Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

  1. Yap HH, Lee CY, Chong NL, Foo AE, Lim MP
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 1995 Mar;11(1):128-32.
    PMID: 7616179
    Several parameters on the oviposition site preference of Aedes albopictus were studied, including color, container type, salinity, and water type. Dark-colored glass jars, especially black, blue, and red ones were preferred over light-colored jars. The black-colored ovitrap with a paper strip performed better than other types of containers. Seasoned tap water had the highest egg count when compared with a saline water series. In addition, water that had previously been used for the culture of Ae. albopictus was the most preferred for oviposition. The significance of this study in conjunction with the present Aedes mosquito surveillance and monitoring program is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  2. Poh AH, Moghavvemi M, Leong CS, Lau YL, Safdari Ghandari A, Apau A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(2):e0171555.
    PMID: 28152031 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171555
    Classifying and quantifying mosquito activity includes a plethora of categories, ranging from measuring flight speeds, repellency, feeding rates, and specific behaviors such as home entry, swooping and resting, among others. Entomologists have been progressing more toward using machine vision for efficiency for this endeavor. Digital methods have been used to study the behavior of insects in labs, for instance via three-dimensional tracking with specialized cameras to observe the reaction of mosquitoes towards human odor, heat and CO2, although virtually none was reported for several important fields, such as repellency studies which have a significant need for a proper response quantification. However, tracking mosquitoes individually is a challenge and only limited number of specimens can be studied. Although tracking large numbers of individual insects is hailed as one of the characteristics of an ideal automated image-based tracking system especially in 3D, it also is a costly method, often requiring specialized hardware and limited access to the algorithms used for mapping the specimens. The method proposed contributes towards (a) unlimited open source use, (b) a low-cost setup, (c) complete guide for any entomologist to adapt in terms of hardware and software, (d) simple to use, and (e) a lightweight data output for collective behavior analysis of mosquitoes. The setup is demonstrated by testing a simple response of mosquitoes in the presence of human odor versus control, one session with continuous human presence as a stimuli and the other with periodic presence. A group of female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes are released into a white-background chamber with a transparent acrylic panel on one side. The video feed of the mosquitoes are processed using filtered contours in a threshold-adjustable video. The mosquitoes in the chamber are mapped on the raster where the coordinates of each mosquito are recorded with the corresponding timestamp. The average distance of the blobs within the frames against time forms a spectra where behavioral patterns can be observed directly, whether any collective effect is observed. With this method, 3D tracking will not be required and a more straightforward data output can be obtained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  3. Hamady D, Ruslan NB, Ahmad AH, Rawi CS, Ahmad H, Satho T, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2013;6:206.
    PMID: 23856274 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-206
    Mating is a physiological process of crucial importance underlying the size and maintenance of mosquito populations. In sterile and incompatible insect technologies (SIT and IIT), mating is essential for mass production, persistence, and success of released individuals, and is a central parameter for judging the effectiveness of SIT/IIT programs. Some mosquitoes have an enormous reproductive potential for both themselves and pathogens and mating may contribute to persistence of infection in nature. As Aedes albopictus can transmit flaviviruses both sexually and horizontally, and as infected insects are usually derived from laboratory colonies, we investigated the implications of mating between a long-term laboratory colony of Ae. albopictus and wild populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  4. Dieng H, Rahman GM, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Satho T, Miake F, et al.
    Int J Biometeorol, 2012 Jan;56(1):113-20.
    PMID: 21267602 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-011-0402-0
    Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  5. Wan-Norafikah O, Nazni WA, Noramiza S, Shafa'ar-Ko'ohar S, Azirol-Hisham A, Nor-Hafizah R, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):662-7.
