 0, ±1; Δs = 0, ±1), allowed by the quantum numbers principle. This demonstrates that the absorption phenomenon of metal nanoparticles based on a quantum physics description could be exploited to be added into the fundamentals of metal nanoparticles and the related fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Aqueous biphasic flotation (ABF) integrates aqueous biphasic system (ABS) and solvent sublation for recovery of target biomolecules. The feasibility of the alcohol/salt ABF for exclusive partition of cytochrome c to one specific phase of the system was investigated. Aliphatic alcohols of different carbon chain length (ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol) and salts (sulfate, phosphate and citrate) were used for the phase formation. The effects of phase composition, concentration of sample loading, pH, flotation time and flow rate of the system on the partition efficiency of cytochrome c were determined. Cytochrome c was exclusively partitioned to the alcohol-rich top phase of the ABF of 18% (w/w) ethanol and 26% (w/w) ammonium sulfate with pH 6 and 20% (w/w) of sample loading. Highest partition coefficient (K) of 6.85 ± 0.21 and yield (YT) of 99.40% ± 0.02 were obtained with optimum flotation rate of 10 mL/min and flow rate of 10 min.
PMMA polymer microfiber doped Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) was reported for alcohol sensing application. The sensitivity of the sensor is increasing relatively with the increment of the alcohol concentration which affects the transmission output power. However, the challenges are on choosing the right material and the simplicity on the fabrication of microfiber sensor for an improvement of the sensitivity of the sensor. A PMMA polymer microfiber doped MWCNTs was introduced for an application of alcohol detection system. Direct drawing technique was used to form a uniform waist size of microfiber sensor with 6µm diameter and 5mm length respectively. The performance of the fabricated sensor was tested with two types of alcohol, namely ethanol and 2-propanol at concentrations varying from 2% to 8% with 2% intervals. The performance which includes sensitivity, linearity and resolution were studied and analysed for the undoped PMMA and PMMA doped MWCNTs-doped polymer microfiber. The PMMA doped MWCNTs sensor which exhibited higher sensitivity for ethanol sensing with 83.23dBm/% with a linearity of 99.96% and a sensitivity of 73.75dBm/% with linearity 99.82% for 2- propanol sensing. The resolution has improved significantly by 0.0004% and 0.0007% respectively. In conclusion, PMMA doped MWCNTs was able to increase the sensitivity as well as the reproducibility of the microfiber sensor for the alcohol detection system.
A combinative effect of two or more individual material properties, such as lattice parameters and chemical properties, has been well-known to generate novel nanomaterials with special crystal growth behavior and physico-chemical performance. This paper reports unusually high catalytic performance of AgPt nanoferns in the hydrogenation reaction of acetone conversion to isopropanol, which is several orders higher compared to the performance shown by pristine Pt nanocatalysts or other metals and metal-metal oxide hybrid catalyst systems. It has been demonstrated that the combinative effect during the bimetallisation of Ag and Pt produced nanostructures with a highly anisotropic morphology, i.e., hierarchical nanofern structures, which provide high-density active sites on the catalyst surface for an efficient catalytic reaction. The extent of the effect of structural growth on the catalytic performance of hierarchical AgPt nanoferns is discussed.
In this paper, a facile synthesis method for CaFe2O4 is introduced that produces a catalyst capable of significant photocatalytic degradation of POME under visible light irradiation. The co-precipitation method was used to produce two catalysts at calcination temperatures of 550 °C and 700 °C dubbed CP550 and CP700. CP550 demonstrated the maximum COD removal of 69.0% at 0.75 g/L catalyst loading after 8 h of visible light irradiation which dropped to 61.0% after three consecutive cycles. SEM images indicated that the higher calcination temperature of CP700 led to annealing which reduced the pore volume (0.025 cm3/g) and pore diameter (10.3 nm) while simultaneously creating a smoother and more spherical surface with lower SBET (9.73 m2/g). In comparison, CP550 had a rough hair-like surface with higher SBET (27.28 m2/g) and pore volume (0.077 cm3/g) as evidenced by BET analysis. XRD data indicated the presence of CaFe5O7 in the CP550 composition which was not present in CP700. The presence of Wustite-like FeO structures in CaFe5O7 are likely the cause for lower photoluminescence intensity profile and hence better charge separation of CP550 as these structures in CaFe2O4 have been known to increase resistivity and electron localization. The COD removal of CP550 dropped from 69.0% to just 7.0% upon adding a small quantity of isopropanol into the reaction mixture indicating hydroxyl radicals as the primary reactive oxidative species.
