Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

  1. Low VL, Chen CD, Lee HL, Tan TK, Chen CF, Leong CS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(11):e79928.
    PMID: 24278220 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079928
    There has been no comprehensive study on biochemical characterization of insecticide resistance mechanisms in field populations of Malaysian Culex quinquefasciatus. To fill this void in the literature, a nationwide investigation was performed to quantify the enzyme activities, thereby attempting to characterize the potential resistance mechanisms in Cx. quinquefasciatus in residential areas in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism*
  2. Sembulingam K, Sembulingam P, Namasivayam A
    Indian J Med Sci, 2003 Nov;57(11):487-92.
    PMID: 14646156
    Effect of various stressor agents on the adrenergic system in brain had been studied extensively. However, reports on the effect of stress on various parameters of central cholinergic system are scanty. And very little is known about the effect of noise stress on the cholinergic system in brain. Hence, it was decided to elucidate the effect of acute noise stress on the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase in discrete areas of brain in albino rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were subjected to acute noise stress for 30 minutes. The noise of pure sine wave tone was produced by using a function generator and was amplified. The frequency of noise generated was 1 kHz and the intensity was set at 100 dB. The total acetylcholinesterase activity was determined in the tissues of cerebral cortex, corpus striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of brain in these rats. The enzyme activity was estimated by colorimetric method using acetylthiocholine iodide as the substrate. The values were compared with the enzyme activity in the control rats. The activity of the enzyme increased significantly in all the four regions of the brain in rats after exposure to noise stress for 30 minutes. The results of the study indicate that the exposure to acute noise stress could modulate the cholinergic system in these areas of brain in rat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism*
  3. Salga SM, Ali HM, Abdullah MA, Abdelwahab SI, Wai LK, Buckle MJ, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 Nov 07;16(11):9316-30.
    PMID: 22064271 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16119316
    Some novel Schiff bases derived from 1-(2-ketoiminoethyl)piperazines were synthesized and characterized by mass spectroscopy, FTIR, UV-Visible, 1H and 13C-NMR. The compounds were tested for inhibitory activities on human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE), antioxidant activities, acute oral toxicity and further studied by molecular modeling techniques. The study identified the compound (DHP) to have the highest activity among the series in hAChE inhibition and DPPH assay while the compound LP revealed the highest activity in the FRAP assay. The hAChE inhibitory activity of DHP is comparable with that of propidium, a known AChE inhibitor. This high activity of DHP was checked by molecular modeling which showed that DHP could not be considered as a bivalent ligand due to its incapability to occupy the esteratic site (ES) region of the 3D crystal structure of hAChE. The antioxidant study unveiled varying results in 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. This indicates mechanistic variations of the compounds in the two assays. The potential therapeutic applications and safety of these compounds were suggested for use as human acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  4. Shukor MY, Tham LG, Halmi MI, Khalid I, Begum G, Syed MA
    J Environ Biol, 2013 Sep;34(5):967-70.
    PMID: 24558814
    Near-real-ime assay is anassay method that the whole process from sampling until results could be obtained in approximately Iess than one hour. The ElIman assay for acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) has near real-time potential due to its simplicity and fast assay time. The commercial acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus is well known for its uses in insecticides detection. A lesser known fact is AChE is also sensitive to heavy metals. A near real-time inhibitive assay for heavy metals using AChE from this source showed promising results. Several heavy metals such as copper, silver and mercury could be etected with IC50 values of1.212, 0.1185 and 0.097 mg I-1, respectively. The Limits of Detection (LOD) for copper, silver and mercury were 0.01, 0.015 and 0.01 mg I-1, respectively. TheLimits of quantitation (LOQ) or copper, silver and mercury were 0.196, 0.112 and 0.025 mg I-1, respectively. The LOQvalues for copper, silver and mercury were well below the maximum permissible limit for these metal ions as outlined by Malaysian Department of Environment. A polluted location demonstrated near real-time applicability of the assay with variation oftemporal levels of heavy metals detected. The results show that AChE from Electrophorus electricus has the potential to be used as a near real-time biomonitoring tool for heavy
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism*
  5. Jamila N, Khan N, Khan I, Khan AA, Khan SN
    Nat Prod Res, 2016 Jun;30(12):1388-97.
    PMID: 26158779 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1060594
    The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  6. Parambi DGT, Aljoufi F, Murugaiyah V, Mathew GE, Dev S, Lakshminarayanan B, et al.
