Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)--tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) like erlotinib and gefitinib have been approved as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. The use of EGFR-TKI is associated with unique and dramatic dermatologic side effects. We report 2 patients with NSCLC developing a typical acneiform (papulo-pustular) eruption shortly after initiation of EGFR-TKI.
Our previous study had shown that P. amaryllifolius was able to selectively inhibit cell proliferation of hormone independent breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. To understand the mode of killing and mechanism of action for P. amaryllifolius, the ethanol extract was evaluated for their alteration of cell cycle progression, PS externalization, DNA fragmentation and expression of anti/pro-apoptotic related protein.
Gefitinib inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase and improves survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. We report 2 patients with extensive lytic bony metastasis in the spine and pelvis secondary to advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma who were treated with gefitinib and had remarkable bone formation in the lytic bone lesions in the spine and pelvis. Surgery for stabilisation was avoided.
With cancer being one of the major causes of death around the world, studies are ongoing to find new chemotherapeutic leads. There are common mechanisms for colorectal cancer (CRC) formation. Several are connected with oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis and others are related to imbalanced homeostasis or intake of drugs/toxins. Plants that have been used for decades in folk and traditional medicine have been accepted as one of the commonest sources of discovered natural agents of cancer chemotherapy and chemoprevention. The aim was to study the antioxidant and chemopreventive effects of Strobilanthes crispus on colorectal cancer formation.
To evaluate the response and progression-free survival (PFS) of Malaysian patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and unknown epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status treated with gefitinib.
Studies have shown that ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) can induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of several cancer cells. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of the PPARgamma ligand, ciglitazone, and the involvement of PPARgamma in modulating the growth of human colorectal cancer cells. Lactate dehydrogenase release assay showed that ciglitazone potently inhibited HT-29 (well-differentiated) and COLO-205 (poorly differentiated) colorectal adenocarcinoma cell growth. Measurement of apoptosis by flow cytometry using a fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody against cytokeratin 18 revealed a high induction of apoptosis by ciglitazone in a time-dependent fashion. The expression of PPARgamma1 but not PPARgamma2 mRNA was significantly downregulated as measured by real-time quantitative PCR, and the PPARgamma protein levels were decreased as determined by Western blot analysis. We conclude that ciglitazone treatment suppressed colon cancer cell growth via induction of apoptosis. However, the anticancer effects of ciglitazone may not depend solely on PPARgamma activation.
While the development of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors has been hailed as a remarkable triumph in the field of oncology, it has inherited with it a host of cutaneous side-effects that have been increasingly observed in a substantial number of patients in the recent years. One cutaneous manifestation that may inflict significant pain and affect activities of daily living among some of the patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors is paronychia. A case of paronychia associated with the use of cetuximab in the management of KRAS wild-type midrectal adenocarcinoma along with its management has been described.
The aim of the current study is to design a new nanocomposite for inducing cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and oxaliplatin toward MDA-MB231, MCF-7, and Caco2 cell lines. A hippuric acid (HA) zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) nanocomposite was synthesized under an aqueous environment using HA and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the precursors.
Patients undergoing radical surgical treatment for Stage IB and IIA cervical carcinoma are at high risk of developing local recurrence and/or distant metastases when one or more of the following factors are present: presence of metastatic pelvic lymph nodes, a large primary growth, full-thickness tumor invasion of the cervix, clinically undetected parametrial extension, and lymphatic/vascular channel permeation in the cervix by tumor cells. Carcinoma of the cervix appears to be behaving like a systemic disease. Therefore, systemic measures should be considered in its therapy. The authors report the initial experience with the use of mitomycin C as a single agent adjuvant in 16 patients with Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix who had undergone Wertheim radical hysterectomy and were thought to be in this high-risk group. Fourteen of the patients are alive and free of disease after durations of follow-up ranging from 16 to 38 months, the disease-free survival at a median follow-up of 29 months being 87.5%. One patient required discontinuation of adjuvant chemotherapy because of severe marrow toxicity; however, in view of the presence of a multiple risk factors, pelvic irradiation was given instead. She died 13 months later from disseminated disease. A second patient died 6 months later from congestive cardiac failure.
