METHODS: We performed a systematic search of four databases for relevant studies. Meta-analysis was done based on United Nations geoscheme regions, individual countries and study period. We used a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence and mortality estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), weighted by study size.
RESULTS: Among 6445 reports screened, we identified 126 relevant studies, comprising data from 29 countries. The overall prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing HAP and VAP pooled from 114 studies was 79.9% (95% CI 73.9-85.4%). Central America (100%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (100%) had the highest prevalence, whereas Eastern Asia had the lowest (64.6%; 95% CI, 50.2-77.6%). The overall mortality estimate pooled from 27 studies was 42.6% (95% CI, 37.2-48.1%).
CONCLUSIONS: We observed large amounts of variation in the prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing HAP and VAP and its mortality rate among regions and lack of data from many countries. Data from this review can be used in the development of customized strategies for infection control and antimicrobial stewardship.
AIM: To determine the susceptibility of A. baumannii isolates to commonly-used biocides, investigate their biofilm-forming capacities and the prevalence of biocide resistance and biofilm-associated genes.
METHODOLOGY: . The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100 A. baumannii hospital isolates from Terengganu, Malaysia, towards the biocides benzalkonium chloride (BZK), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX), were determined by broth microdilution. The isolates were also examined for their ability to form biofilms in 96-well microplates. The prevalence of biocide resistance genes qacA, qacE and qacDE1 and the biofilm-associated genes bap and abaI were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: Majority of the A. baumannii isolates (43%) showed higher MIC values (> 50 µg/mL) for CLX than for BZK (5% for MIC > 50 µg/mL) and BZT (9% for MIC > 50 µg/mL). The qacDE1 gene was predominant (63%) followed by qacE (28%) whereas no isolate was found harbouring qacA. All isolates were positive for the bap and abaI genes although the biofilm-forming capacity varied among the isolates.
CONCLUSION: The Terengganu A. baumannii isolates showed higher prevalence of qacDE1 compared to qacE although no correlation was found with the biocides' MIC values. No correlation was also observed between the isolates' biofilm-forming capacity and the MIC values for the biocides.