Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Mirsafian H, Mat Ripen A, Singh A, Teo PH, Merican AF, Mohamad SB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:639682.
    PMID: 24707212 DOI: 10.1155/2014/639682
    Synonymous codon usage bias is an inevitable phenomenon in organismic taxa across the three domains of life. Though the frequency of codon usage is not equal across species and within genome in the same species, the phenomenon is non random and is tissue-specific. Several factors such as GC content, nucleotide distribution, protein hydropathy, protein secondary structure, and translational selection are reported to contribute to codon usage preference. The synonymous codon usage patterns can be helpful in revealing the expression pattern of genes as well as the evolutionary relationship between the sequences. In this study, synonymous codon usage bias patterns were determined for the evolutionarily close proteins of albumin superfamily, namely, albumin, α-fetoprotein, afamin, and vitamin D-binding protein. Our study demonstrated that the genes of the four albumin superfamily members have low GC content and high values of effective number of codons (ENC) suggesting high expressivity of these genes and less bias in codon usage preferences. This study also provided evidence that the albumin superfamily members are not subjected to mutational selection pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins/genetics*
  2. Lew MH, Lim RL
    Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2016 Jan;100(2):661-71.
    PMID: 26411458 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-015-6953-y
    Current diagnostic tools for peanut allergy using crude peanut extract showed low predictive value and reduced specificity for detection of peanut allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). The Ara h 2.02, an isoform of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2, contains three IgE epitope recognition sequence of 'DPYSPS' and may be a better reagent for component resolve diagnosis. This research aimed to generate a codon-optimised Ara h 2.02 gene for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and allergenicity study of this recombinant protein. The codon-optimised gene was generated by PCR using overlapping primers and cloned into the pET-28a (+) expression vector. Moderate expression of a 22.5 kDa 6xhistidine-tagged recombinant Ara h 2.02 protein (6xHis-rAra h 2.02) in BL21 (DE3) host cells was observed upon induction with 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The insoluble recombinant protein was purified under denaturing condition using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography and refolded by dialysis in decreasing urea concentration, amounting to a yield of 74 mg/l of expression culture. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunoblot analysis confirmed the production of the recombinant 6xHis-rAra h 2.02. The refolded recombinant 6xHis-rAra h 2.02, with or without adjuvant, was able to elicit comparable level of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 in sensitised Balb/c mice. In addition, the specific IgE antibodies raised against the recombinant protein were able to recognise the native Ara h 2 protein, demonstrating its allergenicity and potential as a reagent for diagnosis and therapeutic study.
    Matched MeSH terms: 2S Albumins, Plant/biosynthesis; 2S Albumins, Plant/genetics*; 2S Albumins, Plant/immunology*; 2S Albumins, Plant/chemistry
  3. Chan CJ, Yong YS, Song AAL, Abdul Rahim R, In LLA, Lim RLH
    J. Appl. Microbiol., 2020 Mar;128(3):862-874.
    PMID: 31758869 DOI: 10.1111/jam.14524
    AIM: To study the prophylactic effect of recombinant Lactococcus lactis (rLl) harbouring Ara h 2.02 peanut allergen, in sensitized and challenged mice.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Ara h 2.02 cDNA was cloned into pNZ8048 for heterologous expression in L. lactis. The purified recombinant allergen showed IgE binding comparable with native Ara h 2. Balb/c mice were fed with either recombinant (rLl), nonrecombinant L. lactis (Ll) or NaHCO3 (Sham) prior to sensitization and challenged with rAra h 2.02, whereas the baseline group was only fed with Ll. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin and splenocyte cytokines responses were determined for each mouse. Mice fed with either Ll or rLl showed significant alleviation of IgE and IgG1 compared to the Sham group. Despite no significant decrease in Th2 (IL-4, IL-13, IL-6) or increase in Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines, both groups showed lower IL-10 level, while the IL-4 : IFN-γ ratio was significantly lower for rLl compared to Ll group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of rLl harbouring Ara h 2.02 demonstrated alleviation of Th2-associated responses in allergen-challenged mice and a possible added allergen-specific prophylactic effect.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Ara h 2.02 coupled with the intrinsic properties of probiotic L. lactis as a delivery vehicle can be explored for the development of a commercially scalable vaccine.

    Matched MeSH terms: 2S Albumins, Plant/genetics; 2S Albumins, Plant/immunology*
  4. Norfarizan Hanoon N, Asmah R, Fauziah O, Rokiah M, Faridah H
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:403-409.
    This study evaluated four different doses of Strobilanthes crispa juice (700, 2100, 3500 and 4900 mg kg-1 of body weight) administered orally to normal female and male Sprague dawley rats on possible changes in various physical, behaviour, morphology and biochemical parameter. The rats were treated with a single dose of juice and observed for 14 days. No significant toxicity was observed with respect to clinical parameters and organ morphology. In addition, no significant changes were observed in the level of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase,
    creatinine and albumin. The S. crispa juice was found to be safe at the maximum dose used in this study (4900 mg kg-1 of body weight).
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  5. Young L, Nor Hanipah Z, Brethauer SA, Schauer PR, Aminian A
    Surg Endosc, 2019 05;33(5):1654-1660.
    PMID: 30251143 DOI: 10.1007/s00464-018-6458-8
    BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve and resolve diabetes. However, limited literature about its impact on end-organ complications of diabetes is available. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on albuminuria.

