PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to examine the publication pattern of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) research output for paracetamol overdose at the global level.
METHODS: Data were searched for documents that contained specific words regarding NAC and paracetamol as keywords in the title and/or abstract and/or keywords. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product per capita.
RESULTS: The criteria were met by 367 publications from 33 countries. The highest number of articles associated with the use of NAC in paracetamol overdose was from the United States of America (USA; 39.78%), followed by the United Kingdom (UK; 11.99%). After adjusting for economy and population power, USA (2.822), Iran (1.784) and UK (1.125) had the highest research productivity. The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (14 March 2014) was 8785 with an average of 23.9 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 6 (1-22). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 48. The highest h-index was 32 for USA, followed by 20 for UK. Furthermore, the highest number of collaborations with international authors for each country was held by USA with 11 countries, followed by Canada with 7 countries.
CONCLUSION: The amount of NAC-based research activity was low in some countries, and more effort is needed to bridge this gap and to promote better evaluation of NAC use worldwide. Our findings demonstrate that NAC use for paracetamol overdose remains a hot issue in scientific research and may have a larger audience compared with other toxicological aspects. Editors and authors in the field of toxicology might usefully promote the submission of work on NAC in future to improve their journal's impact.
KEYWORDS: Bibliometric; NAC; Scopus; acetaminophen; acetylcysteine; citations; paracetamol; poisoning
BACKGROUND: Analysis of the most influential publications within paracetamol poisoning treatment can be helpful in recognizing main and novel treatment issues within the field of toxicology. The current study was performed to recognize and describe the most highly cited articles related to paracetamol poisoning treatment.
METHODS: The 100 most highly cited articles in paracetamol poisoning treatment were identified from the Scopus database in November 2015. All eligible articles were read for basic information, including total number of citations, average citations per year, authors' names, journal name, impact factors, document types and countries of authors of publications.
RESULTS: The median number of citations was 75 (interquartile range 56-137). These publications were published between 1974 and 2013. The average number of years since publication was 17.6 years, and 45 of the publications were from the 2000s. A significant, modest positive correlation was found between years since publication and the number of citations among the top 100 cited articles (r = 0.316; p = 0.001). A total of 55 journals published these 100 most cited articles. Nine documents were published in Clinical Toxicology, whereas eight documents were published in Annals of Emergency Medicine. Citations per year since publication for the top 100 most-cited articles ranged from 1.5 to 42.6 and had a mean of 8.5 citations per year and a median of 5.9 with an interquartile range of 3.75-10.35. In relation to the origin of the research publications, they were from 8 countries. The USA had the largest number of articles, 47, followed by the UK and Australia with 38 and nine articles respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first bibliometric assessment of the top 100 cited articles in toxicology literature. Interest in paracetamol poisoning as a serious clinical problem continues to grow. Research published in high-impact journals and from high income countries is most likely to be cited in published paracetamol research.
KEYWORDS:Acetaminophen; Bibliometric; Citations; N-acetylcysteine; Paracetamol; Poisoning; Scopus
PURPOSE: There is a lack of data concerning the evaluation of scientific research productivity in paracetamol poisoning from the world. The purposes of this study were to analyse the worldwide research output related to paracetamol poisoning and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade.
METHODS: Data were searched for documents with specific words regarding paracetamol poisoning as 'keywords' in the title or/and abstract. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies. Research productivity was adjusted to the national population and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.
RESULTS: There were 1721 publications that met the criteria during study period from the world. All retrieved documents were published from 72 countries. The largest number of articles related to paracetamol poisoning was from the United States (US; 30.39%), followed by India (10.75%) and the United Kingdom (UK; 9.36%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis was 21,109, with an average of 12.3 citations per each documents and median (interquartile range) of 4 (1-14). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 57. After adjusting for economy and population power, India (124.2), Nigeria (18.6) and the US (10.5) had the highest research productivity. Countries with large economies, such as the UK, Australia, Japan, China and France, tended to rank relatively low after adjustment for GDP over the entire study period.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates evidence that research productivity related to paracetamol poisoning has increased rapidly during the recent years. The US obviously dominated in research productivity. However, certain smaller country such as Nigeria has high scientific output relative to their population size and GDP. A highly noticeable increase in the contributions of Asia-Pacific and Middle East regions to scientific literature related to paracetamol poisoning was also observed.
