Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 101 in total

  1. Go, Zher Lin, Low, Qin Jian, Nurul Aisyah Abd Rahman, Ng, Ling Fong, Faizah Ahmad, Lau, Ngee Siang
    Prurigo nodularis (PN) is an uncommon skin condition known to be associated with underlying systemic diseases. This case report is about PN secondary to underlying Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A 30-year-old man presented with this skin condition three months before lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms due to lymphoma. He had made multiple visits to general practitioners for the disturbing rash, given multiple courses of topical treatment without relief. His PN showed marked improvement after initiation of chemotherapy. This case reminds that an unexplained skin condition should prompt clinicians for investigating for an underlying systemic disease. This case, to our knowledge, is the first Hodgkin’s lymphoma-associated prurigo nodularis reported in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  2. Yong MH, Che Hamzah J
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 07;75(4):342-348.
    PMID: 32723992
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost effectiveness of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) compared to topical anti-glaucoma medications in step-up treatment of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).

    METHODS: Seventeen POAG patients with suboptimal IOP control despite pre-existing topical medications were subjected to adjunct SLT (50 applications 180 degrees) or second line medical therapy. Current medications were continued, and patients were followed up for 6 months for degree of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering. HRQoL was assessed using Glaucoma Quality of Life 36-item (GlauQoL-36), Assessment of Quality of Life-7D (AQoL-7D) and Vision related Quality of Life (VisQoL). Costs involved were calculated and compared to the effect (IOP reduction) achieved in each arm.

