The gastrointestinal (GI) transit behavior of and absorption from an amphotericin B (AmB) solid lipid nanoformulation (SLN) in rats was investigated. We aimed to estimate the gastric emptying time (GET) and cecal arrival time (CAT) of AmB SLN in rats as animal models. From these two parameters, an insight on the absorption window of AmB was ascertained. Three types of SLNs, AmB, paracetamol (PAR), and sulfasalazine (SSZ), were similarly formulated using beeswax/theobroma oil composite as the lipid matrix and characterized with regard to size, viscosity, density, migration propensity within agarose gel, in vitro drug release, morphology, gastrointestinal transit, and in vivo absorption. The GET and CAT were estimated indirectly using marker drugs: PAR and sulfapyridine (SP). All three types of SLNs exhibited identical properties with regard to z-average, viscosity, relative density, and propensity to migrate. PAR was absorbed rapidly from the small intestine following emptying of the SLNs giving the T50E (time for 50% absorption of PAR) to be 1.6 h. SP was absorbed after release and microbial degradation of SSZ from SLN in the colon with a lag time of 2 h post-administration, serving as the estimated cecal arrival time of the SLNs. AmB within SLN was favorably absorbed from the small intestine, albeit slowly.
The aim of this study was to optimize the different process parameters including pressure, temperature, and polymer concentration, to produce fine small spherical particles with a narrow particle size distribution using a supercritical antisolvent method for drug encapsulation. The interaction between different process parameters was also investigated.
The reported work demonstrates and discusses the effect of supercritical fluid density (pressure and temperature of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide) on particle size and distribution using the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) method in the purpose of drug encapsulation. In this study, paracetamol was encapsulated inside L-polylactic acid, a semicrystalline polymer, with different process parameters, including pressure and temperature, using the SAS process. The morphology and particle size of the prepared nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that increasing temperature enhanced mean particle size due to the plasticizing effect. Furthermore, increasing pressure enhanced molecular interaction and solubility; thus, particle size was reduced. Transmission electron microscopy images defined the internal structure of nanoparticles. Thermal characteristics of nanoparticles were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the changes in crystallinity structure during the SAS process. In vitro drug release analysis determined the sustained release of paracetamol in over 4 weeks.
A polyglycolised glyceride carrier, Gelucire 50/13, was incorporated with paracetamol as a model drug, filled into hard gelatin capsules and stored at three different temperatures for various lengths of time. The resultant solidified matrix within the capsule was subjected to thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to ascertain its supramolecular structure. Polymorphic transformations towards more stable gelucire forms were observed upon aging the matrices, with samples stored at a temperature near the melting range of the lower temperature gelucire melting fraction showing the most profound changes. The increase in the rate of drug release from aged samples could be correlated to the alterations to the supramolecular structure of the gelucire. Accelerated drug release from aged samples could also be seen from in vivo studies using healthy human volunteers, although the extent of absorption was not affected. Therefore, even though the sustainability of release may be compromised by aging the gelucire matrices, the bioavailability of the incorporated drug is unlikely to be affected.
The present study examines the relationship between the dose of acetaminophen reported to have been ingested by patients and the occurrence of serum acetaminophen levels above the 'possible toxicity' line in patients presenting at the hospital after acetaminophen overdose. The prognostic value of patient-reported dosage cut-offs of 8, 10 and 12 g was determined.
Paracetamol (PCM)-loaded composite nanoparticles (NPs) composed of a biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) polymer matrix filled with organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were fabricated by antisolvent nanoprecipitation in a microfluidic co-flow glass capillary device. The incorporation of MMT in the polymer improved both the drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug loading, and extended the rate of drug release in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). The particle size increased on increasing both the drug loading and the concentration of MMT in the polymer matrix, and decreased on increasing the aqueous to organic flow rate ratio. The drug encapsulation efficiency in the NPs was higher at higher aqueous to organic flow rate ratio due to faster formation of the NPs. The PCM-loaded PLA NPs containing 2 wt% MMT in PLA prepared at an aqueous to organic flow rate ratio of 10 with an orifice size of 200 μm exhibited a spherical shape with a mean size of 296 nm, a drug encapsulation efficiency of 38.5% and a drug loading of 5.4%. The encapsulation of MMT and PCM in the NPs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.