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  1. Rahman MM, Nasrun M, Hossain MY, Aa'zamuddin M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Jun 15;15(12):583-8.
    PMID: 24191620
    The study compares the bacteriological quality on Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) between ice and salt storage methods. The main objectives of the study were to identify different bacteria constituents and quantitative bacterial load in Asian seabass when preserved with ice and sea salt. For the purpose of this study, Asian seabass was stored in two different conditions of ice-chilled and salted for 2 days. All fish samples were analyzed by performing bacteriological analysis and the isolated bacteria were identified by using API identification system. In case of the quantity of bacteria in the flesh, Chilling and salting had no significant difference to the quantity of bacteria on fish flesh. As for the skin, salt-preserved fish showed higher quantity of bacteria than ice-preserved fish. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas fluorescens had been identified from skin sample of ice-chilled fish. Besides P. fluorescens and A. baumannii other isolates identified include Vibrio and Myxobacteria. All bacteria were cocci-shaped except a few bacilli. In term of bacteria number and morphological characteristics, ice-chilled preserved fish was better than salt preserved fish. Overall, less number of bacteria was observed in both ice-chilled and sea salt preserved fish. The result of this study indicated that the quick preservation is a very important factor to control bacterial load in the preserved fish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  2. Misbah S, Hassan H, Yusof MY, Hanifah YA, AbuBakar S
    Singapore Med J, 2005 Sep;46(9):461-4.
    PMID: 16123830
    This study aims to identify Acinetobacter of clinical isolates from the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, to the species level by 16S rDNA sequencing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  3. Mohd Sazlly Lim S, Zainal Abidin A, Liew SM, Roberts JA, Sime FB
    J Infect, 2019 12;79(6):593-600.
    PMID: 31580871 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.09.012
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this works was to assess the global prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing hospital-acquired (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and describe its associated mortality.

    METHODS: We performed a systematic search of four databases for relevant studies. Meta-analysis was done based on United Nations geoscheme regions, individual countries and study period. We used a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence and mortality estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), weighted by study size.

    RESULTS: Among 6445 reports screened, we identified 126 relevant studies, comprising data from 29 countries. The overall prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing HAP and VAP pooled from 114 studies was 79.9% (95% CI 73.9-85.4%). Central America (100%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (100%) had the highest prevalence, whereas Eastern Asia had the lowest (64.6%; 95% CI, 50.2-77.6%). The overall mortality estimate pooled from 27 studies was 42.6% (95% CI, 37.2-48.1%).

    CONCLUSIONS: We observed large amounts of variation in the prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing HAP and VAP and its mortality rate among regions and lack of data from many countries. Data from this review can be used in the development of customized strategies for infection control and antimicrobial stewardship.

