Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Razman AZ, Chua YA, Mohd Kasim NA, Al-Khateeb A, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Jusoh SA, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Nov 29;23(23).
    PMID: 36499307 DOI: 10.3390/ijms232314971
    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is caused by mutations in lipid metabolism genes, predominantly in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) and LDL receptor adaptor protein 1 (LDLRAP1). The prevalence of genetically confirmed FH and the detection rate of pathogenic variants (PV) amongst clinically diagnosed patients is not well established. Targeted next-generation sequencing of LDLR, APOB, PCSK9 and LDLRAP1 was performed on 372 clinically diagnosed Malaysian FH subjects. Out of 361 variants identified, 40 of them were PV (18 = LDLR, 15 = APOB, 5 = PCSK9 and 2 = LDLRAP1). The majority of the PV were LDLR and APOB, where the frequency of both PV were almost similar. About 39% of clinically diagnosed FH have PV in PCSK9 alone and two novel variants of PCSK9 were identified in this study, which have not been described in Malaysia and globally. The prevalence of genetically confirmed potential FH in the community was 1:427, with a detection rate of PV at 0.2% (12/5130). About one-fourth of clinically diagnosed FH in the Malaysian community can be genetically confirmed. The detection rate of genetic confirmation is similar between potential and possible FH groups, suggesting a need for genetic confirmation in index cases from both groups. Clinical and genetic confirmation of FH index cases in the community may enhance the early detection of affected family members through family cascade screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  2. Zain SM, Mohamed Z, Mohamed R
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2015 Jan;30(1):21-7.
    PMID: 25167786 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12714
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although studies have suggested that rs780094, a common variant in the glucokinase regulatory (GCKR) gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and their related traits, the genetic basis of the association between GCKR rs780094 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still being examined. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect strength caused by GCKR rs780094 on NAFLD.
    METHODS: We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for relevant articles published up to April 2014. Data were extracted, and summary estimates of the association between GCKR rs780094 and NAFLD were examined. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also examined.
    RESULTS: This meta-analysis incorporated a total of 2091 NAFLD cases and 3003 controls from five studies. Overall, the pooled result indicated that the GCKR rs780094 was significantly associated with increased risk of NAFLD (additive: odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.36, P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  3. Jamalpour S, Zain SM, Mosavat M, Mohamed Z, Omar SZ
    Gene, 2018 Apr 15;650:34-40.
    PMID: 29410004 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.01.091
    BACKGROUND: Although the influence of a common variant in the glucokinase regulatory gene (GCKR rs780094) in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been well documented, less data however, is available of its role in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We carried out a case control study to assess the association between GCKR rs780094 and GDM in the Asian, and also a meta-analysis to further assess the strength of the association.

    METHODS: Demographic, clinical and genotype data were determined for 1122 women (267 cases and 855 controls) recruited from the University of Malaya Medical Centre in the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur. Relevant articles were identified from Pubmed, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science. Extraction of data was carried out and summary estimates of the association between rs780094 and GDM were examined.