    PMID: 21399609
    A preliminary study on the vertical dispersal of Aedes populations in high-rise apartments was carried out in Presint 9, Putrajaya, Malaysia. Ovitraps were placed indoors within four blocks of high-rise apartments from the ground floors (0.0 - 3.0 m) until up to the tenth floors (28.1 - 30.0 m). Aedes aegypti was the dominant species found in the ovitraps (87.85%), while Aedes albopictus was found in lower numbers. From total number of larvae collected (650), 40.92% of these larvae were obtained from the fourth block; Block D. The peak density of Aedes sp. was observed at level 6 (16.1 - 18.0 m), while Ae. aegypti was found until the tenth floor (28.1 - 30.0 m). In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found only up to the sixth floor (16.1 - 18.0 m). A poor correlation of the mean number of Aedes larvae collected with the level of high-rise apartments occupied (N=40; ρ=-0.349) was also observed which indicated the possibility of lesser Aedes populations to be found at higher level of high-rise apartments. Therefore, larger scale studies are strongly recommended to examine the vertical dispersal of Aedes mosquitoes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  6. Nur Aida H, Abu Hassan A, Nurita AT, Che Salmah MR, Norasmah B
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Aug;25(2):117-25.
    PMID: 18948882
    A semi laboratory experiment using 3 cohorts of Aedes albopictus adults was performed to obtain age-specific mortality and fecundity information and to derive statistical estimates of some population growth parameters. Life expectancy was calculated for both males and females. The following population parameters were estimated: intrinsic rate of increase (rm= 0.21), net reproductive (replacement) rate (Ro= 68.70), age at mean cohort reproduction (To=10.55 days), birth rate (B=0.23), death rate (D=0.02) and generation time (G=20.14 days). The high rm/B (0.91) and B/D (11.50) ratios indicated the high colonizing ability of Ae. albopictus in nature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  7. Rozilawati H, Zairi J, Adanan CR
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Jun;24(1):83-94.
    PMID: 17568381 MyJurnal
    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  8. Chua KB, Chua IL, Chua IE, Chua KH
    PMID: 16438137
    A prospective field study was carried out to investigate any preferential differences of gravid female Aedes mosquitoes in ovipositing their eggs in man-made containers placed in different environmental conditions. The findings of this study show that gravid female Aedes mosquitoes preferred to breed in containers found in the outdoor garden than those placed on the patio and or inside the house. The findings also show that if the breeding habitats in the garden were removed, they would favorably use the breeding habitats found on the patio or inside the house as alternatives. An incidental interesting finding in this study shows that ultra-low volume fogging of insecticides using the vehicle-mounted equipment carried out outside the house may promote the gravid female Aedes mosquitoes to enter the house to breed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  9. Chang MS, Jute N
    PMID: 7777923
    An Aedes survey using various larval survey methods was conducted in 12 urban housing areas and 29 vacant lands in Sibu town proper. Aedes albopictus larvae were found in all areas surveyed while Aedes aegypti larvae were present in 10 localities and 4 vacant lands. There were no significant difference in the house index, breteau and larval density index of these two Aedes (Stegomyia) species from the survey areas. The proportion of containers positive with Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in area outside the house compound and near the house fencing were 3.2 times higher than outdoor compound. The indoor/outdoor breeding ratio for Ae. aegypti alone is 1.6:1. The most preferred breeding habitats outdoor were plastic cups and used tires while indoor habitats were ant traps and flower vases. In the vacant lands, the average number of larvae per containers was significantly higher than in houses and over 51% of the containers inspected were positive. Shared breeding between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae accounted for 9% in house surveys and 4.5% in vacant land survey. The use of various methods in Aedes larval survey may provide essential information in the study of vector epidemiology in dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  10. Black WC, Hawley WA, Rai KS, Craig GB
    Heredity (Edinb), 1988 Dec;61 ( Pt 3):439-46.
    PMID: 3230033
    The mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has recently become established in a number of cities throughout the United States. An initial survey of allozyme and genotypic frequencies in U.S. populations (Black et al., 1988) revealed an extensive amount of local differentiation of populations and suggested that much genetic drift may have accompanied colonization. A study of gene flow was initiated in native habitats of Ae. albopictus in Malaysia to determine if the result observed in the U.S. was a consequence of colonization or simply followed the natural breeding structure of the species. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were monitored at ten enzymatic loci in 11 populations from peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Multiple populations were sampled within the districts of Kuala Lumpur and Kuala Trengganu. Peninsular Malaysian and Borneo populations were strongly genetically differentiated. Allele frequencies were significantly different among and within districts in both regions. Variance in allele frequencies among all collections was partitioned into the variance among regions, districts within regions and collections within districts. Almost all of the variance within regions was attributable to local differentiation suggesting that genetic drift is an important component of the natural breeding structure of this species. This indicates that the large amounts of local differentiation found in U.S. populations was not a consequence of recent colonization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  11. Marcela P, Hassan AA, Hamdan A, Dieng H, Kumara TK
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2015 Dec;31(4):313-20.