    PMID: 30451121 DOI: 10.2174/1871524918666181119114016
    BACKGROUND: Dual-acting human monoamine oxidase B (hMAO-B) and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors are more effective than the classic one-drug one-target therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    METHODS: The ChE inhibitory ability of some halogenated thiophene chalcone-based molecules known to be selective hMAO-B inhibitors was evaluated.

    RESULTS: Based on the IC50 values, the selected compounds were found to moderately inhibit ChE, with IC50 values in the range of 14-70 µM. Among the synthesised molecules, T8 and T6 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, the data revealed that T8 could be further optimized to enhance its AChE inhibitory activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  7. Hassan M, Abbasi MA, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Siddiqui SZ, Hussain G, Shah SAA, et al.
    J Theor Biol, 2018 12 07;458:169-183.
    PMID: 30243565 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2018.09.018
    A new series of multifunctional amides has been synthesized having moderate enzyme inhibitory potentials and mild cytotoxicity. 2-Furyl(1-piperazinyl)methanone (1) was coupled with 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) to form {4-[(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-1-piperazinyl}(2-furyl)methanone (3). Different elecrophiles were synthesized by the reaction of various un/substituted anilines (4a-o) with 2-bromoacetylbromide (5), 2‑bromo‑N-(un/substituted-phenyl)acetamides (6a-o). Further, equimolar ratios of 3 and 6a-o were allowed to react in the presence of K2CO3 in acetonitrile to form desired multifunctional amides (7a-o). The structural confirmation of all the synthesized compounds was carried out by their EI-MS, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data. Enzyme inhibition activity was performed against acetyl and butyrylcholinestrase enzymes, whereby 7e showed very good activity having IC50 value of 5.54 ± 0.03 and 9.15 ± 0.01 μM, respectively, relative to eserine, a reference standard. Hemolytic activity of the molecules was checked to asertain their cytotoxicity towards red blood cell membrance and it was observed that most of the compounds were not toxic up to certain range. Moreover, chemoinformatic protepties and docking simulation results also showed the significance of 7e as compared to other compounds. Based on in vitro and in silico analysis 7e could be used as a template for the development of new drugs against Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  8. Lee CY, Hemingway J, Yap HH, Chong NL
    Med. Vet. Entomol., 2000 Mar;14(1):11-8.
    PMID: 10759307
    The possible insecticide resistance mechanisms of four Malaysian field-collected strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), were characterized with biochemical assays and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Elevated esterase activity (at low to moderate frequency) and altered acetylcholinesterase (low frequency) were detected in all field strains, while elevated glutathione S-transferase levels were present in only two strains. Seven esterase bands were separated by native PAGE; a greater intensity occurred in three bands in the resistant strains compared to the susceptible strain. Inhibition studies using specific inhibitors on polyacrylamide gels suggested that the slowest of these three esterases is a cholinesterase, while the other two are carboxylesterases with a preference for beta- over alpha-naphthyl acetate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  9. Awang K, Chan G, Litaudon M, Ismail NH, Martin MT, Gueritte F
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2010 Nov 15;18(22):7873-7.
    PMID: 20943395 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.09.044
    A significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was observed for the hexane extract from the bark of Mesua elegans (Clusiaceae). Thus, the hexane extract was subjected to chemical investigation, which led to the isolation of nine 4-phenylcoumarins, in which three are new; mesuagenin A (1), mesuagenin C (3), mesuagenin D (4) and one new natural product; mesuagenin B (2). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data interpretation, especially 1D and 2D NMR. Four compounds showed significant AChE inhibitory activity, with mesuagenin B (2) being the most potent (IC(50)=0.7μM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  10. Mitra NK, Lee MS, Nadarajah VD
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):19-29.
    PMID: 20562809
    Dermal exposure to organophosphate pesticide is important because of its popular use. This study planned to compare the changes in serum acetylcholinesterase, paraoxonase and neuronal density of hippocampus and iso-cortex between two age groups of Swiss albino mice (18-day-old and 150-day-old) after dermal application of (1/2) LD50 of chlorpyrifos for 14 days. Statistically significant reduction was observed in serum acetylcholinesterase (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) and neuronal density (Independent samples t-test, p<0.05) in exposed groups compared to the control. The reduction in serum AChE and neuronal density was more pronounced in exposed adult mice than in exposed neonatal mice. The paraoxonase level was insignificant in control neonatal mice, whereas it was 890-fold more in exposed neonatal mice. Upregulated paraoxonase levels may be extrapolated to produce relatively lower reduction of cholinesterase and neuronal density in neonatal mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  11. Liew KF, Chan KL, Lee CY
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Apr 13;94:195-210.