    RESULTS: Ten patients were in the SLT group and 7 in the topical medication (MED) group. Mean baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 18.90±3.48mmHg in SLT group and 15.57±2.23mmHg in MED group. Mean reduction of IOP was 4.30±1.64mmHg in SLT group and 2.71±2.56 mmHg in MED group at 6 months which was not statistically significant (p=0.14) between two groups. All the HRQoL questionnaires did not show significant changes in the groups or between groups when compared baseline with 6-month post treatment (p-values ranging from 0.247 to 0.987). For every 1mmHg reduction in IOP, cost involved in MED group (RM53.61) was 165% of the cost involved in SLT group (RM32.56).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study has shown that SLT was as effective clinically and tolerable as topical anti glaucoma medications and was possibly more cost effective in the step-up treatment of patients with POAG at 6 months follow- up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical*
  3. Bastion ML, Ling KP
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Jun;68(3):208-16.
    PMID: 23749008 MyJurnal
    PURPOSE: To investigate whether topical insulin improves healing rate of corneal epithelial erosions induced during vitreoretinal surgery in diabetics.
    METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed case notes and serial post-operative photographs of 15 eyes of 14 patients who had corneal epithelial debridement performed during various vitreoretinal surgeries to improve one surgeon's view over a 10 month period in 2010.
    RESULTS: Three groups were identified: DTI, comprising diabetics who received topical insulin 1 unit qds postoperatively (n=5); DCT comprising diabetics treated with conventional post-operative medications only (n=5) and NDCT comprising non diabetic patients on conventional post operative therapy (n=5). Only eyes in which the corneal epithelial defect had been serially photographed at time, t= 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 120 hours following commencement of topical medications were included. The size of the defect was calculated using local software. DTI eyes had a significantly smaller defect size at t= 24 (p=0.009), 36 (p=0.009), 48 (p=0.015) and 60 hours (p=0.005) compared to DCT eyes and had no statistical difference from NDCT eyes at all times in the Mann Whitney U analysis (p>0.05). In the diabetic operated bilaterally, the insulin treated eye re-epithelialised by 48 hours whereas fellow eye treated conventionally re-epithelialised in 72 hours.
    CONCLUSIONS: Topical insulin or insulin eye drops 1 unit qds may be applied to the corneal surface to normalize the rate of healing of epithelial defects in diabetic patients undergoing epithelial debridement to improve the surgeon's view.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  4. Mohd Nor NH, Aziz Z
    J Dermatolog Treat, 2013 Oct;24(5):377-86.
    PMID: 22658322 DOI: 10.3109/09546634.2012.699179
    OBJECTIVE: Comparative trials of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) have yielded contradictory results on its effectiveness for acne vulgaris. The aim of the study was to synthesise the evidence for the effectiveness of BPO-containing topical products for facial acne vulgaris.
    DESIGN: Systematic review.
    METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and other relevant databases were searched without publication date or language restriction.
    RESULTS: We identified 22 trials involving 2212 participants; 12 trials compared BPO as single agent while the other 10 trials compared BPO in combination products. All trials reported lesion count as the outcome measure but only five trials provided numerical data. However, pooling of data from these trials was inappropriate due to variations between trials in terms of acne severity, comparator used and trial duration. Overall the study quality was fair but most studies had some bias particularly in method of random generation and allocation concealment. Although the results provide some evidence that BPO reduces acne-lesion count, the available evidence is not robust enough for firm conclusions.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is no high quality evidence that topical BPO improves facial acne vulgaris, and further research is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  5. Lin TS, Abd Latiff A, Abd Hamid NA, Wan Ngah WZ, Mazlan M
    PMID: 23097676 DOI: 10.1155/2012/491027
    Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I) diabetic rats receiving control cream (n = 6), (II) diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream (n = 6), and (III) diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream (n = 6). Four cutaneous wounds were created at the dorsal region of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by total protein content, rate of wound closure estimation, and histological studies on the tenth day after wounding. Tocopherol treatment enhanced the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure and total protein content significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. Histological observation also showed better organized epithelium and more collagen fibers in the tocopherol treated groups. Application of tocopherol cream enhances wound healing process in diabetic condition which is known to cause delay in wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  6. Azizan NZ, Gangaram HB, Hussein SH
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Mar;63(1):51-4.
    PMID: 18935734 MyJurnal
    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon, chronic, painful, ulcerative skin disease of unknown origin, often associated with systemic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis; monoclonal gammopathy, hepatitis and myeloproliferative disorders. The mainstay of therapy for PG has been high-dose corticosteroids but not all patients have a favourable outcome. Other systemic agents have also been used such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and tacrolimus. However, all these systemic therapies can be complicated by serious side effects. In this paper, we report a series of four patients with pyoderma gangrenosum treated successfully with topical cyclosporine. No side-effects were observed in any of the patients and there was minimal systemic absorption of the topical cyclosporine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  7. Ayumi NS, Sahudin S, Hussain Z, Hussain M, Samah NHA
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):482-496.
    PMID: 29569027 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0508-6
    To investigate the use of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-TPP-NPs) as carriers for α- and β-arbutin. In this study, CS-TPP-NPs containing α- and β-arbutin were prepared via the ionic cross-linking of CS and TPP and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and dispersity index. The entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of various β-arbutin concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) were also investigated. SEM, TEM FTIR, DSC and TGA analyses of the nanoparticles were performed to further characterize the nanoparticles. Finally, stability and release studies were undertaken to ascertain further the suitability of the nanoparticles as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin. Data obtained clearly indicates the potential for use of CS-TPP-NPs as a carrier for the delivery of α- and β-arbutin. The size obtained for the alpha nanoparticles (α-arbutin CSNPs) ranges from 147 to 274 d.nm, with an increase in size with increasing alpha arbutin concentration. β-arbutin nanoparticles (β-arbutin CSNPs) size range was from 211.1 to 284 dn.m. PdI for all nanoparticles remained between 0.2-0.3 while the zeta potential was between 41.6-52.1 mV. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% α-arbutin CSNPs were 71 and 77%, respectively. As for β-arbutin, CSNP optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% concentration were 68 and 74%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy for α-arbutin CSNPs showed a more spherical shape compared to β-arbutin CSNPs where rod-shaped particles were observed. However, under transmission electron microscopy, the shapes of both α- and β-arbutin CSNP nanoparticles were spherical. The crystal phase identification of the studied samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the XRD of both α and β-arbutin CSNPs showed to be more crystalline in comparison to their free form. FTIR spectra showed intense characteristic peaks of chitosan appearing at 3438.3 cm-1 (-OH stretching), 2912 cm-1 (-CH stretching), represented 1598.01 cm-1 (-NH2) for both nanoparticles. Stability studies conducted for 90 days revealed that both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs were stable in solution. Finally, release studies of both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs showed a significantly higher percentage release in comparison to α- and β-arbutin in their free form. Chitosan nanoparticles demonstrate considerable promise as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin, the use of which is anticipated to improve delivery of arbutin through the skin, in order to improve its efficacy as a whitening agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  8. Mohd Ali N, Lee CC, Mohd Akhir NSN, Ahmad Izani AS, Leong CT, Muneswarao J, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2020 04 10;12(2):201-209.
    PMID: 32742120 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_140_19
    Aim and Objective: The success of topical treatment in patients with psoriasis is still below par in Malaysia. The contributing factors include patients' understanding and knowledge about prescribed topical medications. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of color and picture labeling (C and P labeling) in improving the knowledge about topical medications among patients with psoriasis.