Platinum nanoparticles were synthesized using the gamma radiolytic technique in an aqueous solution containing Platinum tetraammine chloride in presence of poly vinyl pyrrolidone, isopropanol, tetrahydrofuran and deionized water. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a60Co gamma source chamber and the particle size was found to decrease from 4.88 to 3.14 nm on increasing the gamma radiation dose from 80 to 120 kGy. UV-visible absorption spectra were measured and revealed two steady absorption maxima at 216 and 264 nm in the UV region, which was blue shifted (i.e. toward lower wavelength) with decreasing particle size. By taking the conduction electrons of an isolated particle that are not entirely free, but instead bound to their respective quantum levels, the optical absorption of platinum nanoparticles can be calculated via intra-band quantum excitation for particle sizes similar to those measured experimentally. We found that the calculated absorption maxima of electronic excitations matched the measured absorption maxima well. This finding suggests that the optical absorption of metal nanoparticles commonly applied in nanoscience and nanotechnology can be described accurately by the quantum excitation of conduction electrons.
This paper investigates the selectivity of GMA-based-non-woven fabrics adsorbent towards copper ion (Cu) functionalized with several aliphatic amines. The aliphatic amines used in this study were ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA), and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The non-woven polyethylene/polypropylene fabrics (NWF) were grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) via pre-radiation grafting technique, followed by chemical functionalization with the aliphatic amine. To prepare the ion recognition polymer (IRP), the functionalized amine GMA-grafted-NWF sample was subjected to radiation crosslinking process along with the crosslinking agent, divinylbenzene (DVB), in the presence of Cu ion as a template in the matrix of the adsorbent. Functionalization with different aliphatic amine was carried out at different amine concentrations, grafting yield, reaction temperature, and reaction time to study the effect of different aliphatic amine onto amine density yield. At a concentration of 50% of amine and 50% of isopropanol, EDA, DETA, TETA, and TEPA had attained amine density around 5.12, 4.06, 3.04, and 2.56 mmol/g-ad, respectively. The amine density yield decreases further as the aliphatic amine chain grows longer. The experimental condition for amine functionalization process was fixed at 70% amine, 30% isopropanol, 60 °C for grafting temperature, and 2 h of grafting time for attaining 100% of grafting yield (Dg). The prepared adsorbents were characterized comprehensively in terms of structural and morphology with multiple analytical tools. An adsorptive removal and selectivity of Cu ion by the prepared adsorbent was investigated in a binary metal ion system. The IRP samples with a functional precursor of EDA, the smallest aliphatic amine had given the higher adsorption capacity and selectivity towards Cu ion. The selectivity of IRP samples reduces as the aliphatic amine chain grows longer, EDA to TEPA. However, IRP samples still exhibited remarkably higher selectivity in comparison to the amine immobilized GMA-g-NWF at similar adsorption experimental conditions. This observation indicates that IRP samples possess higher selectivity after incorporation of the ion recognition imprint technique via the radiation crosslinking process.
This research explores the possibility of using fluorescence technique to detect the presence of volatile organic compounds based on a single sensing material. The material used was TiO2 nanoparticles coated with porphyrin dye. The TiO2 nanoparticles colloid is in a sol-gel form synthesized from titanium (IV) ethoxide in ethanol with addition of kalium chloride (KCl) as stabilizer. TiO2 nanoparticles were then coated with porphyrin dye, Manganase (III) 5,10,15,20 tetra (4-pyridyl)-21H, 23H porphine chloride tetrakis (metachloride). The coated nanoparticles were deposited on quartz substrate using self-assembly through dip coating technique. The sensing properties of the thin film toward volatile organic compounds; ethanol, acetone, cyclohexane and 2-propanol were studied using luminescence spectrometer. It was found that the thin film produced different emission spectra peaks for different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hence, it eases chemical identification process and potentially be use as fluorescence gas sensor.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), porphyrin and TiO2 coated with dye porphyrin thin films were prepared on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) using sol-gel dip coating method and were tested for sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The porphyrin used was 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine manganese (III) chloride (MnTPPCl). The sensing sensitivity was based on the change in the fundamental frequency of the QCM upon exposure towards six vapor samples, namely ethanol, acetone, cyclohexane, toluene, o-xylene and 2-propanol. It was found that all the thin films were sensitive towards all the vapors. However, the TiO2 coated MnTPPCl thin film exhibit the most sensitive and has good selectivity property.
The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR), pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w) EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w) 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w) at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.
Colloidal Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a (60)Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation.
In this present study, alcohol/salt liquid biphasic system was used to extract phlorotannin from brown macroalgae. Liquid biphasic system is a new green technology that integrated with various processes into one-step, by concentrating, separating and purifying the bioproduct in a unit operation. The solvent used is non-toxic and there is potential for solvent recovery which is beneficial to the environment. Phlorotannin is a bioactive compound that has gained much attention due to its health beneficial effect. Therefore, the isolation of phlorotannin is lucrative as it contains various biological activities that are capable to be utilised into food and pharmaceutical application. By using 2-propanol/ammonium sulphate system, the highest recovery of phlorotannin was 76.1% and 91.67% with purification factor of 2.49 and 1.59 from Padina australis and Sargassum binderi, respectively. A recycling study was performed and the salt phase of system was recycled where maximum salt recovery of 41.04% and 72.39% could be obtained from systems containing P. australis and S. binderi, respectively. Similar recovery of phlorotannin was observed after performing two cycles of the system, this concludes that the system has good recyclability and eco-friendly.
