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  1. Mohamad Nasir NF, Zainuddin A, Shamsuddin S
    J. Mol. Neurosci., 2018 Feb;64(2):157-161.
    PMID: 29260452 DOI: 10.1007/s12031-017-1005-y
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is imposing an increasing burden on society. Currently, AD is the leading cause of senile dementia worldwide. Despite the long existence of AD, there is lack of therapies for AD, suggesting that new and effective treatment strategy must be explored. At present, sirtuin pathway has attracted attention from the researchers due to its promising results in laboratory models of aging. In addition, our understanding in the roles of sirtuin 6 in AD has expanded. It has been identified to be involved in telomere maintenance, DNA repair, genome integrity, energy metabolism, and inflammation, which ultimately regulate life span. Recent findings also demonstrate that sirtuin 6 is lacking in AD patients, proposing that it can be a new potential therapeutic target in AD. Therefore, exploring on how sirtuin 6 is related in AD manifestation may accelerate the research of AD further and benefits future AD patients. Keeping that in mind, this review aims to highlight the possible roles of sirtuin 6 in AD manifestation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics
  2. Machiela MJ, Zhou W, Karlins E, Sampson JN, Freedman ND, Yang Q, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2016 06 13;7:11843.
    PMID: 27291797 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11843
    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics*
  3. AbuBakar S, Shu MH, Johari J, Wong PF
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(6):538-44.
    PMID: 24782642 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.7896
    Alteration in the endothelium leading to increased vascular permeability contributes to plasma leakage seen in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). An earlier study showed that senescent endothelial cells (ECs) altered the ECs permeability. Here we investigated the susceptibility of senescing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to dengue virus infection and determined if dengue virus infection induces HUVECs senescence. Our results suggest that DENV type-2 (DENV-2) foci forming unit (FFU) and extracellular virus RNA copy number were reduced by at least 35% and 85% in infection of the intermediate young and early senescent HUVECs, respectively, in comparison to infection of young HUVECs. No to low infectivity was recovered from infection of late senescent HUVECs. DENV infection also increases the percentage of HUVECs expressing senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal, cells arrested at the G2/M phase or 4N DNA content stage and cells with enlarged morphology, indicative of senescing cells. Alteration of HUVECs morphology was recorded using impedance-based real-time cell analysis system following DENV-2 infection. These results suggest that senescing HUVECs do not support DENV infection and DENV infection induces HUVECs senescence. The finding highlights the possible role of induction of senescence in DENV infection of the endothelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Aging/genetics*
  4. Abdul Rahman A, Abdul Karim N, Abdul Hamid NA, Harun R, Ngah WZ
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2013;2013:189129.
    PMID: 24381713 DOI: 10.1155/2013/189129
    Mechanisms determining both functional rate of decline and the time of onset in aging remain elusive. Studies of the aging process especially those involving the comparison of long-lived individuals and young controls are fairly limited. Therefore, this research aims to determine the differential gene expression profile in related individuals from villages in Pahang, Malaysia. Genome-wide microarray analysis of 18 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from two groups: octo/nonagenarians (80-99 years old) and their offspring (50.2 ± 4.0 years old) revealed that 477 transcripts were age-induced and 335 transcripts were age-repressed with fold changes ≥1.2 in octo/nonagenarians compared to offspring. Interestingly, changes in gene expression were associated with increased capacity for apoptosis (BAK1), cell cycle regulation (CDKN1B), metabolic process (LRPAP1), insulin action (IGF2R), and increased immune and inflammatory response (IL27RA), whereas response to stress (HSPA8), damage stimulus (XRCC6), and chromatin remodelling (TINF2) pathways were downregulated in octo/nonagenarians. These results suggested that systemic telomere maintenance, metabolism, cell signalling, and redox regulation may be important for individuals to maintain their healthy state with advancing age and that these processes play an important role in the determination of the healthy life-span.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Aging/genetics*
  5. Eshkoor SA, Marashi SJ, Ismail P, Rahman SA, Mirinargesi M, Adon MY, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2012;11(2):1486-96.
    PMID: 22653598 DOI: 10.4238/2012.May.21.5
    We evaluated the possible influence of glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT1) genes on genetic damage due to occupational exposure, which contributes to accelerate ageing. This study was conducted on 120 car auto repair workshop workers exposed to occupational hazards and 120 controls without this kind of exposure. The null and non-null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were determined by multiplex PCR. Micronucleus frequency, Comet tail length and relative telomere length differences between the null and non-null genotypes of the GSTM1 gene were significantly greater in the exposed group. Lack of GSTT1 did not affect the damage biomarkers significantly (P > 0.05), while lack of GSTM1 was associated with greater susceptibility to genomic damage due to occupational exposure. It was concluded that early ageing is under the influence of these genes and the environmental and socio-demographic factors. Duration of working time was significantly associated with micronucleus frequency, Comet tail length and relative telomere length.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics
  6. Chadda KR, Ahmad S, Valli H, den Uijl I, Al-Hadithi AB, Salvage SC, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 09 11;7(1):11070.