    Materials and Methods: An unblinded randomized controlled trial was undertaken at the dermatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Consent from the patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were obtained, and they were included in this study. They were randomized into two groups, namely Gp-1 (C and P labeling) and Gp-2 (conventional labeling). Both groups were assessed at week 0, 6, and 12 (visit 1, 2, and 3) using knowledge assessment list and psoriasis severity assessment score. For visit 2 (week 6), reinforcement of their understanding of topical treatment was performed.

    Results: A total of 101 patients were recruited. Only 91 of them completed the study. The mean ages were 44.52 (±16.61) and 45.49 (±15.84) years, with 70.3% males and approximately half Malay ethnics. The changes of knowledge and comparison of Topical Application Assessment Score between the groups showed an incremental raise of significance with every visit (P = 0.006 [week 1], 0.004 [week 6], and 0.002 [week 12]). Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 75 could not draw any conclusion as patients who achieved >75% improvement were inadequate.

    Conclusion: C and P labeling was effective in improving the understanding and knowledge of patients with psoriasis. Both groups showed improvement in body surface area and Dermatology Life Quality Index for every visit; however, it was statistically insignificant.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  9. Said Z, Murdoch C, Hansen J, Siim Madsen L, Colley HE
    Eur J Oral Sci, 2021 04;129(2):e12761.
    PMID: 33645844 DOI: 10.1111/eos.12761
    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated disease of the oral mucosa with idiopathic aetiology. It is frequently treated with topical corticosteroids (applied as gels, mouthwashes, or sprays); however, the mucosal exposure times of topical corticosteroids are short because of removal by the constant flow of saliva and mechanical forces. In this study we used cell monolayers, as well as oral mucosal equivalents (OMEs) containing activated T-cells, to examine corticosteroid potency and delivery of clobetasol-17-propionate from a novel electrospun mucoadhesive patch. The OMEs displayed tight junctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and an efficient permeability barrier. Following application of corticosteroids to cells cultured as monolayers, the degree of cytotoxicity measured correlated to the level of potency recognized for each corticosteroid; by contrast, OMEs were largely unaffected by corticosteroid treatment. Permeation of clobetasol-17-propionate into and through the OMEs was time- and dose-dependent, regardless of whether this corticosteroid was delivered in liquid form or from a mucoadhesive patch, and both liquid- and patch-delivered clobetasol-17-propionate significantly reduced the secretion of interleukin-2 by activated T-cells. This study confirms that OMEs are more suitable models than cell monolayers for evaluating toxicity and drug delivery. After topical exposure, clobetasol-17-propionate accumulated in OMEs at a higher level than betamethasone-17-valerate and hydrocortisone-17-valerate, and exerted its immunosuppressive actions following application via the patch delivery system, highlighting the efficacy of this mode of drug delivery to treat OLP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  10. Leung AK, Lam JM, Leong KF, Hon KL
    Drugs Context, 2020;9.
    PMID: 32742295 DOI: 10.7573/dic.2020-5-6
    Background: Tinea corporis is a common fungal infection that mimics many other annular lesions. Physicians must familiarize themselves with this condition and its treatment.

    Objective: This article aimed to provide a narrative updated review on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of tinea corporis.

    Methods: A PubMed search was performed with Clinical Queries using the key term 'tinea corporis.' The search strategy included clinical trials, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and reviews. The search was restricted to the English language. The information retrieved from the mentioned search was used in the compilation of the present article.

    Results: Tinea corporis typically presents as a well-demarcated, sharply circumscribed, oval or circular, mildly erythematous, scaly patch or plaque with a raised leading edge. Mild pruritus is common. The diagnosis is often clinical but can be difficult with prior use of medications, such as calcineurin inhibitors or corticosteroids. Dermoscopy is a useful and non-invasive diagnostic tool. If necessary, the diagnosis can be confirmed by microscopic examination of potassium hydroxide wet-mount preparations of skin scrapings from the active border of the lesion. Fungal culture is the gold standard to diagnose dermatophytosis especially if the diagnosis is in doubt and results of other tests are inconclusive or the infection is widespread, severe, or resistant to treatment. The standard treatment of tinea corporis is with topical antifungals. Systemic antifungal treatment is indicated if the lesion is multiple, extensive, deep, recurrent, chronic, or unresponsive to topical antifungal treatment, or if the patient is immunodeficient.