Twelve patients with advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated with mitomycin, vinblastine and cisplatin (MVP) combination chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 33% (4 partial responses and no complete response) with a median survival of seven months. One responder above subsequently achieved complete remission following successful resection of his tumour and is still alive 14 months after initial chemotherapy. Responses were observed in patients with good performance status and limited disease. Side-effects were generally well tolerated and manageable. MVP is an effective regimen and the low response rate achieved here as compared to other centres is also discussed.
The incidence of prostate cancer malignancy along with other cancer types is increasing worldwide, resulting in high mortality rate due to lack of effective medications. Moringa oleifera has been used for the treatment of communicable and non-communicable ailments across tropical countries, yet, little has been documented regarding its effect on prostate cancer. We evaluated the acute toxicity and apoptosis inducing effect of glucomoringin-isothiocyanate rich soluble extracts (GMG-ITC-RSE) from M. oleifera in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Glucomoringin was isolated, identified, and characterized using fundamental analytical chemistry tools where Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, murine fibroblast (3T3), and human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC-3) were used for acute toxicity and bioassays experiments. GMG-ITC-RSE did not instigate adverse toxic reactions to the animals even at high doses (2000 mg/kg body weight) and affected none of the vital organs in the rats. The extract exhibited high levels of safety in 3T3 cells, where more than 90% of the cells appeared viable when treated with the extract in a time-dependent manner even at high dose (250 µg/mL). GMG-ITC-RSE significantly triggered morphological aberrations distinctive to apoptosis observed under microscope. These findings obviously revealed the putative safety of GMG-ITC-RSE in vivo and in vitro, in addition to its anti-proliferative effect on PC-3 cells.
Glucoraphasatin (GRH), a glucosinolate present abundantly in the plants of the Brassicaceae family, is hydrolyzed by myrosinase to raphasatin, which is considered responsible for its cancer chemopreventive activity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action have not been investigated, particularly in human cell lines. The aims of this study are to determine the cytotoxicity of raphasatin, and to evaluate its potential to cause apoptosis and modulate cell cycle arrest in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxicity was determined following incubation of the cells with glucoraphasatin or raphasatin (0⁻100 µM), for 24, 48, and 72 h. GRH displayed no cytotoxicity as exemplified by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. When myrosinase was added to the incubation system to convert GRH to raphasatin, cytotoxicity was evident. Exposure of the cells to raphasatin stimulated apoptosis, as was exemplified by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, using Annexin V-FITC assay, raphasatin induced apoptosis, as witnessed by changes in cellular distribution of cells, at different stages of apoptosis; in addition, raphasatin caused the arrest of the MCF-7 cells at the G₂ + M phase. In conclusion, raphasatin demonstrated cancer chemopreventive potential against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells, through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
The success of wound healing depends upon the proper growth of vascular system in time in the damaged tissues. Poor blood supply to wounded tissues or tissue engineered grafts leads to the failure of wound healing or rejection of grafts. In present paper, we report the synthesis of novel organosoluble and pro-angiogenic chitosan derivative (CSD) by the reaction of chitosan with 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid and triethylorthoformate (TEOF). The synthesized material was characterized by FTIR and 13C-NMR to confirm the incorporated functional groups and new covalent connectivities. Biodegradability of the synthesized chitosan derivative was tested in the presence of lysozyme and was found to be comparable with CS. The cytotoxicity and apoptosis effect of new derivative was determined against gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells and was found to be non-toxic. The CSD was found to be soluble in majority of organic solvents. It was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to form composite scaffolds. From an ex ovo CAM assay, it was noted that CSD stimulated the angiogenesis.
The new series of pentacyclic triterpenoids reduced lantadene A (3), B (4), and 22β-hydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (5) analogs were synthesized and tested in vitro for their NF-κB and IKKβ inhibitory potencies and cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells. The lead analog (11) showed sub-micromolar activity against TNF-α induced activation of NF-κB and exhibited inhibition of IKKβ in a single-digit micromolar dose. At the same time, 11 showed promising cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 of 0.98 μM. The Western blot analysis further showed that the suppression of NF-κB activity by the lead analog 11 was due to the inhibition of IκBα degradation, a natural inhibitor of NF-κB. The physicochemical evaluation demonstrated that the lead analog 11 was stable in the simulated gastric fluid of pH 2, while hydrolyzed at a relatively higher rate in the human blood plasma to release the active parent moieties. Molecular docking analysis showed that 11 was hydrogen bonded with the Arg-31 and Gln-110 residues of the IKKβ.