KEYWORDS: Bibliometric; Scopus; acetaminophen; citations; paracetamol; poisoning
Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) is usually regarded as a safe antidote to acetaminophen overdose. However, during infusion of the loading dose, adverse drug reactions such as a headache may occur. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of headache in patients presenting to hospital after acetaminophen overdose and to determine which clinical findings are most predictive of headache among these patients. This is a retrospective cohort study of hospital admissions for acute acetaminophen overdose that was conducted over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2008. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, and predictors of headache were analyzed. spss 15 was used for data analysis. Two-hundred and fifty-five patients were studied; their mean age was 23.1 ± 1.6; 83.9% of them were women and 14.9% had a headache during hospitalization. Headache among patients was significantly associated with IV-NAC administration (P = 0.001), intentional ingestion of drug (P = 0.04), acetaminophen concentration above 'possible toxicity' treatment line (P = 0.04), a high acetaminophen concentration (P = 0.04), and a long hospital stay (P = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression showed a significant risk factor for headache in patients administered IV-NAC (P = 0.04). We recorded a high frequency of headache in patients with acute acetaminophen overdose in our geographical area. This study suggests that among those patients, the use of IV-NAC is associated with an increased risk of headache.
To investigate the relationship between different types of adverse drug reaction (ADR) and late time to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion in patients presenting to the hospital with acetaminophen overdose.
Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) is widely recognized as the antidote of choice for acetaminophen overdose. However, its use is not without adverse drug reactions (ADR) that might affect therapeutic outcome or lead to treatment delay.
The present study examines the relationship between the dose of acetaminophen reported to have been ingested by patients and the occurrence of serum acetaminophen levels above the 'possible toxicity' line in patients presenting at the hospital after acetaminophen overdose. The prognostic value of patient-reported dosage cut-offs of 8, 10 and 12 g was determined.
Identifying indices of poor prognosis at first presentation after acetaminophen poisoning is the key to both improving clinical care and determining targets for intervention. This study intended to document the prevalence, clinical characteristics and predictors of vomiting and to investigate the relationship between episodes of vomiting at first hospital presentation and outcome in acetaminophen poisoning. This retrospective cohort study included patients who attended the emergency department and were admitted within 24 hr of acetaminophen ingestion. The study was conducted over a period of 5 years from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to test differences between groups depending on the normality of the data. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis. Data from 291 patients were included. Vomiting was present in 65.3% of patients with acetaminophen poisoning at the time of first presentation. Multiple logistic regression showed that significant risk factors for vomiting were present among patients who reported an ingested dose of acetaminophen ≥10 g (p < 0.001) and a latency time of more than 8 hr (p = 0.030). Overall, an increasing trend in prothrombin time (p = 0.03), serum bilirubin (p < 0.001), serum creatinine (p = 0.005), serum potassium (p < 0.001), length of hospital stay (p < 0.001) and the prevalence of patients who had a serum acetaminophen level above a 'possible toxicity' treatment line (p = 0.001) were associated with an increased number of episodes of vomiting. In conclusion, vomiting was common among patients with acetaminophen poisoning. This study suggests that an increase in episodes of vomiting at first presentation appears to be an important risk marker of subsequent nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.
Acetaminophen is one of the most commonly encountered medications in self-poisoning, with a high rate of morbidity. The prevalence and characteristics of acetaminophen intoxication associated with long hospital stay in patients are not well defined.
Acute poisoning is a significant health problem all over the world. In Malaysia, nationwide data on poisoning pattern is scarce and incomplete. The objectives of our study were to determine the pattern of acute drug and chemical poisoning at Penang General Hospital (PGH), in the northern region of Malaysia, and to compare poisoning characteristics between different ethnic groups. The study was a retrospective case review of all poisoned patients admitted to PGH during the years 2000-2002. We collected data concerning demographic parameters of patients, information about the agent(s) implicated, and circumstances surrounding the event. There were 493 poisoning incidents. Nearly two-thirds of the poisoned cases involved female patients. The predominant mode of poisoning was intentional (51.5%). The age group 15.1-30 years ranked at the top, constituting 55.2% of all cases. Drugs were the predominant agents implicated. Among cases associated with drugs, paracetamol was the main causative agent (44.7%). Chinese patients constituted 37.7% of all poisoning cases, followed by the Indians (31.6%) and Malays (26.6%). Between ethnic groups, Indian patients were found to have the highest rate of poisoning admission of 75.2 per 100,000 persons.
Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is a rich source of essential minerals and antioxidants; it has been used in human and animal nutrition. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance.
The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors and life stressors that are prevalent among the acetaminophen deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) cases, to identify gender differences in the associated factors, and to determine the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and the patterns and types of psychotherapeutic interventions provided by psychiatrists.