    Conclusion: The diagnosis of tinea corporis is usually clinical and should pose no problem to the physician provided the lesion is typical. However, many clinical variants of tinea corporis exist, rendering the diagnosis difficult especially with prior use of medications, such as calcineurin inhibitors or corticosteroids. As such, physicians must be familiar with this condition so that an accurate diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment initiated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  11. Sengupta P, Chatterjee B
    Int J Pharm, 2017 Jun 30;526(1-2):353-365.
    PMID: 28461261 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.04.068
    The Nanoemulgel drug delivery system is a formulation related intervention to improve the systemic delivery and therapeutic profile of lipophilic drugs. Nanoemulgel is an amalgamated formulation of two different systems in which nanoemulsion containing drug is incorporated into a gel base. The fusion of the two systems makes this formulation advantageous in several ways. Lipophilic drugs can be easily incorporated and the skin permeability of the incorporated drugs can be enhanced in several folds due to the finely distributed droplets of nanoemulsion phase. As a result, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of the lipophilic drugs are improved significantly. An increasing trend in topical nanoemulgel use in recent years has been noticed because of the better acceptability of the preparation to the patients due to their noninvasive delivery, avoidance of gastrointestinal side effects, easier applicability and good therapeutic and safety profile. Despite of having few limitations, nanoemulgel formulation can be considered as a potential and promising candidates for topical delivery of lipophilic drugs in the future. The aim of this review is to evaluate and report the current potential and future scope of nanoemulgel formulation for becoming an effective delivery system for poorly water soluble drugs. In this review, we have summarized and discussed the outcome of different studies on permeability, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety profile of the drugs delivered topically through nanoemulgel. Rationality of use along with the major challenges to overcome for nanoemulgel formulation has been discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  12. Azib FN, Lee CH, Mohd Yusof NM, Yusuf N, Mohd Fuad NF, Saharuddin NS, et al.
    A view into the future of nursing: Nursing Transformation towards IR-4.0, Held at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, On 6-8th March 2020
    Introduction: Delayed wound healing and a hefty cost of treatment poses a burden to those undergoing treatment for Diabetic wound care. An alternative wound product to speed up wound healing may address this problem. Honey has been recognized around the world for its efficacy as treating wounds, eczema, and inflammation while cinnamon has a variety of biological functions including anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory. As both cinnamon and honey possess different properties in wound healing, it is hypothesized that combining both products can accelerate wound healing. This study is to compare the efficacy of pure honey, pure cinnamon and honey-cinnamon commixture in diabetic wound healing.
    Methods: Three volunteers were selected from Kitamura clinic, Pontianak, Indonesia participated in this study. Each of them was given a different wound product which were pure honey (subject 1), pure cinnamon extract (subject 2), and honey-cinnamon commixture (subject 3). The wound bed percentage, size, and characteristics were recorded and compared. Results: Usage of pure cinnamon was discontinued during the second visit due to its drying effect. Subjects 1 and 3 both presented with an increase in granulation and reduction in sloughing of cells and biofilm. However, subject 3 showed faster wound contraction and reduction in maceration as compared to subject 1.
    Conclusion: Pure cinnamon extract should not be used as a standalone wound product due to its drying properties. However, topical co-administration of honey and Cinnamon cassia extract has a synergistic interaction effect, improves wound healing in diabetic individuals and is recommended as a new topical herbal drug production for treating of the diabetic wound. Further studies on the therapeutic concentration of honey-cinnamon commixture should be conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  13. Lwin OM, Giribabu N, Kilari EK, Salleh N
    J Dermatolog Treat, 2021 Dec;32(8):1039-1048.
    PMID: 32013660 DOI: 10.1080/09546634.2020.1721419
    PURPOSE: This study identifies the potential use of mangiferin gel to promote wound healing in diabetes mellitus (DM).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were rendered diabetes mellitus via intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Following diabetes development, wound was created at the back of the neck. 1% and 2% mangiferin gel and 1% silver sulphurdiazine (SS) gel (positive control) were applied to the wound for twenty-one (21) days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were weekly monitored. At the end of the treatment, rats were sacrificed and wound was excised and subjected for histopathological and molecular biological analysis.