    PMID: 26675452 DOI: 10.2987/moco-31-04-313-320.1
    Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  12. Aida HN, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, Satho T, Nurita AT, Salmah MR, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;1(6):472-7.
    PMID: 23569816 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60103-2
    OBJECTIVE: To generate life table characteristics for the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) under uncontrolled conditions, incorporating both the aquatic and the adult stages.

    METHODS: Ten females derived from wild pupae were allowed to fully blood-feed on restrained mice. 774 eggs were hatched in seasoned water. F1 larvae were followed for development until their F2 counterparts emerged as adults. Some population parameters were monitored (F1) or estimated (F2).

    RESULTS: A. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to 1:1. Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. A high proportion of females completed a reproductive cycle and the obtained parity rate was predicted to lead to higher fecundity in the next generation.

    CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that natural A. albopictus populations in Penang seem largely determined by quick development in combination with low immature loss and increased oviposition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology
  13. Lim KW, Sit NW, Norzahira R, Sing KW, Wong HM, Chew HS, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Aug;27(2):185-92.
    PMID: 20962714 MyJurnal
    A year-long ovitrap surveillance was conducted between November 2007 and October 2008 in two insular settlements (Kampung Pulau Ketam and Kampung Sungai Lima) within the Malaysian island of Pulau Ketam. Eighty standard ovitraps were placed indoors and outdoors of randomly selected houses/locations. Results demonstrated an endemic baseline Aedes population throughout the year without weekly large fluctuations. Kampung Pulau Ketam has high Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population, but only Ae. aegypti was found in Kampung Sungai Lima. Aedes aegypti showed no preference for ovitraps placed indoor versus outdoor. However, as expected, significantly more outdoor ovitraps were positive for Ae. albopictus (p<0.05). Trends in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations mirrored each other suggesting that common factors influenced these two populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  14. Nyamah MA, Sulaiman S, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):33-40.
    PMID: 20562811 MyJurnal
    This cross-sectional study was to compare and categorize potential breeding sites of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at three different places, namely, an urban (Taman Permas Jaya, Johor Bahru, Johor), a suburban (Kg. Melayu Gelang Patah, Johor Bahru, Johor) and a rural (Felda Simpang Waha, Kota Tinggi, Johor) habitats in Malaysia. Larval surveys were conducted once in every two months at each habitat over a period of 11 months from August 2000 until June 2001. There was a significant difference between the three study sites in terms of potential breeding sites inspected (p<0.001). There were more potential breeding sites found in the rural area when compared to the urban and suburban habitats. The mean Potential Container Index (PCI) values in descending order were as follows: rural habitat (57.72)>suburban (29.35)>urban habitat (16.97). Both breeding sites and potential breeding sites were the nominator and the total number of containers inspected as the denominator in the formula of PCI, thus the latter could be a potential indicator to initiate anti-dengue campaign at the community level to rid off potential Aedes breeding sites. The three most common potential breeding sites of Aedes species were similar for urban and suburban habitats (flower pots, pails and bowls respectively). However, flower pots, vases and tyres were the three most common potential breeding sites for the rural habitat. Another finding in this study was that various types of larval habitats were found indoors and outdoors for both species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  15. Saifur RG, Dieng H, Hassan AA, Satho T, Miake F, Boots M, et al.
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2010 Dec;26(4):373-80.