The present study aims to develop and explore the use of PEGylated rapamycin (RP-MPEG) micelles for the treatment of gastric cancer. RP-MPEG was synthesized and characterized by using IR, H(1) NMR and C(13) NMR. RP-MPEG was prepared in the form of micelles and characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta sizer, chromatographic analyses and photostability studies. The cytotoxicity studies of RP-MPEG micelles were conducted on specific CRL 1739 human gastric adenocarcinoma and CRL 1658 NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines. RP-MPEG micelles showed the particle size distribution of 125±0.26 nm with narrow size distribution (polydispersity index 0.127±0.01). The surface charge of RP-MPEG micelles was found to be -12.3 mV showing enhanced anticancer activity against the CRL 1739 human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines with an IC50 value of 1 mcg/ml.
Fevicordin-A (FevA) isolated from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl. seeds was evaluated for its potential anticancer activity by in vitro and in silico approaches. Cytotoxicity studies indicated that FevA was selective against cell lines of human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) with an IC50 value of 6.4 µM. At 11.2 µM, FevA resulted in 76.8% cell death of T-47D human breast cancer cell lines. Critical pharmacophore features amongst human Estrogen Receptor-α (hERα) antagonists were conserved in FevA with regard to a hypothesis that they could make notable contributions to its pharmacological activity. The binding stability as well as the dynamic behavior of FevA towards the hERα receptor in agonist and antagonist binding sites were probed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach. Analysis of MD simulation suggested that the tail of FevA was accountable for the repulsion of the C-terminal of Helix-11 (H11) in both agonist and antagonist receptor forms. The flexibility of loop-534 indicated the ability to disrupt the hydrogen bond zipper network between H3 and H11 in hERα. In addition, MM/GBSA calculation from the molecular dynamic simulations also revealed a stronger binding affinity of FevA in antagonistic action as compared to that of agonistic action. Collectively, both the experimental and computational results indicated that FevA has potential as a candidate for an anticancer agent, which is worth promoting for further preclinical evaluation.
Breast cancer is one of the most dreading types of cancer among women. Herbal medicine has becoming a potential source of treatment for breast cancer. Herbal plant Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff) Martelli under the family Dilleniaceae has been traditionally used to treat cancerous growth. In this study, the anticancer effect of ethyl acetate extract of D. suffruticosa (EADs) was examined on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 and the molecular pathway involved was elucidated.
Cancer nanotherapeutics is beginning to overwhelm the global research and viewed to be the revolutionary treatment regime in the medical field. This investigation describes the development of a stable nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) system as carrier for Tamoxifen (TAM). The TAM-loaded NLC (TAM-NLC) developed with 200mg of TAM showed a spherical particle with the size of 46.6nm, polydispersity index of 0.267, entrapment efficiency of 99.74% and with the zeta potential of -23.78mV. Besides, the equivalent cytotoxicity of TAM and TAM-NLC to human (MCF-7) and mice (4T1) mammary breast cancer cell lines were observed. Incubating the formulation at the physiological pH resulted into reduced Ostwald ripening rate but without any significant change in the absorptivity. When coupled with the measurements of zeta potential and Ostwald ripening rate, the absorbance assay may be used to predict the long-term stability of drug-loaded nanoparticle formulations. The results of the study also suggest that TAM-NLC is a promising drug delivery system for breast cancer therapy. This is the first encouraging report on the in vitro effect of TAM-NLC against human and mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines.
PURPOSE: To assess the survival benefit of early vs late salvage hormonal therapy (HT), we performed a secondary analysis on patients who developed recurrence from Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01, a randomized trial comparing 4 vs 8 months neoadjuvant HT plus radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate- and high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 102 patients from the trial who recurred were analyzed at a median follow-up of 8.5 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of salvage HT: 57 patients had prostate-specific antigen (PSA)≤10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 1, early), 21 patients had PSA>10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 2, late), and 24 patients had distant metastases (group 3, late). The endpoint analyzed was overall survival (OS) calculated from 2 different time points: date of enrolment in the trial (OS1) and date of initiation of salvage HT (OS2). Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression model.
RESULTS: The OS1 differed significantly between groups (P