    RESULTS: No changes to serum FBG levels was noted throughout the period of mangiferin treatment. Albeit, a significant decrease in the size of the wound with increased in the skin thickness of surrounding the wound were observed. Increased expression and distribution of EGF, FGF, TGF-β, VEGF, PI3K, MMP and Nrf2 and decreased expression and distribution of TNFα and NF-κB p65 were observed in diabetic wound treated with topical mangiferin.

    CONCLUSIONS: Mangiferin has potential to be used as an agent to promote wound healing in diabetic condition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  14. Imafuku S, Zheng M, Tada Y, Zhang X, Theng C, Thevarajah S, et al.
    J Dermatol, 2018 Jul;45(7):805-811.
    PMID: 29740870 DOI: 10.1111/1346-8138.14338
    A working group of dermatologists in Asian countries assessed the current status of psoriatic management in the region to prepare a consensus report on topical treatment in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis. Even though the association of psoriasis with systemic comorbidities is increasingly acknowledged, psoriasis is still lower in health-care priority lists in the region. The psychosocial impact of psoriasis may be greater in Asian countries due to cultural norms and social discrimination. Non-adherence to treatment is also common among Asians. The current care given to patients with mild to moderate psoriasis needs to be streamlined, enhanced and organized with a patient-centered care approach to achieve better outcomes. A comprehensive assessment of the disease severity and its impact on a patient's life is required before initiating treatment. Education and active involvement of the patient in the treatment plan is an important part of psoriatic management. It is recommended to personalize topical treatment to meet the needs of the patient, depending on disease severity, psychosocial impact, the patient's expectations and, more importantly, the patient's willingness and ability to actively follow the treatment procedure. Fixed-dose combination of corticosteroid and vitamin D analogs is the preferred topical medication for both initial and maintenance phases of treatment. The fast containment of the disease is the goal of the initial phase of 4-8 weeks and it demands a potent fast-acting topical therapy. Satisfactory control of the disease and prevention of relapses should be achieved during the maintenance phase with twice a week or weekend applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  15. Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Abdul Nasir NA, Razali N, Alyautdin R, et al.
    Drug Deliv, 2016 May;23(4):1075-91.
    PMID: 25116511 DOI: 10.3109/10717544.2014.943336
    Topical route of administration is the most commonly used method for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, presence of several layers of permeation barriers starting from the tear film till the inner layers of cornea make it difficult to achieve the therapeutic concentrations in the target tissue within the eye. In order to circumvent these barriers and to provide sustained and targeted drug delivery, tremendous advances have been made in developing efficient and safe drug delivery systems. Liposomes due to their unique structure prove to be extremely beneficial drug carriers as they can entrap both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The conventional liposomes had several drawbacks particularly their tendency to aggregate, the instability and leakage of entrapped drug and susceptibility to phagocytosis. Due to this reason, for a long time, liposomes as drug delivery systems did not attract much attention of researchers and clinicians. However, over recent years development of new generation liposomes has opened up new approaches for targeted and sustained drug delivery using liposomes and has rejuvenated the interest of researchers in this field. In this review we present a summary of current literature to understand the anatomical and physiological limitation in achieving adequate ocular bioavailability of topically applied drugs and utility of liposomes in overcoming these limitations. The recent developments related to new generation liposomes are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  16. Woo JO, Misran M, Lee PF, Tan LP
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:205703.
    PMID: 24578624 DOI: 10.1155/2014/205703
    Lipid nanoparticles are colloidal carrier systems that have extensively been investigated for controlled drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, a cost effective stearic acid-oleic acid nanoparticles (SONs) with high loading of salicylic acid, was prepared by melt emulsification method combined with ultrasonication technique. The physicochemical properties, thermal analysis and encapsulation efficiency of SONs were studied. TEM micrographs revealed that incorporation of oleic acid induces the formation of elongated spherical particles. This observation is in agreement with particle size analysis which also showed that the mean particle size of SONs varied with the amount of OA in the mixture but with no effect on their zeta potential values. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the SONs prepared in this method have lower crystallinity as compared to pure stearic acid. Different amount of oleic acid incorporated gave different degree of perturbation to the crystalline matrix of SONs and hence resulted in lower degrees of crystallinity, thereby improving their encapsulation efficiencies. The optimized SON was further incorporated in cream and its in vitro release study showed a gradual release for 24 hours, denoting the incorporation of salicylic acid in solid matrix of SON and prolonging the in vitro release.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  17. Aziz Z, Abu SF, Chong NJ
    Burns, 2012 May;38(3):307-18.
    PMID: 22030441 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2011.09.020