    RESULTS: The frequency of risk allele C was significantly higher in the cases than controls (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.66, P = 0.006). The C allele was also associated with increased level of random 2-hour fasting plasma glucose and pregravid body mass index. Meta-analysis further confirmed the association of the GCKR rs780094 with GDM (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14-1.52, P = 0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: This study strongly suggests that GCKR rs780094-C is associated with increased risk of GDM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  4. Ishigaki K, Sakaue S, Terao C, Luo Y, Sonehara K, Yamaguchi K, et al.
    Nat Genet, 2022 Nov;54(11):1640-1651.
    PMID: 36333501 DOI: 10.1038/s41588-022-01213-w
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a highly heritable complex disease with unknown etiology. Multi-ancestry genetic research of RA promises to improve power to detect genetic signals, fine-mapping resolution and performances of polygenic risk scores (PRS). Here, we present a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of RA, which includes 276,020 samples from five ancestral groups. We conducted a multi-ancestry meta-analysis and identified 124 loci (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  5. Jamee M, Azizi G, Baris S, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Ozen A, Kiliç SŞ, et al.
    Clin Immunol, 2022 Nov;244:109131.
    PMID: 36179983 DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2022.109131
    Monogenic immune dysregulation diseases (MIDD) are caused by defective immunotolerance. This study was designed to increase knowledge on the prevalence and spectrum of MIDDs, genetic patterns, and outcomes in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). MIDD patients from 11 MENA countries (Iran, Turkey, Kuwait, Oman, Algeria, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Tunisia, Jordan, Qatar, and Azerbaijan) were retrospectively evaluated. 343 MIDD patients (58% males and 42% female) at a median (IQR) age of 101 (42-192) months were enrolled. The most common defective genes were LRBA (23.9%), LYST (8.2%), and RAB27A (7.9%). The most prevalent initial and overall manifestations were infections (32.2% and 75.1%), autoimmunity (18.6% and 41%), and organomegaly (13.3% and 53.8%), respectively. Treatments included immunoglobulin replacement therapy (53%), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (14.3%), immunosuppressives (36.7%), and surgery (3.5%). Twenty-nine (59.2%) patients survived HSCT. Along with infectious complications, autoimmunity and organomegaly may be the initial or predominant manifestations of MIDD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  6. Nizam ZM, Abdul Aziz AA, Kaur G, Abu Hassan MR, Mohd Sidek AS, Yeh LY, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(2):619-24.
    PMID: 23621208
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) exists in a more common sporadic form and less common hereditary forms, associated with the Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and other rare syndromes. Sporadic CRC is believed to arise as a result of close interaction between environmental factors, including dietary and lifestyle habits, and genetic predisposition factors. In contrast, hereditary forms such as those related to the Lynch syndrome result from inheritance of germline mutations of mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, in certain cases, the influence of low penetrance alleles in familial colorectal cancer susceptibility is also undeniable.

    AIM: To investigate the genotype frequencies of MLH1 promoter polymorphism -93G>A and to determine whether it could play any role in modulating familial and sporadic CRC susceptibility risk.

    METHODS: A case-control study comprising of 104 histopathologically confirmed CRC patients as cases (52 sporadic CRC and 52 Lynch syndrome patients) and 104 normal healthy individuals as controls was undertaken. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the polymorphism was genotyped employing PCR-RFLP methods. The genotypes were categorized into homozygous wild type, heterozygous and homozygous variants. The risk association between these polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility risk was calculated using binary logistic regression analysis and deriving odds ratios (ORs).

    RESULTS: When risk association was investigated for all CRC patients as a single group, the heterozygous (G/A) genotype showed a significantly higher risk for CRC susceptibility with an OR of 2.273, (95%CI: 1.133-4.558 and p-value=0.021). When analyzed specifically for the 2 types of CRC, the heterozygous (G/A) genotype showed significantly higher risk for sporadic CRC susceptibility with and OR of 3.714, (95%CI: 1.416-9.740 and p-value=0.008). Despite high OR value was observed for Lynch syndrome (OR: 1.600, 95%CI: 0.715-3.581), the risk was not statistically significant (P=0.253).