    PMID: 25768702 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.02.055
    A series of novel aurones bearing amine and carbamate functionalities at various positions (rings A and/or B) of the scaffold was synthesized and evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Structure-activity relationship study disclosed several potent submicromolar acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) particularly aurones bearing piperidine and pyrrolidine moieties at ring A or ring B. Bulky groups particularly methoxyls, and carbamate to a lesser extent, at either rings were also prominently featured in these AChEI aurones as exemplified by the trimethoxyaurone 4-3. The active aurones exhibited a lower butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. A 3'-chloroaurone 6-3 originally designed to improve the metabolic stability of the scaffold was the most potent of the series. Molecular docking simulations showed these AChEI aurones to adopt favourable binding modes within the active site gorge of the Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) including an unusual chlorine-π interaction by the chlorine of 6-3 to establish additional bondings to hydrophobic residues of TcAChE. Evaluation of the potent aurones for their blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and metabolic stability using PAMPA-BBB assay and in vitro rat liver microsomes (RLM) identified 4-3 as an aurone with an optimal combination of high passive BBB permeability and moderate CYP450 metabolic stability. LC-MS identification of a mono-hydroxylated metabolite found in the RLM incubation of 4-3 provided an impetus for further improvement of the compound. Thus, 4-3, discovered within this present series is a promising, drug-like lead for the development of the aurones as potential multipotent agents for Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  12. Ado MA, Abas F, Ismail IS, Ghazali HM, Shaari K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Feb;95(3):635-42.
    PMID: 25048579 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6832
    The aim of the current study was (i) to evaluate the bioactive potential of the leaf methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora L., along with its respective hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH) and aqueous fractions, in inhibiting the enzymes α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase as well as evaluating their antioxidant activities. (ii) In addition, in view of the limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of C. cauliflora, we further characterized the profiles of the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism*
  13. Hematpoor A, Liew SY, Chong WL, Azirun MS, Lee VS, Awang K
    PLoS One, 2016;11(5):e0155265.
    PMID: 27152416 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155265
    Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ≤ 15 μg/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25μg/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 μg/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480), the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271) and anionic binding site (W83). The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  14. Abdul Wahab SM, Sivasothy Y, Liew SY, Litaudon M, Mohamad J, Awang K
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2016 08 01;26(15):3785-92.
    PMID: 27236720 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.05.046
    A new acylphenol, malabaricone E (1) together with the known malabaricones A-C (2-4), maingayones A and B (5 and 6) and maingayic acid B (7) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of Myristica cinnamomea King. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 3 (1.84±0.19 and 1.76±0.21μM, respectively) and 4 (1.94±0.27 and 2.80±0.49μM, respectively) were identified as dual inhibitors, with almost equal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibiting potentials. The Lineweaver-Burk plots of compounds 3 and 4 indicated that they were mixed-mode inhibitors. Based on the molecular docking studies, compounds 3 and 4 interacted with the peripheral anionic site (PAS), the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole of the AChE. As for the BChE, while compound 3 interacted with the PAS, the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole, compound 4 only interacted with the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism*
  15. Chigurupati S, Selvaraj M, Mani V, Selvarajan KK, Mohammad JI, Kaveti B, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2016 08;67:9-17.
    PMID: 27231830 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2016.05.002
    The synthesis of novel indolopyrazoline derivatives (P1-P4 and Q1-Q4) has been characterized and evaluated as potential anti-Alzheimer agents through in vitro Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and radical scavenging activity (antioxidant) studies. Specifically, Q3 shows AChE inhibition (IC50: 0.68±0.13μM) with strong DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50: 13.77±0.25μM and IC50: 12.59±0.21μM), respectively. While P3 exhibited as the second most potent compound with AChE inhibition (IC50: 0.74±0.09μM) and with DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50: 13.52±0.62μM and IC50: 13.13±0.85μM), respectively. Finally, molecular docking studies provided prospective evidence to identify key interactions between the active inhibitors and the AChE that furthermore led us to the identification of plausible binding mode of novel indolopyrazoline derivatives. Additionally, in-silico ADME prediction using QikProp shows that these derivatives fulfilled all the properties of CNS acting drugs. This study confirms the first time reporting of indolopyrazoline derivatives as potential anti-Alzheimer agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism*
  16. Kia Y, Osman H, Kumar RS, Murugaiyah V, Basiri A, Khaw KY, et al.
    Med Chem, 2014;10(5):512-20.
