Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Sarvesvaran R, Knight BH
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Dec;16(2):117-26.
    PMID: 9053560
    The finding of skeletal remains is a common happening and the forensic pathologist is frequently called upon to examine the remains. It is theoretically much better for the pathologist to examine the bones at the site before they are disturbed, but this rarely happens, the bones being recovered by the public, workmen or police and brought in a jumbled condition to the pathologist. Using a systematic process of elimination such as that suggested in this paper, the maximum information can be obtained. Even so, it is common for the bones never to be identified and even the length of time the person has been dead remains unknown, due to lack of corroborative information. However, only by repeated and careful examination of a number of skeletal remains, can the pathologist hope to gain any experience. Probably the most important thing to bear in mind is the danger of being too dogmatic, especially about the date of the remains and not to mislead the investigating authorities by over-optimistic opinions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/pathology
  2. Kong PL, Looi LM, Lau TP, Cheah PL
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(9):e0161720.
    PMID: 27598341 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161720
    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0-20 years, 21-40 years, 41-60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0-20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/pathology
  3. Ebisawa K, Kato R, Okada M, Kamei Y, Mazlyzam AL, Narita Y, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:41.
    PMID: 19024974
    Two types of cell therapy for facial anti-aging in my clinical experience are introduced in this presentation. One therapy is cultured gingival fibroblasts injection. This procedure lasts for at least one year, making it a good option for patients. The other is platelet rich plasma injection. The results of the preliminary data are promising, but not yet well understood. More clinical data and long-term follow-up is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin Aging/pathology
  4. Loh KB, Ramli N, Tan LK, Roziah M, Rahmat K, Ariffin H
    Eur Radiol, 2012 Jul;22(7):1413-26.
    PMID: 22434420 DOI: 10.1007/s00330-012-2396-3
    OBJECTIVES: The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas.

    METHODS: Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction.

    RESULTS: DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued.

    CONCLUSION: DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data.