    PMID: 21290932
    Moisture plays a major role in the dynamics of mosquito populations, especially those breeding in container habitats. Despite this importance, the role of moisture conditions as they affect oviposition and egg development in Aedes vectors remains largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of exposing gravid female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and their eggs to different moisture levels (MLs) for various periods on oviposition and hatching. Overall, high-moisture substrates (HMSs; 66% and 72%) provided better environments for egg laying. The timing of initial egg laying was far longer at the lowest substrate moisture level (LSML, 25% and 41.2%) than at HMSs. The numbers of eggs laid were much lower in the drier environments. At LSMLs, gravid females retained increasing numbers of mature eggs until death, and egg retention decreased gradually with increasing ML. The HMSs also provided better environments for larval eclosion. The numbers of eggs hatched were lower at the LSML than the HSML environment. No egg hatching occurred after 1 h exposure to moisture. However, egg hatching occurred by installment, with spontaneous hatching (SH) increasing gradually with increasing ML. High-moisture conditions combined with long exposure (30 h and 48 h) favored SH. These results suggest that Ae. albopictus females can respond to better moisture conditions for increased success of embryonation and larval eclosion. This information may be useful in the colonization of floodwater Aedes species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  16. Nazni WA, Lee HL, Dayang HA, Azahari AH
    PMID: 19323032
    Reciprocal and homologous mating experiments between Malaysian Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were conducted in the laboratory. Two methods were employed, namely an artificial mating technique and a natural cage mating technique. The study demonstrated there exists a strong reproductive isolation between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Insemination occurred in cross-mating experiments between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males and also between Ae. albopictus females and Ae. aegypti males. Cross mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males produced more eggs than that between Ae. albopictus females and Ae. aegypti males with both artificial mating and natural cage mating techniques. The matings did not result in the production of viable eggs by the females. No embryonation of these eggs was observed when the eggs were bleached. With homologous mating Aedes aegypti produced significantly greater numbers of eggs compared to Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and all the eggs hatched successfully.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  17. Chen CD, Nazni WA, Lee HL, Seleena B, Mohd Masri S, Chiang YF, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):224-7.
    PMID: 17322826 MyJurnal
    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in four dengue endemic areas in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia to determine the distribution and percentage of mixed breeding of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The percentage of mixed breeding in all study sites both indoors and outdoors accounted for 10 to 32 % from the total ovitraps collected. Ae. aegypti was found at a higher frequency than Ae. albopictus in these ovitraps. This study again indicates that ovitrap is a sensitive tool to attract gravid females of more than one mosquito species to oviposit in the container.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  18. Chua KB, Chua IL, Chua IE, Chua KH
    PMID: 15689073
    A study was made of the oviposit behavior of gravid female Aedes mosquitos in man-made habitats under field conditions. The study showed that the gravid female Aedes mosquitos preferred containers with relatively easy access but not too open to external environmental influence. The dark surface of the containers served as the initial and long-range attractant to the breeding sites. Volatile chemicals generated by the decaying vegetation in the container may serve as a close-range attractant. Finally, the water quality and the quantity of 'food' derived from decaying vegetative matter in the water determined the amount of eggs deposited in each container. The study confirmed previous findings that each gravid female Aedes mosquito had the tendency to lay her eggs in more than one container. However, the results of the study suggests that under favorable conditions, each gravid female Aedes mosquito could be encouraged to lay all her eggs in a single breeding site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*
  19. Hanson SM, Mutebi JP, Craig GB, Novak RJ
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 1993 Mar;9(1):78-83.
    PMID: 8468578
    Eggs of temperate Aedes albopictus populations are cold hardy and can diapause, but tropical populations are not cold hardy and cannot diapause. Heterozygotes possess intermediate diapause and cold hardiness. Males of a tropical strain from Malaysia with a distinctive genetic marker were released into an existing temperate population in East St. Louis, Illinois. Subsequent egg samples from the release site had genetic marker frequency of up to 24%. Reduced cold hardiness and decreased diapause incidence were also observed in the release site population. No such changes occurred at a nearby control site. The rank order of overwintering survival of eggs at the release site was: Aedes triseriatus > temperate Ae. albopictus > hybrid temperate/tropical Ae. albopictus > tropical Ae. albopictus. Eggs collected from the release population the next summer showed total absence of the genetic marker; presumably carriers were removed by the winter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology
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