Cancer still presents enormous challenges in the medical world. Currently, the search for
anticancer compounds has garnered a lot of interest, especially in finding them from the natural
sources. In this study, by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay, compounds,
extracted from supermeal worm (Zophobas morio) larvae using two types of acidified organic
solvent (ethanol and isopropanol), were shown to inhibit the growth of a breast cancer line,
MCF-7. A comparative study of the effect was carried out on a normal cell line, Vero. Results
showed that, the two types of extracts inhibits growth of MCF-7 cell at varying degrees, on
the other hand, have much less effect on Vero cell. Extracts analysed by UV-vis spectroscopy,
showed peaks in the range of 260 to 280 nm, inferring the presence of aromatic amino acids,
whereas the highest peak of 3.608 AU at 230 nm indicates the presence of peptide bonds. By
Raman spectroscopy, peaks are observed at 1349 cm-1, 944 cm-1 and 841 cm-1 indicating the
presence of Tyr, Try and Gly, confirming the UV-vis analyses. All results of analyses implied
that the anticancer compounds contain peptides.
The demonstration of the structure-properties relationship of shape-dependent photocatalysts remains a challenge today. Herein, one-dimensional (1-D)-like titania (TiO2), as a model photocatalyst, has been synthesized under a strong magnetic field in the presence of a magnetically responsive liquid crystal as the structure-aligning agent to demonstrate the relationship between a well-aligned structure and its photocatalytic properties. The importance of the 1-D-like TiO2 and its relationship with the electronic structures that affect the electron-hole recombination and the photocatalytic activity need to be clarified. The synthesis of 1-D-like TiO2 with liquid crystal as the structure-aligning agent was carried out using the sol-gel method under a magnetic field (0.3 T). The mixture of liquid crystal, 4'-pentyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (5CB), tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate (TBOT), 2-propanol, and water, was subjected to slow hydrolysis under a magnetic field. The TiO2-5CB took a well-aligned whiskerlike shape when the reaction mixture was placed under the magnetic field, while irregularly shaped TiO2-5CB particles were formed when no magnetic field was applied. It shows that the strong interaction between 5CB and TBOT during the hydrolysis process under a magnetic field controls the shape of titania. The intensity of the emission peaks in the photoluminescence spectrum of 1-D-like TiO2-5CB was lowered compared with the TiO2-5CB synthesized without the magnetic field, suggesting the occurrence of electron transfer from 5CB to the 1-D-like TiO2-5CB during ultraviolet irradiation. Apart from that, direct current electrical conductivity and Hall effect studies showed that the 1-D-like TiO2 composite enhanced electron mobility. Thus, the recombination of electrons and holes was delayed due to the increase in electron mobility; hence, the photocatalytic activity of the 1-D-like TiO2 composite in the oxidation of styrene in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide under UV irradiation was enhanced. This suggests that the 1-D-like shape of TiO2 composite plays an important role in its photocatalytic activity.
The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay.
This prospective study aimed to determine the extent of contamination of fentanyl solutions used for central neuraxial injection by wiping the neck of the ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs (Kendall) before breaking open the ampoules and aspiration of fentanyl solutions using a 5 microm Filter Straw (B. Braun). In Group A, fifty fentanyl ampoules were wiped with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab prior to opening and the contents were aspirated immediately using a 21G needle and a 5 microm filter straw for culture. The same steps were repeated on the remaining solutions after two hours. In Group B, all the above steps were repeated but without wiping the ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs. None of the samples from the wiped ampoules or aspiration using filter straw grew microorganisms. Six percent of the samples from unwiped group grew microorganisms when fentanyl were aspirated using a 21G needle and the contamination increased to 16% when repeated after two hours. Wiping the outsides of the fentanyl ampoules with 70% isopropyl alcohol swabs before opening or aspirating the contents using a 5 pm filter straw has been shown to be equally effective in avoiding bacterial contamination and should be practiced routinely when performing regional anaesthesia.
KEY WORDS: Fentanyl solution, Isopropyl alcohol swab, Filter straw, Contamination, Regional anaesthesia, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The objective of this research was to study the kinetics of synthesis of a commercially important ester - Isopropyl Palmitate (IPP) using immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM). It was studied in a packed bed differential reactor. In order to establish the kinetics of the reaction, parameters such as linear velocity of the fluid through the reactor, particle size, substrate concentration, substrate molar ratio, temperature and water activity were studied. Operational and storage stability of the enzyme were also assessed. The reaction followed Michaelis-Menton kinetics as observed from the relationship of initial rate of the reaction as a function of substrate concentration. It was found that the optimum substrate concentration was 0.15M palmitic acid and isopropyl alcohol in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. Inhibition by excess of isopropyl alcohol has been identified. The optimum temperature for the esterification reaction was found to be around 50 degrees C. The activation energy of this process was determined to be 43.67 kJ/mol. The optimum water content was 0.50%. The reaction rates were measured in the absence of any significant external diffusional limitations. Since internal diffusional limitations could not be eliminated, the kinetics observed is only apparent.