    KEY POINTS: Diffusion tensor imaging outperforms conventional MRI in depicting white matter maturation. • DTI will become an important clinical tool for diagnosing paediatric neurological diseases. • DTI appears especially helpful for developmental abnormalities, tumours and white matter disease. • An automated processing pipeline assists quantitative analysis of high throughput DTI data.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/pathology*
  5. Whittaker DK, Bakri MM
    Arch. Oral Biol., 1996 Jan;41(1):15-9.
    PMID: 8833585
    One hundred and ninety-eight single-rooted teeth from individuals aged 21-90 yr of Caucasian, Malay, Chinese Malay and Indian Malay origin were studied. Single or serial longitudinal sections of extracted teeth were cut following dye imbibition of patent dentinal tubules. The extent of sclerosis of apical dentinal tubules was assessed and correlated with the age of the individual. Correlation with age was higher in the Caucasian than the Malay races and within the Malaysian racial groups correlation with age was highest in the Malays and lowest in the Chinese. It is concluded that factors other than age may be important in the formation of sclerotic apical dentine in teeth of different racial origin. The effect of racial origin should be considered when using sclerosis as a means of age determination in forensic cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/pathology*
  6. Valli H, Ahmad S, Jiang AY, Smyth R, Jeevaratnam K, Matthews HR, et al.
    Mech. Ageing Dev., 2018 01;169:1-9.
    PMID: 29197478 DOI: 10.1016/j.mad.2017.11.016
    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies reported that energetically deficient murine Pgc-1β-/- hearts replicate age-dependent atrial arrhythmic phenotypes associated with their corresponding clinical conditions, implicating action potential (AP) conduction slowing consequent upon reduced AP upstroke rates.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested a hypothesis implicating Na+ current alterations as a mechanism underlying these electrophysiological phenotypes. We applied loose patch-clamp techniques to intact young and aged, WT and Pgc-1β-/-, atrial cardiomyocyte preparations preserving their in vivo extracellular and intracellular conditions.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Depolarising steps activated typical voltage-dependent activating and inactivating inward (Na+) currents whose amplitude increased or decreased with the amplitudes of the activating, or preceding inactivating, steps. Maximum values of peak Na+ current were independently influenced by genotype but not age or interacting effects of genotype and age on two-way ANOVA. Neither genotype, nor age, whether independently or interactively, influenced voltages at half-maximal current, or steepness factors, for current activation and inactivation, or time constants for recovery from inactivation following repolarisation. In contrast, delayed outward (K+) currents showed similar activation and rectification properties through all experimental groups. These findings directly demonstrate and implicate reduced Na+ in contrast to unchanged K+ current, as a mechanism for slowed conduction causing atrial arrhythmogenicity in Pgc-1β-/- hearts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/pathology
  7. Ahmad S, Valli H, Chadda KR, Cranley J, Jeevaratnam K, Huang CL
    Mech. Ageing Dev., 2018 07;173:92-103.
    PMID: 29763629 DOI: 10.1016/j.mad.2018.05.004
    INTRODUCTION: Ageing and age-related bioenergetic conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus and heart failure constitute clinical ventricular arrhythmic risk factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pro-arrhythmic properties in electrocardiographic and intracellular recordings were compared in young and aged, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β knockout (Pgc-1β-/-) and wild type (WT), Langendorff-perfused murine hearts, during regular and programmed stimulation (PES), comparing results by two-way ANOVA.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Young and aged Pgc-1β-/- showed higher frequencies and durations of arrhythmic episodes through wider PES coupling-interval ranges than WT. Both young and old, regularly-paced, Pgc-1β-/- hearts showed slowed maximum action potential (AP) upstrokes, (dV/dt)max (∼157 vs. 120-130 V s-1), prolonged AP latencies (by ∼20%) and shortened refractory periods (∼58 vs. 51 ms) but similar AP durations (∼50 ms at 90% recovery) compared to WT. However, Pgc-1β-/- genotype and age each influenced extrasystolic AP latencies during PES. Young and aged WT ventricles displayed distinct, but Pgc-1β-/- ventricles displayed similar dependences of AP latency upon (dV/dt)max resembling aged WT. They also independently increased myocardial fibrosis. AP wavelengths combining activation and recovery terms paralleled contrasting arrhythmic incidences in Pgc-1β-/- and WT hearts. Mitochondrial dysfunction thus causes pro-arrhythmic Pgc-1β-/- phenotypes by altering AP conduction through reducing (dV/dt)max and causing age-dependent fibrotic change.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/pathology
  8. Tan SH, Karri V, Tay NWR, Chang KH, Ah HY, Ng PQ, et al.
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2019 Mar;111:765-777.
    PMID: 30612001 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.101
    Neurodegenerative diseases are usually sporadic in nature and commonly influenced by a wide range of genetic, life style and environmental factors. A unifying feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is the abnormal accumulation and processing of mutant or damaged intra and extracellular proteins; this leads to neuronal vulnerability and dysfunction in the brain. Through a detailed review of ubiquitin proteasome, mRNA splicing, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress pathway interrelation on neurodegeneration can improve the understanding of the disease mechanism. The identified pathways common to AD and PD nominate promising new targets for further studies, and as well as biomarkers. These insights suggested would likely provide major stimuli for developing unified treatment approaches to combat neurodegeneration. More broadly, pathways can serve as vehicles for integrating findings from diverse studies of neurodegeneration. The evidence examined in this review provides a brief overview of the current literature on significant pathways in promoting in AD, PD. Additionally, these insights suggest that biomarkers and treatment strategies may require simultaneous targeting of multiple components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/pathology
  9. Lim MY, Lim WW, Rajan S, Nambiar P, Ngeow WC
    Eur Arch Paediatr Dent, 2015 Oct;16(5):397-407.
    PMID: 25894248 DOI: 10.1007/s40368-015-0184-x
    To observe age-related changes in the locations of mandibular foramen (MF) and mental foramen (mf) using dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs).
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/pathology
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