In this letter, we investigate the fabrication of Silicon nanostructure patterned on lightly doped (10(15) cm(-3)) p-type silicon-on-insulator by atomic force microscope nanolithography technique. The local anodic oxidation followed by two wet etching steps, potassium hydroxide etching for silicon removal and hydrofluoric etching for oxide removal, are implemented to reach the structures. The impact of contributing parameters in oxidation such as tip materials, applying voltage on the tip, relative humidity and exposure time are studied. The effect of the etchant concentration (10% to 30% wt) of potassium hydroxide and its mixture with isopropyl alcohol (10%vol. IPA ) at different temperatures on silicon surface are expressed. For different KOH concentrations, the effect of etching with the IPA admixture and the effect of the immersing time in the etching process on the structure are investigated. The etching processes are accurately optimized by 30%wt. KOH +10%vol. IPA in appropriate time, temperature, and humidity.
Size-controlled and monodispersed silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an aqueous solution containing silver nitrate as a metal precursor, polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent, isopropyl alcohol as hydrogen and hydroxyl radical scavengers, and deionized water as a solvent with a simple radiolytic method. The average particle size decreased with an increase in dose due to the domination of nucleation over ion association in the formation of the nanoparticles by gamma reduction. The silver nanoparticles exhibit a very sharp and strong absorption spectrum with the absorption maximum λmax blue shifting with an increased dose, owing to a decrease in particle size. The absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles of various particle sizes were also calculated using a quantum physics treatment and an agreement was obtained with the experimental absorption data. The results suggest that the absorption spectrum of silver nanoparticles possibly derived from the intra-band excitations of conduction electrons from the lowest energy state (n = 5, l = 0) to higher energy states (n ≥ 6; Δl = 0, ±1; Δs = 0, ±1), allowed by the quantum numbers principle. This demonstrates that the absorption phenomenon of metal nanoparticles based on a quantum physics description could be exploited to be added into the fundamentals of metal nanoparticles and the related fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Aqueous biphasic flotation (ABF) integrates aqueous biphasic system (ABS) and solvent sublation for recovery of target biomolecules. The feasibility of the alcohol/salt ABF for exclusive partition of cytochrome c to one specific phase of the system was investigated. Aliphatic alcohols of different carbon chain length (ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol) and salts (sulfate, phosphate and citrate) were used for the phase formation. The effects of phase composition, concentration of sample loading, pH, flotation time and flow rate of the system on the partition efficiency of cytochrome c were determined. Cytochrome c was exclusively partitioned to the alcohol-rich top phase of the ABF of 18% (w/w) ethanol and 26% (w/w) ammonium sulfate with pH 6 and 20% (w/w) of sample loading. Highest partition coefficient (K) of 6.85 ± 0.21 and yield (YT) of 99.40% ± 0.02 were obtained with optimum flotation rate of 10 mL/min and flow rate of 10 min.
The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR), pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w) EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w) 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w) at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.
Colloidal Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a (60)Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation.
Lactoferrin (Lf) nanoparticles have been developed as a carrier of drugs and gene. Two main methods, desolvation technique and emulsification method, for preparation of protein nanoparticles have been reported so far, but most of the previous reports of Lf nanoparticles preparation are limited to emulsification method. In this study, we investigated the optimal conditions by desolvation technique for the preparation of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bovine Lf (bLf) nanoparticles within the size range of 100-200 nm, and evaluated their properties as a carrier for oral and intravenous drug delivery. The experimental results of dynamic light scattering and Transmission Electron Microscope suggested that glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bLf nanoparticles with 150 nm in size could be produced by addition of 2-propanol as the desolvating solvent into the bLf solution adjusted to pH 6, followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. These cross-linked bLf nanoparticles were found to be compatible to blood components and resistant against rapid degradation by pepsin. Thus, cross-linked bLf nanoparticles prepared by desolvation technique can be applied as a drug carrier for intravenous administration and oral delivery.