    PMID: 24138113
    A series of hitherto unreported piperidone embedded α,β-unsaturated ketones were synthesized efficiently in ionic solvent and evaluated for cholinesterase inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed good enzyme inhibition; therein compounds 7i and 7f displayed significant activity against AChE with IC50 values of 1.47 and 1.74 µM, respectively. Compound 6g showed the highest BChE inhibitory potency with IC50 value of 3.41 µM, being 5 times more potent than galanthamine. Molecular modeling simulation was performed using AChE and BChE receptors extracted from crystal structure of human AChE and human BChE to determine the amino acid residues involved in the binding interaction of synthesized compounds and their relevant receptors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  17. Ahmad A, Ramasamy K, Jaafar SM, Majeed AB, Mani V
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2014 Mar;65:120-8.
    PMID: 24373829 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.12.025
    The present study was undertaken to compare the neuroprotective effects between total isoflavones from soybean and tempeh against scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction. Total isoflavones (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) from soybean (SI) and tempeh (TI) were administered orally to different groups of rats (n=6) for 15days. Piracetam (400mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in the animals. Radial arm and elevated plus mazes served as exteroceptive behavioural models to measure memory. Brain cholinergic activities (acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase) and neuroinflammatory activities (COX-1, COX-2, IL-1β and IL10) were also assessed. Treatment with SI and TI significantly reversed the scopolamine effect and improved memory with TI group at 40mg/kg, p.o. exhibiting the best improvement (p<0.001) in rats. The TI (10, 20 and 40mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased (p<0.001) acetylcholine and reduced acetylcholinesterase levels. Meanwhile, only a high dose (40mg/kg, p.o.) of SI showed significant improvement (p<0.05) in the cholinergic activities. Neuroinflammation study also showed that TI (40mg/kg, p.o.) was able to reduce inflammation better than SI. The TI ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory in rats through the cholinergic neuronal pathway and by prevention of neuroinflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  18. Low VL, Chen CD, Lim PE, Lee HL, Lim YA, Tan TK, et al.
    Pest Manag. Sci., 2013 Dec;69(12):1362-8.
    PMID: 23404830 DOI: 10.1002/ps.3512
    Given that there is limited available information on the insensitive acetylcholinesterase in insect species in Malaysia, the present study aims to detect the presence of G119S mutation in the acetylcholinesterase gene of Culex quinquefasciatus from 14 residential areas across 13 states and a federal territory in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  19. Kia Y, Osman H, Kumar RS, Murugaiyah V, Basiri A, Perumal S, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2013 Apr 1;21(7):1696-707.
    PMID: 23454132 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.01.066
    Three-component reaction of a series of 1-acryloyl-3,5-bisbenzylidenepiperidin-4-ones with isatin and L-proline in 1:1:1 and 1:2:2 molar ratios in methanol afforded, respectively the piperidone-grafted novel mono- and bisspiro heterocyclic hybrids comprising functionalized piperidine, pyrrolizine and oxindole ring systems in good yields. The in vitro evaluation of cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activity of these cycloadducts disclosed that monospiripyrrolizines (8a-k), are more active with IC50 ranging from 3.36 to 20.07 μM than either the dipolarophiles (5a-k) or bisspiropyrrolizines (9a-k). The compounds, 8i and 8e with IC50 values of 3.36 and 3.50 μM, respectively showed the maximum inhibition of acethylcholinesterase (AChE) and butrylylcholinestrase (BuChE). Molecular modeling simulation, disclosed the binding interactions of the most active compounds to the active site residues of their respective enzymes. The docking results were in accordance with the IC50 values obtained from in vitro cholinesterase assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  20. Mani V, Ramasamy K, Ahmad A, Wahab SN, Jaafar SM, Kek TL, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2013 Jan;27(1):46-53.
    PMID: 22447662 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4676
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by signs of major oxidative stress and the loss of cholinergic cells. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the total alkaloidal extract from Murraya koenigii (MKA) leaves on age related oxidative stress and the cholinergic pathway in aged mice. Ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a standard drug. The MKA improved the level of protective antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GRD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in brain homogenate at higher doses (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.). Moreover, a dose dependent decline was noted in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the nitric oxide assay (NO) at all doses of MKA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.). Interestingly, significant progress was noted with the supplementation of MKA by an improvement of the acetylcholine (ACh) levels and a reduction in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in aged mouse brain. In addition, a significant elevation of serum albumin (ALBU), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and total protein as well as a decline in creatinine, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen and glucose levels with MKA also ameliorated the hepatic and renal functions in normal ageing process. The results showed the possible utility of Murraya koenigii leaves in neuroprotection against neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
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