    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  4. Kong BH, Hanifah YA, Yusof MY, Thong KL
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):563-8.
    PMID: 22433885 MyJurnal
    Acinetobacter baumannii, genomic species 3 and 13TU are being increasingly reported as the most important Acinetobacter species that cause infections in hospitalized patients. These Acinetobacter species are grouped in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus- Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) complex. Differentiation of the species in the Acb-complex is limited by phenotypic methods. Therefore, in this study, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was applied to confirm the identity A. baumannii strains as well as to differentiate between the subspecies. One hundred and eighty-five strains from Intensive Care Unit, Universiti Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) were successfully identified as A. baumannii by ARDRA. Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU and 15TU were identified in 3 and 1 strains, respectively. ARDRA provides an accurate, rapid and definitive approach towards the identification of the species level in the genus Acinetobacter. This paper reports the first application ARDRA in genospecies identification of Acinetobacter in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification*
  5. Dhabaan GN, AbuBakar S, Shorman MA, Hassan H
    J Chemother, 2012 Apr;24(2):87-92.
    PMID: 22546763 DOI: 10.1179/1120009X12Z.00000000017
    The In vitro susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii to tigecycline and other antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method. The E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The growth curves of tigecycline treated environmental and clinical strains were established. Fifty-seven percent and 75% of the clinical and environmental isolates were MDR strains, respectively. Ninety-five percent of the clinical isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and 5% showed intermediate resistance with MIC ranging between 0.032 and 3 mg/l. Tigecycline susceptible and intermediate resistance among the environmental isolates were 40% and 60%, respectively, with a significantly lower MIC range of 0.5-4 mg/l. The bacterial growth curves demonstrated the higher ability of the environmental strains to tolerate the antibiotic effects than the clinical strains. The relatively high resistance profile among the environmental isolate suggests an insidious emergence of tigecycline resistance amongst A. baumannii. Strict infection control procedures are imperative to prevent the dissemination of tigecycline-resistant A. baumannii strains in the hospital environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  6. Babaei M, Sulong A, Hamat R, Nordin S, Neela V
    PMID: 25858356 DOI: 10.1186/s12941-015-0071-7
    Antiseptics are commonly used for the management of MDR (multiple drug resistance) pathogens in hospitals. They play crucial roles in the infection control practices. Antiseptics are often used for skin antisepsis, gauze dressing, preparation of anatomical sites for surgical procedure, hand sterilization before in contact with an infected person, before an invasive procedure and as surgical scrub.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  7. Kim DH, Choi JY, Kim HW, Kim SH, Chung DR, Peck KR, et al.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2013 Nov;57(11):5239-46.
    PMID: 23939892 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00633-13
    In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  8. Gan HM, Lean SS, Suhaili Z, Thong KL, Yeo CC
    J. Bacteriol., 2012 Nov;194(21):5979-80.
    PMID: 23045494 DOI: 10.1128/JB.01466-12
    Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of nosocomial infection worldwide. We report the draft genome sequence of A. baumannii AC12, a multidrug-resistant nosocomial strain with additional resistance to carbapenems and polymyxin. The genome data will provide insights into the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance and its adaptive mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  9. Kong BH, Hanifah YA, Yusof MY, Thong KL
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 2011;64(4):337-40.
    PMID: 21788713
    The resistance phenotypes and genomic diversity of 185 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from the intensive care unit (ICU) of a local teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur from 2006 to 2009 were determined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiogram analyses showed that the isolates were fully resistant to β-lactam antimicrobials and had high resistance rates to the other antimicrobial agents tested. However, the isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B. Resistance to cefoperazone/sulbactam was only detected in strains isolated from 2007 to 2009. Some environmental isolates and an isolate from the hands of a healthcare worker (HCW) had identical resistance profiles and PFGE profiles that were closely related to patient isolates. Cluster analyses based on the PFGE profiles showed there was a persistent clone of endemic isolates in the ICU environment. The transmission route from HCWs to fomites to patients, which caused a long-term infection in the ICU of the University Malaya Medical Centre, was observed in this study. These data provide a better understanding of A. baumannii epidemiology within the hospital and the possible transmission routes. Knowledge of changes in the resistance rates of A. baumannii in our local hospital will improve antimicrobial therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  10. Thong KL, Lai MY, Teh C SJ, Chua KH