    Silver preparations are commonly used for burns, but evidence of their effectiveness remains poorly defined. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of silver-containing dressings and topical silver for preventing infection and promoting healing in burns wounds through a meta-analysis of the available evidence. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and relevant databases were searched. Drug companies and experts in this field were also contacted. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of silver dressings or topical silver (used with dressings) compared with non-silver dressings were eligible for inclusion. We identified 14 RCTs involving 877 participants. One small trial of a silver-containing dressing showed significantly better healing time compared to the control [MD -3.6; 95% CI -4.94 to -2.26 for partial thickness burns and MD -3.9; 95% CI -4.54 to -3.26 for superficial burns]. Topical silver showed significantly worse healing time compared to the non-silver group [WMD 3.96; 95% CI 2.41-5.51] and showed no evidence of effectiveness in preventing wounds infection [WMD 2.48; 95% CI 0.39-15.73]. Our review suggests that silver-containing dressings and topical silver were either no better or worse than control dressings in preventing wound infection and promoting healing of burn wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  18. Benhanifia MB, Boukraâ L, Hammoudi SM, Sulaiman SA, Manivannan L
    PMID: 21171951
    Topical application of honey to burn and wounds has been found to be effective in controlling infection and producing a clean granulating bed. It is suggested that the wound healing effect of honey may in part be related to the release of inflammatory cytokines from surrounding tissue cells, mainly monocytes and macrophages. It has been reported that honey hastens wound healing by accelerating wound contractions. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated that there was a significant acceleration of dermal repair in wound treated with honey. Macroscopic and microscopic observations under in vivo assessment suggested that the topical application of honey might have favourable influences on the various phases of burn and wound healing hence accelerating the healing process. The regulatory effects of honey are related to components other than the sugars. However, the mechanisms by which honey affects the release of anti inflammatory agents and growth factors from monocytic cells are as yet unclear. Whether honey affects other cell types, particularly endothelial cells and fibroblasts, involved in wound healing also needs to be clarified. The present article is a short review of recent patents on the healing effect of honey in wound and burn management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  19. Sakeena MH, Muthanna FA, Ghassan ZA, Kanakal MM, Elrashid SM, Munavvar AS, et al.
    J Oleo Sci, 2010;59(4):223-8.
    PMID: 20299769
    The aim of the present study is to formulate and investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of ketoprofen. In this study, Palm Oil Esters (POEs) a newly introduced oil by Universiti Putra Malaysia researchers was chosen for the oil phase of the nanoemulsion, because the oil was reported to be a good vehicle for pharmaceutical use. Oil-in-water nanoemulsion was prepared by spontaneous emulsification method. The droplets size was studied by laser scattering spectroscopy (Nanophox) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Franz diffusion cells were used, to determine the drug release and drug transferred through methyl acetate cellulose membrane (artificial membrane). The results of droplets size analysis shows the droplets are in the range of nanoemulsion which is below than 500 nm. The in vitro release profile shows a sufficient percentage of drugs released through the methyl acetate cellulose membrane. This initial study showed that the nanoemulsion formulated using POEs has great potential for topical delivery of ketoprofen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
  20. Ismail SB, Kumar SK, Zain RB
    J Oral Sci, 2007 Jun;49(2):89-106.
    PMID: 17634721
    Lichen planus, a chronic autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease affects the oral mucosa (oral lichen planus or OLP) besides the skin, genital mucosa, scalp and nails. An immune mediated pathogenesis is recognized in lichen planus although the exact etiology is unknown. The disease most commonly affects middle-aged females. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) which are considered variants of OLP, may be regarded as a disease by itself or as an exacerbation of an existing OLP, by the presence of medication (lichenoid drug reactions) or dental materials (contact hypersensitivity). OLP usually presents as white striations (Wickham's striae), white papules, white plaque, erythema, erosions or blisters. Diagnosis of OLP is established either by clinical examination only or by clinical examination with histopathologic confirmation. Direct immunofluorescence examination is only used as an adjunct to the above method of diagnosis and to rule out specific autoimmune diseases such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Histopathologic features of OLP and OLR are similar with suggestions of certain discriminatory features by some authors. Topical corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for OLP although several other medications have been studied including retinoids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and photodynamic therapy. Certain OLP undergo malignant transformation and the exact incidence and mechanisms are still controversial. In this paper, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation of OLP and OLR have been reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Topical
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