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an influence of MLH1 promoter polymorphism -93G>A in modulating susceptibility risk in Malaysian CRC patients, especially those with sporadic disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  7. Mahil SK, Twelves S, Farkas K, Setta-Kaffetzi N, Burden AD, Gach JE, et al.
    J Invest Dermatol, 2016 11;136(11):2251-2259.
    PMID: 27388993 DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2016.06.618
    Prominent skin involvement is a defining characteristic of autoinflammatory disorders caused by abnormal IL-1 signaling. However, the pathways and cell types that drive cutaneous autoinflammatory features remain poorly understood. We sought to address this issue by investigating the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, a model of autoinflammatory disorders with predominant cutaneous manifestations. We specifically characterized the impact of mutations affecting AP1S3, a disease gene previously identified by our group and validated here in a newly ascertained patient resource. We first showed that AP1S3 expression is distinctively elevated in keratinocytes. Because AP1S3 encodes a protein implicated in autophagosome formation, we next investigated the effects of gene silencing on this pathway. We found that AP1S3 knockout disrupts keratinocyte autophagy, causing abnormal accumulation of p62, an adaptor protein mediating NF-κB activation. We showed that as a consequence, AP1S3-deficient cells up-regulate IL-1 signaling and overexpress IL-36α, a cytokine that is emerging as an important mediator of skin inflammation. These abnormal immune profiles were recapitulated by pharmacological inhibition of autophagy and verified in patient keratinocytes, where they were reversed by IL-36 blockade. These findings show that keratinocytes play a key role in skin autoinflammation and identify autophagy modulation of IL-36 signaling as a therapeutic target.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  8. Chi Soh JE, Abu N, Jamal R
    Immunotherapy, 2018 09;10(12):1093-1104.
    PMID: 30185136 DOI: 10.2217/imt-2018-0044
    The identification of cancer testis antigens (CTAs) has been an important finding in the search of potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. CTA is one of the subfamilies of the large tumor-associated antigens groups. It is aberrantly expressed in various types of human tumors but is absent in normal tissues except for the testis and placenta. This CTAs-restricted pattern of expression in human malignancies together with its potential immunogenic properties, has stirred the interest of many researchers to use CTAs as one of the ideal targets in cancer immunotherapy. To date, multiple studies have shown that CTAs-based vaccines can elicit clinical and immunological responses in different tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). This review details our current understanding of CTAs and CRC in regard to the expression and immunological responses as well as some of the critical hurdles in CTAs-based immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  9. Zain MA, Roffeei SN, Zainal NZ, Kanagasundram S, Mohamed Z
    Psychiatr Genet, 2013 Dec;23(6):258-61.
    PMID: 24064681 DOI: 10.1097/YPG.0000000000000015
    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of PDLIM5, rs7690296 and rs11097431, were genotyped using Mass-Array SNP genotyping by Sequenom technology in 244 bipolar disorder patients, 471 schizophrenia patients, and 601 control individuals who were Malay, Chinese, and Indian ethnic groups in the Malaysian population. A significant association was observed in allele frequency between the rs7690296 polymorphism and bipolar disorder in the Indian ethnic group [P=0.02, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.058, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.93]. A significant association was also observed between the rs7690296 polymorphism and schizophrenia under the recessive model for both Malay (P=0.02, adjusted OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12-3.10) and Indian (P=0.02, adjusted OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.10-3.37) ethnic groups. However, no association was detected between the rs11097431 polymorphism either with bipolar disorder or with schizophrenia. Therefore, it can be deduced that the nonsynonymous rs7690296 polymorphism could play an important role in the pathophysiology of both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  10. Zain MA, Jahan SN, Reynolds GP, Zainal NZ, Kanagasundram S, Mohamed Z