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Apr;28(1):21-31.
    PMID: 21602765 MyJurnal
    A PCR-based assay that can simultaneously detect and differentiate five different types of nosocomial bacterial pathogens was developed. Six pairs of selected primers targeting femA (132 bp) and mecA (310 bp) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, gltA (722 bp) of Acinetobacter baumannii, phoA (903 bp) of Escherichia coli, mdh (364 bp) of Klebsiella pneumoniae and oprL (504 bp) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used in this study. The conditions were optimized for the multiplex PCR to ensure specific amplification of the selected targets. Sensitivity and specificity tests were also carried out using a blind test approach on 50 bacterial cultures and resulted in 100% for both positive and negative predictive values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  11. Islam AH, Singh KK, Ismail A
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2011 Jan;69(1):38-44.
    PMID: 21146712 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2010.09.008
    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that is resistant to many types of antibiotics, and hence, a fast, sensitive, specific, and economical test for its rapid diagnosis is needed. Development of such a test requires a specific antigen, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the prime candidates. The goal of this study was to find a specific OMP of A. baumannii and demonstrate the presence of specific IgM, IgA, and IgG against the candidate protein in human serum. OMPs of A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and 16 other clinical isolates of A. baumannii were extracted from an overnight culture grown at 37 °C. Protein profiles were obtained using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analysis was performed to detect the presence of IgM, IgA, and IgG against the OMP in host serum. An antigenic 34.4-kDa OMP was uniquely recognized by IgM, IgA, and IgG from patients with A. baumannii infection, and it did not cross-react with sera from patients with other types of infection. The band was also found in the other 16 A. baumannii isolates. This 34.4-kDa OMP is a prime candidate for development of a diagnostic test for the presence of A. baumannii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification*
  12. Loh LC, Yii CT, Lai KK, Seevaunnamtum SP, Pushparasah G, Tong JM
    Clin Microbiol Infect, 2006 Jun;12(6):597-8.
    PMID: 16700715
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification*
  13. Teerawattanapong N, Panich P, Kulpokin D, Na Ranong S, Kongpakwattana K, Saksinanon A, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2018 05;39(5):525-533.
    PMID: 29580299 DOI: 10.1017/ice.2018.58
    OBJECTIVETo summarize the clinical burden (cumulative incidence, prevalence, case fatality rate and length of stay) and economic burden (healthcare cost) of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) among patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in Southeast Asia.DESIGNSystematic review.METHODSWe conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, EconLit, and the Cochrane Library databases from their inception through September 30, 2016. Clinical and economic burdens and study quality were assessed for each included study.RESULTSIn total, 41 studies met our inclusion criteria; together, 22,876 ICU patients from 7 Southeast Asian countries were included. The cumulative incidence of HAI caused by A. baumannii (AB) in Southeast Asia is substantially higher than has been reported in other regions, especially carbapenem-resistant AB (CRAB; 64.91%) and multidrug-resistant AB (MDR-AB) (58.51%). Evidence of a dose-response relationship between different degrees of drug resistance and excess mortality due to AB infections was observed. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-3.00) for MDR-AB, 1.72 (95% CI, 0.77-3.80) for extensively drug-resistant AB (XDR-AB), and 1.82 (95% CI, 0.55-6.00) for pandrug-resistant AB (PDR-AB). There is, however, a paucity of published data on additional length of stay and costs attributable to MDROs.CONCLUSIONSThis review highlights the challenges in addressing MDROs in Southeast Asia, where HAIs caused by MDR gram-negative bacteria are abundant and have a strong impact on society. With our findings, we hope to draw the attention of clinicians and policy makers to the problem of antibiotic resistance and to issue a call for action in the management of MDROs.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:525-533.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  14. Nor A'shimi MH, Alattraqchi AG, Mohd Rani F, A Rahman NI, Ismail S, Abdullah FH, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2019 07 31;13(7):626-633.
    PMID: 32065820 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.11455
    INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen that has the capacity to develop resistance to all classes of antimicrobial compounds. However, very little is known regarding its susceptibility to biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants) and capacity to form biofilms, particularly for Malaysian isolates.