    PMID: 28894151 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-11210-3
    Long QT Syndrome 3 (LQTS3) arises from gain-of-function Nav1.5 mutations, prolonging action potential repolarisation and electrocardiographic (ECG) QT interval, associated with increased age-dependent risk for major arrhythmic events, and paradoxical responses to β-adrenergic agents. We investigated for independent and interacting effects of age and Scn5a+/ΔKPQ genotype in anaesthetised mice modelling LQTS3 on ECG phenotypes before and following β-agonist challenge, and upon fibrotic change. Prolonged ventricular recovery was independently associated with Scn5a+/ΔKPQ and age. Ventricular activation was prolonged in old Scn5a+/ΔKPQ mice (p = 0.03). We associated Scn5a+/ΔKPQ with increased atrial and ventricular fibrosis (both: p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics*
  7. Kong PL, Looi LM, Lau TP, Cheah PL
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(9):e0161720.
    PMID: 27598341 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161720
    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0-20 years, 21-40 years, 41-60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0-20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics*
  8. Jong HL, Mustafa MR, Vanhoutte PM, AbuBakar S, Wong PF
    Physiol. Genomics, 2013 Apr 1;45(7):256-67.
    PMID: 23362143 DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00071.2012
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various cellular processes. While several genes associated with replicative senescence have been described in endothelial cells, miRNAs that regulate these genes remain largely unknown. The present study was designed to identify miRNAs associated with replicative senescence and their target genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). An integrated miRNA and gene profiling approach revealed that hsa-miR-299-3p is upregulated in senescent HUVECs compared with the young cells, and one of its target genes could be IGF1. IGF1 was upregulated in senescent compared with young HUVECs, and knockdown of hsa-miR-299-3p dose-dependently increased the mRNA expression of IGF1, more significantly observed in the presenescent cells (passage 19) compared with the senescent cells (passage 25). Knockdown of hsa-miR-299-3p also resulted in significant reduction in the percentage of cells positively stained for senescence-associated β-galactosidase and increases in cell viability measured by MTT assay but marginal increases in cell proliferation and cell migration capacity measured by real-time growth kinetics analysis. Moreover, knockdown of hsa-miR-299-3p also increased proliferation of cells treated with H2O2 to induce senescence. These findings suggest that hsa-miR-299-3p may delay or protect against replicative senescence by improving the metabolic activity of the senesced cells but does not stimulate growth of the remaining cells in senescent cultures. Hence, these findings provide an early insight into the role of hsa-miR-299-3p in the modulation of replicative senescence in HUVECs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Aging/genetics*
  9. Eshkoor SA, Ismail P, Rahman SA, Moin S
    Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, 2011 Dec;62(4):291-8.
    PMID: 22202462 DOI: 10.2478/10004-1254-62-2011-2088
    The aim of our study was to see the effects of GSTP1 polymorphism on biomarkers of ageing, including micronuclei (MN), comet tail length, and relative telomere length in automobile repair workers, who are exposed to a broad spectrum of potential mutagens. The analysis was performed on buccal cells collected from occupationally exposed and non-exposed (control) subjects. Samples were analysed using cytogenetic and molecular methods, including restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), MN test, comet assay, and real-time PCR. The results confirmed the DNA damaging effects of substances used in the mechanical workshops, but did not confirm the influence of GSTP1 gene polymorphism on DNA damage. However, further studies on both occupationally exposed and control populations are needed to understand the relationship between GSTP1 polymorphism and genome damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics*
  10. Makpol S, Zainuddin A, Rahim NA, Yusof YA, Ngah WZ
    Planta Med., 2010 Jun;76(9):869-75.