    BMC Med. Genet., 2012;13:91.
    PMID: 23031404 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-13-91
    One of the genes suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BPD) is PDLIM5, which encodes LIM domain protein. Our main objective was to examine the effect of olanzapine treatment on PDLIM5 mRNA expression in the peripheral blood leukocytes of BPD patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  11. Ramdas P, Rajihuzzaman M, Veerasenan SD, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    Cancer Genomics Proteomics, 2011 Jan-Feb;8(1):19-31.
    PMID: 21289334
    Tocotrienols belong to the vitamin E family and have multiple anticancer effects, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, pro-apoptosis and antimetastatic. This study aimed to identify the genes that are regulated in human breast cancer cells following exposure to various isomers of vitamin E as these may be potential targets for the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  12. Tan BS, Tiong KH, Choo HL, Chung FF, Hii LW, Tan SH, et al.
    Cell Death Dis, 2015;6:e1826.
    PMID: 26181206 DOI: 10.1038/cddis.2015.191
    p53 is the most frequently mutated tumor-suppressor gene in human cancers. Unlike other tumor-suppressor genes, p53 mutations mainly occur as missense mutations within the DNA-binding domain, leading to the expression of full-length mutant p53 protein. Mutant p53 proteins not only lose their tumor-suppressor function, but may also gain new oncogenic functions and promote tumorigenesis. Here, we showed that silencing of endogenous p53-R273H contact mutant, but not p53-R175H conformational mutant, reduced AKT phosphorylation, induced BCL2-modifying factor (BMF) expression, sensitized BIM dissociation from BCL-XL and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. Importantly, cancer cells harboring endogenous p53-R273H mutant were also found to be inherently resistant to anoikis and lack BMF induction following culture in suspension. Underlying these activities is the ability of p53-R273H mutant to suppress BMF expression that is dependent on constitutively active PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively, these findings suggest that p53-R273H can specifically drive AKT signaling and suppress BMF expression, resulting in enhanced cell survivability and anoikis resistance. These findings open the possibility that blocking of PI3K/AKT will have therapeutic benefit in mutant p53-R273H expressing cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  13. Martin D, Degese MS, Vitale-Cross L, Iglesias-Bartolome R, Valera JLC, Wang Z, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2018 07 09;9(1):2372.
    PMID: 29985391 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04590-1
    Dysregulation of the Hippo signaling pathway and the consequent YAP1 activation is a frequent event in human malignancies, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. A pancancer analysis of core Hippo kinases and their candidate regulating molecules revealed few alterations in the canonical Hippo pathway, but very frequent genetic alterations in the FAT family of atypical cadherins. By focusing on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which displays frequent FAT1 alterations (29.8%), we provide evidence that FAT1 functional loss results in YAP1 activation. Mechanistically, we found that FAT1 assembles a multimeric Hippo signaling complex (signalome), resulting in activation of core Hippo kinases by TAOKs and consequent YAP1 inactivation. We also show that unrestrained YAP1 acts as an oncogenic driver in HNSCC, and that targeting YAP1 may represent an attractive precision therapeutic option for cancers harboring genomic alterations in the FAT1 tumor suppressor genes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  14. Abdul Murad NA, Othman Z, Khalid M, Abdul Razak Z, Hussain R, Nadesan S, et al.
    Dig Dis Sci, 2012 Nov;57(11):2863-72.
    PMID: 22669205 DOI: 10.1007/s10620-012-2240-2
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide with approximately 1 million cases diagnosed annually. In Malaysia, CRC is the second most common cancer in women and ranked first in men. The underlying cause of CRC remains unknown.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze the mutations in genes involved in CRC including MLH1, MSH2, KRAS, and APC genes.