    AIM: To determine the susceptibility of A. baumannii isolates to commonly-used biocides, investigate their biofilm-forming capacities and the prevalence of biocide resistance and biofilm-associated genes.

    METHODOLOGY: . The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100 A. baumannii hospital isolates from Terengganu, Malaysia, towards the biocides benzalkonium chloride (BZK), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX), were determined by broth microdilution. The isolates were also examined for their ability to form biofilms in 96-well microplates. The prevalence of biocide resistance genes qacA, qacE and qacDE1 and the biofilm-associated genes bap and abaI were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    RESULTS: Majority of the A. baumannii isolates (43%) showed higher MIC values (> 50 µg/mL) for CLX than for BZK (5% for MIC > 50 µg/mL) and BZT (9% for MIC > 50 µg/mL). The qacDE1 gene was predominant (63%) followed by qacE (28%) whereas no isolate was found harbouring qacA. All isolates were positive for the bap and abaI genes although the biofilm-forming capacity varied among the isolates.

    CONCLUSION: The Terengganu A. baumannii isolates showed higher prevalence of qacDE1 compared to qacE although no correlation was found with the biocides' MIC values. No correlation was also observed between the isolates' biofilm-forming capacity and the MIC values for the biocides.

    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  15. Biglari S, Alfizah H, Ramliza R, Rahman MM
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2015 Jan;64(Pt 1):53-8.
    PMID: 25381148 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.082263-0
    Antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a growing public health concern and an important pathogen in nosocomial infections. We investigated the genes involved in resistance to carbapenems and cephalosporins in clinical A. baumannii isolates from a tertiary medical centre in Malaysia. A. baumannii was isolated from 167 clinical specimens and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The MIC for imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime and cefepime were determined by the E-test method. The presence of carbapenemase and cephalosporinase genes was investigated by PCR. The isolates were predominantly nonsusceptible to carbapenems and cephalosporins (>70 %) with high MIC values. ISAba1 was detected in all carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii harbouring the blaOXA-23-like gene. The presence of blaOXA-51-like and ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 was not associated with nonsusceptibility to carbapenems. A. baumannii isolates harbouring ISAba1-blaADC (85.8 %) were significantly associated with nonsusceptibility to cephalosporins (P<0.0001). However, ISAba1-blaADC was not detected in a minority (<10 %) of the isolates which were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins. The acquired OXA-23 enzymes were responsible for nonsusceptibility to carbapenems in our clinical A. baumannii isolates and warrant continuous surveillance to prevent further dissemination of this antibiotic resistance gene. The presence of ISAba1 upstream of the blaADC was a determinant for cephalosporin resistance. However, the absence of this ISAba1-blaADC in some of the isolates may suggest other resistance mechanisms and need further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  16. Deris ZZ, Shafei MN, Harun A
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;1(4):313-5.
    PMID: 23569782 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60050-6
    To determine the risk factors and outcomes of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) bloodstream infection (BSI) cases, since there is very little publication on Acinetobacter baumannii infections from Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
  17. Biglari S, Hanafiah A, Mohd Puzi S, Ramli R, Rahman M, Lopes BS
    Microb Drug Resist, 2017 Jul;23(5):545-555.
    PMID: 27854165 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2016.0130
    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has increasingly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profiles and genetic diversity in A. baumannii clinical isolates in a tertiary medical center in Malaysia. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), cephalosporins (ceftazidime and cefepime), and ciprofloxacin were determined by E-test. PCR and sequencing were carried out for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes and mutations. Clonal relatedness among A. baumannii isolates was determined by REP-PCR. Sequence-based typing of OXA-51 and multilocus sequence typing were performed. One hundred twenty-five of 162 (77.2%) A. baumannii isolates had MDR phenotype. From the 162 A. baumannii isolates, 20 strain types were identified and majority of A. baumannii isolates (66%, n = 107) were classified as strain type 1 and were positive for ISAba1-blaOXA-23and ISAba1-blaADCand had mutations in both gyrA and parC genes at positions, 83 and 80, resulting in serine-to-leucine conversion. REP-PCR analysis showed 129 REP types that generated 31 clones with a 90% similarity cutoff value. OXA-66 variant of the blaOXA-51-likegenes was predominantly detected among our A. baumannii clinical isolates belonging to ST195 (found in six clones: 1, 8, 9, 19, 27, and 30) and ST208 (found in clone 21). The study helps us in understanding the genetic diversity of A. baumannii isolates in our setting and confirms that international clone II is the most widely distributed clone in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification
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