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  1. Amin MN, Khan TM, Dewan SM, Islam MS, Moghal MR, Ming LC
    BMJ Open, 2016 08 03;6(8):e010912.
    PMID: 27489151 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010912
    OBJECTIVES: To assess community pharmacists'/pharmacy technicians' knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and barriers towards the reporting of such reactions in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was planned to approach potential respondents for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to community pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (N=292) practising in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    RESULTS: The overall response to the survey was 69.5% (n=203). The majority of the sample was comprised of pharmacy technicians (152, 74.9%) who possessed a diploma in pharmacy, followed by pharmacists (37, 18.2%) and others (12, 5.9%). Overall, 72 (35.5%) of the respondents disclosed that they had experienced an ADR at their pharmacy, yet more than half (105, 51.7%) were not familiar with the existence of an ADR reporting body in Bangladesh. Exploring the barriers to the reporting of ADRs, it was revealed that the top four barriers to ADR reporting were 'I do not know how to report (Relative Importance Index (RII)=0.998)', 'reporting forms are not available (0.996)', 'I am not motivated to report (0.997)' and 'Unavailability of professional environment to discuss about ADR (RII=0.939)'. In addition to these, a majority (141, 69.46%) were not confident about the classification of ADRs (RII=0.889) and were afraid of legal liabilities associated with reporting ADRs (RII=0.806). Moreover, a lack of knowledge about pharmacotherapy and the detection of ADRs was another major factor hindering their reporting (RII=0.731).

    CONCLUSIONS: The Directorate of Drug Administration in Bangladesh needs to consider the results of this study to help it improve and simplify ADR reporting in Bangladeshi community pharmacy settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data*
  2. Rashed AN, Wong IC, Cranswick N, Hefele B, Tomlin S, Jackman J, et al.
    Drug Saf, 2012 Jun 1;35(6):481-94.
    PMID: 22612852 DOI: 10.2165/11597920-000000000-00000
    A previous meta-analysis reported that 9.5% of hospitalized children suffered from an adverse drug reaction (ADR); however, reported incidences among studies varied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data*
  3. Xiang YT, Kreyenbuhl J, Dickerson FB, Ungvari GS, Wang CY, Si TM, et al.
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 2012 Dec;46(12):1159-64.
    PMID: 22790175 DOI: 10.1177/0004867412453625
    This study examined the prescribing patterns of several first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotic (SGAs) medications administered to older Asian patients with schizophrenia during the period between 2001 and 2009.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data*
  4. Aziz Z, Siang TC, Badarudin NS
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2007 Feb;16(2):223-8.
    PMID: 16947117
    Malaysia like many other countries worldwide uses spontaneous reporting systems as a mean of collecting data on suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR). However, compared to other countries, which use the system, the reporting rate in Malaysia is very low. Why some physicians do not report ADRs is not well understood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data*
  5. Petrovic M, Tangiisuran B, Rajkumar C, van der Cammen T, Onder G
    Drugs Aging, 2017 02;34(2):135-142.
    PMID: 28000156 DOI: 10.1007/s40266-016-0428-4
    BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older people are often preventable, indicating that screening and prevention programs aimed at reducing their rate are needed in this population.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to externally validate the GerontoNet ADR risk score and to assess its validity in specific subpopulations of older inpatients.

    METHODS: Data from the prospective CRIteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients (CRIME) cohort were used. Dose-dependent and predictable ADRs were classified as type A, probable or definite ADRs were defined according to the Naranjo algorithm, and diagnostic accuracy was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for a cut-off point of 4.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the 1075 patients was 81.4 years (standard deviation 7.4) and the median number of drugs was 10 (range 7-13). At least one ADR was observed in 70 patients (6.5%); ADRs were classified as type A in 50 patients (4.7%) and defined as probable or definite in 41 patients (3.8%). Fair diagnostic accuracy to predict both type A and probable or definite ADRs was found in subpopulations aged <70 or ≥80 years with heart failure, diabetes, or a previous ADR. Good accuracy to predict type A ADRs was found in patients with a low body mass index (BMI; >18.5 kg/m2) and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of >24/30 points, as well as in patients with osteoarthritis. The cut-off point of 4 points yielded very good sensitivity but poor specificity results in these subpopulations.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the GerontoNet ADR risk score might represent a pragmatic approach to identifying specific subpopulations of older inpatients at increased risk of an ADR with a fair to good diagnostic accuracy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data
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