    METHODS: A total of 76 patients were recruited. We used the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for the detection of mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) and APC genes and the PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism for screening of the KRAS gene mutations.

    RESULTS: We identified 17 types of missense mutations in 38 out of 76 patients in our patients. Nine mutations were identified in the APC gene, five mutations were detected in the KRAS gene, and two mutations were identified in the MSH2 gene. Only one mutation was identified in MLH1. Out of these 17 mutations, eight mutations (47 %) were predicted to be pathogenic. Seven patients were identified with multiple mutations (3: MSH2 and KRAS, 1: KRAS and APC, 1: MLH1 and APC, 2: APC and APC).

    CONCLUSIONS: We have established the PCR-DHPLC and PCR-SSCP for screening of mutations in CRC patients. This study has given a snapshot of the spectrum of mutations in the four genes that were analyzed. Mutation screening in patients and their family members will help in the early detection of CRC and hence will reduce mortality due to CRC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  15. Zahary MN, Kaur G, Abu Hassan MR, Singh H, Naik VR, Ankathil R
    World J Gastroenterol, 2012 Feb 28;18(8):814-20.
    PMID: 22371642 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i8.814
    To investigate the protein expression profile of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in suspected cases of Lynch syndrome and to characterize the associated germline mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  16. Molineros JE, Yang W, Zhou XJ, Sun C, Okada Y, Zhang H, et al.
    Hum Mol Genet, 2017 03 15;26(6):1205-1216.
    PMID: 28108556 DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddx026
    We recently identified ten novel SLE susceptibility loci in Asians and uncovered several additional suggestive loci requiring further validation. This study aimed to replicate five of these suggestive loci in a Han Chinese cohort from Hong Kong, followed by meta-analysis (11,656 cases and 23,968 controls) on previously reported Asian and European populations, and to perform bioinformatic analyses on all 82 reported SLE loci to identify shared regulatory signatures. We performed a battery of analyses for these five loci, as well as joint analyses on all 82 SLE loci. All five loci passed genome-wide significance: MYNN (rs10936599, Pmeta = 1.92 × 10-13, OR = 1.14), ATG16L2 (rs11235604, Pmeta = 8.87 × 10 -12, OR = 0.78), CCL22 (rs223881, Pmeta = 5.87 × 10-16, OR = 0.87), ANKS1A (rs2762340, Pmeta = 4.93 × 10-15, OR = 0.87) and RNASEH2C (rs1308020, Pmeta = 2.96 × 10-19, OR = 0.84) and co-located with annotated gene regulatory elements. The novel loci share genetic signatures with other reported SLE loci, including effects on gene expression, transcription factor binding, and epigenetic characteristics. Most (56%) of the correlated (r2 > 0.8) SNPs from the 82 SLE loci were implicated in differential expression (9.81 × 10-198 
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  17. Zhou X, Li Y, Wang W, Wang S, Hou J, Zhang A, et al.
    Theranostics, 2020;10(21):9443-9457.
    PMID: 32863938 DOI: 10.7150/thno.46078
    Objective: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in China. Recent genomic sequencing analysis indicated the over-activation of Hippo/YAP signaling might play important roles for the carcinogenic process and progression for ESCC patients. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that controls Hippo signaling activity in ESCC. Our previous studies indicated that PLCE1-an important risk factor for ESCC-linked to ESCC progression through snail signaling, during this period, we found PARK2 was an important downstream target of PLCE1-snail axis. PARK2 was decreased in ESCC human samples, and correlated with good prognosis in ESCC patients. Further research showed that PARK2 could inhibit YAP, which functions as key downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway. Here, we aim to reveal the molecular mechanisms of PARK2 modulated Hippo pathway in ESCC. Methods: To evaluate the function of PARK2 in ESCC, we used a tissue microarray (TMA) of 223 human ESCC patients and immunohistochemistry to analyze the correlation between PARK2 expression and clinicopathologic variables. Depletion of endogenous PARK2 and YAP from ESCC cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technologies. Flow cytometry and EdU cell proliferation assay were used to detect proliferation of ESCC cells. Nude mice subcutaneous injection and Ki-67 staining were used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo. Migration and invasion assays were performed. In addition, lung metastasis models in mice were used to validate the function of PARK2 in vivo. Identification of PARK2 involved in hippo pathway was achieved by expression microarray screening, double immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation assays. The RNA-seq analysis results were validated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The protein half-life of YAP was analyzed by Cycloheximide assay, and the TEAD activity was detected by Luciferase reporter assays. Results: Clinical sample of ESCC revealed that low PARK2 expression correlated with late tumor stage (P < 0.001), poor differentiation (P < 0.04), lymph node (P < 0.001) and distant metastasis (P = 0.0087). Multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis further revealed that PARK2 expression (P = 0.032) is an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of ESCC patients. Besides, the immunohistochemistry results showed that PARK2 negatively correlated with YAP protein level (P < 0.001). PARK2 depletion promotes ESCC progression both through Hippo/YAP axis, while PARK2 overexpression suppresses ESCC tumor progression by Hippo signaling. Co-IP and ubiquitination assays revealed that PARK2 could interact with YAP in the cytosol and promotes YAP K48-linked ubiquitination at K90 sites. Conclusion: Clinical sample analysis and mechanistic study have validated PARK2 as a tumor suppressor for ESCC. Multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis further revealed that PARK2 is an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of ESCC patients. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in this study showed that PARK2 associated with YAP protein in the cytosol, promoted YAP ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation in ESCC cells. Therefore, as a novel modulator for Hippo signaling, modulation of PARK2 activity or gene expression level could be an appealing strategy to treat esophageal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  18. Lee YH, Pang SW, Poh CL, Tan KO
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2016 Sep;142(9):1967-77.
    PMID: 27424190 DOI: 10.1007/s00432-016-2205-5
    PURPOSE: Members of paraneoplastic Ma (PNMA) family have been identified as onconeuronal antigens, which aberrant expressions in cancer cells of patients with paraneoplastic disorder (PND) are closely linked to manifestation of auto-immunity, neuro-degeneration, and cancer. The purpose of present study was to determine the role of PNMA5 and its functional relationship to MOAP-1 (PNMA4) in human cancer cells.

    METHODS: PNMA5 mutants were generated through deletion or site-directed mutagenesis and transiently expressed in human cancer cell lines to investigate their role in apoptosis, subcellular localization, and potential interaction with MOAP-1 through apoptosis assays, fluorescence microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation studies, respectively.