    PMID: 20112180 DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1240812
    Antioxidants such as vitamin E may act differently on skin cells depending on the age of the skin and the level of oxidative damage induced. The effects of alpha-tocopherol (ATF) on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage and telomere shortening of normal human skin fibroblast cells derived from young and old individual donors were determined. Fibroblasts were divided into five groups; untreated control, H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, alpha-tocopherol treatment, and pre- and post-treatment with alpha-tocopherol for H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. Our results showed that H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress increased DNA damage, shortened the telomere length and reduced the telomerase activity (p < 0.05) in fibroblasts obtained from young and old donors. Pre- and post-treatment with alpha-tocopherol protected against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in fibroblasts obtained from young individuals (p = 0.005; p = 0.01, respectively). However, in fibroblasts obtained from old individuals, similar protective effects were only seen in cells pretreated with alpha-tocopherol (p = 0.05) but not in the post-treated cells. Protection against H(2)O(2)-induced telomere shortening was observed in fibroblasts obtained from both young and old donors which were pre-treated with alpha-tocopherol (p = 0.009; p = 0.008, respectively). However, similar protective effects against telomere shortening in fibroblasts obtained from both young and old donors were not observed in the post-treated fibroblasts. Protection against H(2)O(2)-induced telomerase activity loss was observed only in fibroblasts obtained from old donors which were pretreated with alpha-tocopherol (p = 0.04) but not in fibroblasts obtained from young donors. Similar protective effects against telomerase activity loss in fibroblasts obtained from both young and old donors were not observed in the post-treated fibroblasts. In conclusion, alpha-tocopherol protected against H(2)O(2)-induced telomere shortening by restoring the telomerase activity. It also modulated H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage and this modulation was affected by donor age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Aging/genetics
  11. Naidu R, Wahab NA, Yadav M, Kutty MK
    Int. J. Mol. Med., 2002 Feb;9(2):189-96.
    PMID: 11786932
    Overexpression of c-myc protein and amplification of c-myc were investigated by immunohistochemistry and differential polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) in 440 formalin-fixed primary breast carcinoma tissues, respectively. Overexpression of c-myc was detected in 45% (199/440) and amplification of c-myc was observed in 25% (112/440) of the primary breast carcinomas. Immunolocalization of c-myc oncoprotein was demonstrated in 35% (8/23) of the comedo subtype, 17% (3/18) of the non-comedo subtype, 37% (15/41) of the comedo DCIS and 49% (20/41) of the adjacent invasive ductal carcinomas, 21% (4/19) of the non-comedo DCIS and 37% (7/19) of the adjacent invasive lesions, 49% (133/270) of the invasive ductal carcinomas, 33% (11/33) of the invasive lobular carcinomas, 29% (6/21) of the colloid carcinomas and 47% (7/15) of the medullary carcinomas. C-myc was amplified in 13% (3/23) of the comedo DCIS, 17% (7/41) of the comedo DCIS and 24% (10/41) of the adjacent invasive ductal carcinomas, 30% (82/270) of the invasive ductal carcinomas, 21% (7/33) of the invasive lobular carcinomas, 14% (3/21) of the colloid carcinomas and 24% (4/15) of the medullary carcinomas. Amplification of c-myc was noted in 16% (3/9) of the invasive ductal carcinomas but not in the adjacent non-comedo DCIS lesions. A significant association (P<0.05) was observed between in situ components and adjacent invasive lesions for c-myc expression and amplification. Overexpression of c-myc protein was significantly correlated with poorly differentiated (P<0.05) and high proliferation index (Ki-67) (P<0.05) tumors but not with lymph node metastases (P>0.05), patient age (P>0.05) and estrogen receptor status (P>0.05). Significant relationship was also noted between amplification of c-myc and absence of estrogen receptor (P<0.05), high histological grade (P<0.05) and high proliferation index (Ki-67) (P<0.05). No relationship was seen with nodal status (P>0.05) and patient age (P>0.05). Majority of the Malaysian female patients are from younger age group (<50 years old) but overexpression and amplification of c-myc was not statistically associated with patient age (P>0.05) indicating that these alterations may be independent events of patient age. The above observations suggest that overexpression and amplification of c-myc could play an important role in tumor progression from non-invasive to invasive and, also, it may have the potential as a marker of poor prognosis of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics
  12. Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Abdul Rahim N, Makpol S
    BMC Mol. Biol., 2010;11:59.
    PMID: 20707929 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-11-59
    Several genes have been used as housekeeping genes and choosing an appropriate reference gene is important for accurate quantitative RNA expression in real time RT-PCR technique. The expression levels of reference genes should remain constant between the cells of different tissues and under different experimental conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different experimental treatments on the expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA so that the reliability of GAPDH as reference gene for quantitative real time RT-PCR in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) can be validated. HDFs in 4 different treatment groups viz; young (passage 4), senescent (passage 30), H2O2-induced oxidative stress and gamma-tocotrienol (GTT)-treated groups were harvested for total RNA extraction. Total RNA concentration and purity were determined prior to GAPDH mRNA quantification. Standard curve of GAPDH expression in serial diluted total RNA, melting curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to determine the reliability of GAPDH as reference gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Aging/genetics
  13. George E, Wong HB, Jamaluddin M, Huisman TH
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Jun;34(3):241-4.
