MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Google search was undertaken of all controlled clinical trials on the effects of corticosteroids on pain, swelling and trismus after lower third molar surgery. The review was limited to studies published over the last 10 years (2006-2015).
RESULTS: Of the 46 initially retrieved articles, 34 were finally included. Eleven studies compared the effect of 2 similar (but different dose) or different group of corticosteroids. Thirty-one studies reported the effects of corticosteroids on all sequale, 2 reported the outcome on swelling and trismus and another 1 on swelling and pain only. In 16 of the studies, corticosteroid use resulted in significant reductions in pain after third molar removal. Twenty-two out of 29 studies reported reduced swelling against negative control while 18 out of 25 studies reported improved mouth opening. Fourteen studies reported the benefit of corticosteroids on all 3 sequelae, with 71.4% resulted from the use of methylprednisolone.
CONCLUSION: Although there are some conflicting effects, the results of this analysis shows in general the benefits derived from short-term use of corticosteroids in relation to pain, swelling and trismus following third molar surgical extraction, with no side effects observed.
FUNDING: This work was supported by the University of Malaya's High Impact Research grant UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/05.
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis assessed the potential role of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as a biomarker for corticosteroid response in ex-smokers with stable COPD.
METHODS: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar databases were searched until November 5, 2014 using the following terms: corticosteroid, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, nitric oxide, NO, exhaled nitric oxide. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) or two-arm prospective studies were included. The primary outcome measure was FeNO before and after treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in ex-smokers with COPD. Sensitivity analysis was also performed.
RESULTS: Five studies were included in the analysis with a total of 171 COPD patients. All five studies included 125 ex-smokers and two of these also included 46 current smokers. There was a significant decrease of FeNO in ex-smoking COPD patients following inhaled corticosteroid treatment (-7.51, 95% CI: -11.51 to -3.51; P =0.003); and in a population of subjects that included both smokers and ex-smokers (-1.99, 95% CI: -3.41 to -0.56; P =0.006).
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that FeNO levels significantly decreased with corticosteroid treatment in ex-smokers with COPD. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether concurrent smoking has significant effect on FeNO response to ICS.
STUDY DESIGN: In total, 282 patients with oral submucous fibrosis were treated with topical corticosteroid and oral antioxidant and the ice-cream stick exercise regimen. Patients in subgroups A1, A2, and A3 were additionally given a new MED. Patients in subgroups A1 and B1 patients with interincisal distance (IID) of 20 to 35 mm were managed without any additional therapy; patients in subgroups A2 and B2 with IID of 20 to 35 mm were additionally managed with intralesional injections; and those in subgroups A3 and B3 with IID less than 20 mm were managed surgically. Subjective evaluation of decrease in the oral mucosal burning was measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple post hoc analysis were carried out to present the results.
RESULTS: Patients using the MED, that is, subgroups A1, A2, and A3, showed reduction in burning sensation in the range of 64.8% to 71.1% and 27.8% to 30.9%, whereas in subgroups B1, B2, and B3, reduction in burning sensation ranged from 64.7% to 69.9% and from 29.3% to 38.6% after 6 months. The wo-way analysis of variance indicated statistically significant results in changes in initial VAS scores to 6-monthly VAS scores between MED users and non-MED users.
CONCLUSIONS: The MED helps to enhance the rate of reduction of mucosal burning sensation, in addition to the conventional ice-cream stick regimen, as an adjunct to local and surgical treatment.