    RESULTS: Over-expressed human PNMA5 exhibited nuclear localization pattern in both MCF-7 and HeLa cells. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that C-terminus of PNMA5 is responsible for nuclear localization, while the amino acid residues (391KRRR) within the C-terminus of PNMA5 are required for nuclear targeting. Deletion mapping and co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that PNMA5 interacts with MOAP-1 and N-terminal domain of PNMA5 is required for interaction with MOAP-1. Furthermore, co-expression of PNMA5 and MOAP-1 in MCF-7 cells significantly enhanced chemo-sensitivity of MCF-7 to Etoposide treatment, indicating that PNMA5 and MOAP-1 interact synergistically to promote apoptotic signaling in MCF-7 cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that PNMA5 promotes apoptosis signaling in HeLa and MCF-7 cells and interacts synergistically with MOAP-1 through its N-terminal domain to promote apoptosis and chemo-sensitivity in human cancer cells. The C-terminal domain of PNMA5 is required for nuclear localization; however, both N-and C-terminal domains of PNMA5 appear to be required for pro-apoptotic function.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
  19. Zhang L, Feng XK, Ng YK, Li SC
    BMC Genomics, 2016 Aug 18;17 Suppl 4:430.
    PMID: 27556418 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-2791-2
    BACKGROUND: Accurately identifying gene regulatory network is an important task in understanding in vivo biological activities. The inference of such networks is often accomplished through the use of gene expression data. Many methods have been developed to evaluate gene expression dependencies between transcription factor and its target genes, and some methods also eliminate transitive interactions. The regulatory (or edge) direction is undetermined if the target gene is also a transcription factor. Some methods predict the regulatory directions in the gene regulatory networks by locating the eQTL single nucleotide polymorphism, or by observing the gene expression changes when knocking out/down the candidate transcript factors; regrettably, these additional data are usually unavailable, especially for the samples deriving from human tissues.

    RESULTS: In this study, we propose the Context Based Dependency Network (CBDN), a method that is able to infer gene regulatory networks with the regulatory directions from gene expression data only. To determine the regulatory direction, CBDN computes the influence of source to target by evaluating the magnitude changes of expression dependencies between the target gene and the others with conditioning on the source gene. CBDN extends the data processing inequality by involving the dependency direction to distinguish between direct and transitive relationship between genes. We also define two types of important regulators which can influence a majority of the genes in the network directly or indirectly. CBDN can detect both of these two types of important regulators by averaging the influence functions of candidate regulator to the other genes. In our experiments with simulated and real data, even with the regulatory direction taken into account, CBDN outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches for inferring gene regulatory network. CBDN identifies the important regulators in the predicted network: 1. TYROBP influences a batch of genes that are related to Alzheimer's disease; 2. ZNF329 and RB1 significantly regulate those 'mesenchymal' gene expression signature genes for brain tumors.

    CONCLUSION: By merely leveraging gene expression data, CBDN can efficiently infer the existence of gene-gene interactions as well as their regulatory directions. The constructed networks are helpful in the identification of important regulators for complex diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
  20. Zhao Z, Malhotra A, Seng WY
    J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 2019;38(3):195-203.
    PMID: 31679307 DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2019029549
    UNCI 19 expression has been reported to be significantly higher in hepatic cancer cells (HCC). However, the clinical significance of modulating UNC119 expression in HCC is not well understood. The study described here aimed to explore the potential of curcumin in modulation of UNC119 expression in HCC by assessment with quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, and immune-histochemical analyses in HCC cell lines and tissues. The biological functions of UNC119 in the proliferation, growth, and cycle of tumor cells were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. UNC119 expression was upregulated in HCC cell lines and tissues as indicated by comparison with normal liver cells and tissues. Cellular function assays showed that higher levels of UNC119 not only promoted proliferation but also enhanced HCC cell migration and invasion. UNC119 promoted progression of the cell cycle and significantly promoted HCC cell growth through the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway, and enhanced tumor migration and invasion by the TGF-β/EMT pathway. Curcumin efficiently inhibited HCC cell proliferation by blocking the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inhabited migration and invasion by blocking the TGF-p/EMT signal pathway. Curcumin not only was beneficial for tumor remission but also contributed to the long-term survival of HCC-bearing mice. UNC119 was significantly upregulated and promoted cell growth in hepatic cancer cells and tissues by the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway and migration by TGF-β/EMT signal pathway. Curcumin treatment inhibited cell proliferation, growth, migration, and invasion by inhibition of those pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics*
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