    PMID: 8266182
    Following complete DNA characterisation patients with Hb H disease were assigned into two groups: deletional (alpha +/alpha o) and non deletional (HbCS/alpha o). Earlier studies have indicated that the group with (HbCS/alpha o) has more severe clinical problems. The serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels, a secondary product of lipid peroxidation were within the normal range, though significantly higher levels of MDA were seen in the non-deletional type of Hb H disease when compared with the deletional type. Markedly low vitamin E levels were also seen in the former group. There were no significant differences in clinical severity may be attributed to an interplay of the accelerated destruction of damaged mature red blood cells secondary to the oxidative denaturation of Hb H and inclusion precipitation; higher levels of Hb H and more inclusion precipitation were seen in the group with (HbCS/alpha o). Low levels of vitamin E in the (HbCS/alpha o) group being due to its consumption in the neutralisation of free radicals formed with the oxidation of globin chains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocyte Aging/genetics
  14. Valli H, Ahmad S, Jiang AY, Smyth R, Jeevaratnam K, Matthews HR, et al.
    Mech. Ageing Dev., 2018 01;169:1-9.
    PMID: 29197478 DOI: 10.1016/j.mad.2017.11.016
    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies reported that energetically deficient murine Pgc-1β-/- hearts replicate age-dependent atrial arrhythmic phenotypes associated with their corresponding clinical conditions, implicating action potential (AP) conduction slowing consequent upon reduced AP upstroke rates.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested a hypothesis implicating Na+ current alterations as a mechanism underlying these electrophysiological phenotypes. We applied loose patch-clamp techniques to intact young and aged, WT and Pgc-1β-/-, atrial cardiomyocyte preparations preserving their in vivo extracellular and intracellular conditions.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Depolarising steps activated typical voltage-dependent activating and inactivating inward (Na+) currents whose amplitude increased or decreased with the amplitudes of the activating, or preceding inactivating, steps. Maximum values of peak Na+ current were independently influenced by genotype but not age or interacting effects of genotype and age on two-way ANOVA. Neither genotype, nor age, whether independently or interactively, influenced voltages at half-maximal current, or steepness factors, for current activation and inactivation, or time constants for recovery from inactivation following repolarisation. In contrast, delayed outward (K+) currents showed similar activation and rectification properties through all experimental groups. These findings directly demonstrate and implicate reduced Na+ in contrast to unchanged K+ current, as a mechanism for slowed conduction causing atrial arrhythmogenicity in Pgc-1β-/- hearts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics
  15. Ong ALC, Ramasamy TS
    Ageing Res. Rev., 2018 May;43:64-80.
    PMID: 29476819 DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2018.02.004
    Regulatory role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), one of the most extensively studied members of its kind in histone deacetylase family in governing multiple cellular fates, is predominantly linked to p53 activity. SIRT1 deacetylates p53 in a NAD+-dependent manner to inhibit transcription activity of p53, in turn modulate pathways that are implicated in regulation of tissue homoeostasis and many disease states. In this review, we discuss the role of SIRT1-p53 pathway and its regulatory axis in the cellular events which are implicated in cellular aging, cancer and reprogramming. It is noteworthy that these cellular events share few common regulatory pathways, including SIRT1-p53-LDHA-Myc, miR-34a,-Let7 regulatory network, which forms a positive feedback loop that controls cell cycle, metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, epigenetics and many others. In the context of aging, SIRT1 expression is reduced as a protective mechanism against oncogenesis and for maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Interestingly, its activation in aged cells is evidenced in response to DNA damage to protect the cells from p53-dependent apoptosis or senescence, predispose these cells to neoplastic transformation. Importantly, the dual roles of SIRT1-p53 axis in aging and tumourigenesis, either as tumour suppressor or tumour promoter are determined by SIRT1 localisation and type of cells. Conceptualising the distinct similarity between tumorigenesis and cellular reprogramming, this review provides a perspective discussion on involvement of SIRT1 in improving efficiency in the induction and maintenance of pluripotent state. Further research in understanding the role of SIRT1-p53 pathway and their associated regulators and strategies to manipulate this regulatory axis very likely foster the development of therapeutics and strategies for treating cancer and aging-associated degenerative diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics
  16. Ahmad S, Valli H, Chadda KR, Cranley J, Jeevaratnam K, Huang CL
    Mech. Ageing Dev., 2018 07;173:92-103.
    PMID: 29763629 DOI: 10.1016/j.mad.2018.05.004
    INTRODUCTION: Ageing and age-related bioenergetic conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus and heart failure constitute clinical ventricular arrhythmic risk factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pro-arrhythmic properties in electrocardiographic and intracellular recordings were compared in young and aged, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β knockout (Pgc-1β-/-) and wild type (WT), Langendorff-perfused murine hearts, during regular and programmed stimulation (PES), comparing results by two-way ANOVA.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Young and aged Pgc-1β-/- showed higher frequencies and durations of arrhythmic episodes through wider PES coupling-interval ranges than WT. Both young and old, regularly-paced, Pgc-1β-/- hearts showed slowed maximum action potential (AP) upstrokes, (dV/dt)max (∼157 vs. 120-130 V s-1), prolonged AP latencies (by ∼20%) and shortened refractory periods (∼58 vs. 51 ms) but similar AP durations (∼50 ms at 90% recovery) compared to WT. However, Pgc-1β-/- genotype and age each influenced extrasystolic AP latencies during PES. Young and aged WT ventricles displayed distinct, but Pgc-1β-/- ventricles displayed similar dependences of AP latency upon (dV/dt)max resembling aged WT. They also independently increased myocardial fibrosis. AP wavelengths combining activation and recovery terms paralleled contrasting arrhythmic incidences in Pgc-1β-/- and WT hearts. Mitochondrial dysfunction thus causes pro-arrhythmic Pgc-1β-/- phenotypes by altering AP conduction through reducing (dV/dt)max and causing age-dependent fibrotic change.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics
  17. Tan SH, Karri V, Tay NWR, Chang KH, Ah HY, Ng PQ, et al.
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2019 Mar;111:765-777.
    PMID: 30612001 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.101
    Neurodegenerative diseases are usually sporadic in nature and commonly influenced by a wide range of genetic, life style and environmental factors. A unifying feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is the abnormal accumulation and processing of mutant or damaged intra and extracellular proteins; this leads to neuronal vulnerability and dysfunction in the brain. Through a detailed review of ubiquitin proteasome, mRNA splicing, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress pathway interrelation on neurodegeneration can improve the understanding of the disease mechanism. The identified pathways common to AD and PD nominate promising new targets for further studies, and as well as biomarkers. These insights suggested would likely provide major stimuli for developing unified treatment approaches to combat neurodegeneration. More broadly, pathways can serve as vehicles for integrating findings from diverse studies of neurodegeneration. The evidence examined in this review provides a brief overview of the current literature on significant pathways in promoting in AD, PD. Additionally, these insights suggest that biomarkers and treatment strategies may require simultaneous targeting of multiple components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/genetics
  18. Khor SC, Razak AM, Wan Ngah WZ, Mohd Yusof YA, Abdul Karim N, Makpol S
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(2):e0149265.
    PMID: 26885980 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149265
    Aging results in a loss of muscle mass and strength. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle mass through regenerative processes, which are impaired during aging. Vitamin E potentially ameliorates age-related phenotypes. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and α-tocopherol (ATF) in protecting myoblasts from replicative senescence and promoting myogenic differentiation. Primary human myoblasts were cultured into young and senescent stages and were then treated with TRF or ATF for 24 h, followed by an analysis of cell proliferation, senescence biomarkers, cellular morphology and differentiation. Our data showed that replicative senescence impaired the normal regenerative processes of myoblasts, resulting in changes in cellular morphology, cell proliferation, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) expression, myogenic differentiation and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression. Treatment with both TRF and ATF was beneficial to senescent myoblasts in reclaiming the morphology of young cells, improved cell viability and decreased SA-β-gal expression. However, only TRF treatment increased BrdU incorporation in senescent myoblasts, as well as promoted myogenic differentiation through the modulation of MRFs at the mRNA and protein levels. MYOD1 and MYOG gene expression and myogenin protein expression were modulated in the early phases of myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, the tocotrienol-rich fraction is superior to α-tocopherol in ameliorating replicative senescence-related aberration and promoting differentiation via modulation of MRFs expression, indicating vitamin E potential in modulating replicative senescence of myoblasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Aging/genetics
  19. Makpol S, Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Yusof YA, Ngah WZ
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012;67(2):135-43.
    PMID: 22358238
    OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms of these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes.

    METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with γ-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer.

    RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G(0)/G(1) phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with γ-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G(0)/G(1) phase and increased cell populations in the G(2)/M phase. γ-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts.

    CONCLUSION: γ-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Aging/genetics
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