    METHODS: We studied 101 patients with pre-operative diabetes and albuminuria [defined as urine albumin:creatinine ratio (uACR) > 30 mg/g] who underwent bariatric surgery at an academic center from 2005 to 2014.

    RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients (56%) were female with a mean age of 53 (± 11) years. The mean pre-operative BMI and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were 43.1 (± 7.6) kg/m2 and 8.4 (± 1.8)%, respectively. The median pre-operative uACR was 80.0 (45.0-231.0) mg/g. Bariatric procedures included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 75, 74%) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 26, 26%). The mean follow-up period was 61 (± 29) months. At last follow-up, the mean BMI was 33.8 (± 8.3) kg/m2. The overall glycemic control improved after bariatric surgery. At last follow-up, 73% had good glycemic control (HbA1c 

    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins/analysis
  6. Mohammed Saad, A.M., Mohammed Imad, A.M., Aini, H.H., Seman, M.R.
    Introduction: HCV infection is frequent in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis, with prevalence between 8 and 10%. Hepatitis C has an adverse effect on both patient and graft survival in those who get renal transplants. There are relatively scarce reports on the natural fluctuation in viral load level in patients on chronic haemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This is a longitudinal short-term three months study, where 27 chronic haemodialysis patients infected with known HCV genotypes were recruited from seven haemodialysis centres in Pahang. Serum samples were collected monthly, both pre- and post-haemodialysis sessions, over a period of three months. Viral RNA was extracted from serum using QIAamp Viral RNA Extraction kit (Qiagen). The HCV viral load was measured using one-step reverse transcriptase qPCR (Applied Biosystems) targeting the 5`HCV non-coding region (5’UTR). The serum α-IFN level was measured using commercial ELISA kit (Amersham, UK). Six biochemical liver function tests (AST, ALP, TP, albumin, ALT and TB) were also done for all pre-haemodialysis samples. Results: All patients showed persistent low level viral load that varied significantly over the study period (p = 0.001). HCV genotype 1 viral load was significantly higher than that of genotype 3. Conclusion: No apparent correlation could be recognized between the viral loads and the corresponding interferon-alpha levels which were detectable in only a few patients during the period of study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  7. Hamid, A.J., Azmi, M.T.
    Introduction : A retrospective cohort study was conducted among ESRD who received dialysis treatment (Haemodialysis and CAPD) in all government hospitals in the State of Pahang from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004.
    Objective : The aim of the study was to identify factors affecting the survival of patients undergoing dialysis in the state of Pahang.
    Methods : Survival time was measured from the date of dialysis until the subjects died, lost to follow up or until the end of the study period at 31st December 2004.
    Results : Diabetes mellitus was the major cause for ESRD (33%) out of 132 subjects eligible for the study. Seven (7.1%) and five (15.2%) deaths occurred among haemodialysis and CAPD patients respectively, but statistically of no difference between the two treatments (log-rank, p=0.093). Factors influencing the survival of haemodialysis patients were diabetes mellitus (p=0.014), albumin (p=0.0005), creatinine (p=0.020) and hemoglobin level (p=0.002), while age of treatment and diabetes mellitus affecting the survival of CAPD patient. Cox Proportional Hazard Regression showed that haemodialysis subjects with low albumin (HR 0.669 df 95% 0.513 - 0.873) and hemoglobin (HR 0.403 df 95% 0.225 - 0.720) level had lower survival rate but none for CAPD.
    Conclusion : Good nutritional status, higher hemoglobin level and prevention of diabetes mellitus are important for the survival of haemodialysis patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  8. Donald, Koh Fook Chen, Joon, Wah Mak, Soo, Shen Ooi, Kwai Hoe Chong, Kok, Fee Mak
    Background: A number of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preparations are being used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some components of these preparations have biochemical effects other than those of lowering blood glucose and indeed have been used for other medical indications in traditional practice. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect of the oral mixture of Traditional Chinese Medicine for diabetes (TCM-D™ complex) on blood glucose level and the biochemical changes if any, on the liver (ALT, AST, gamma-GT, albumin, globulin) and renal (blood creatinine, urea) functions in normal mice. The oral mixture is an aqueous extract of four wellknown traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and consists of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch., and Panax ginseng (red) CA Meyer in the proportion of 36%, 28%, 18%, and 18% respectively of the dry weight. These herbs have
    been shown to have blood glucose lowering activity and have been used for other traditional medicinal purposes.The safety of the combination was evaluated in the present study. Methods: Experimental Balb/c mice were treated orally via gastric tube with the extract at daily doses equivalent to 1 and 10 times the recommended human dose for 8 weeks. Blood glucose and other biochemical profiles were monitored at pre-treatment and monthly posttreatment until killed. Results: When compared to pre-treatment levels, the blood glucose levels were significantly lower in treated animals compared to those in the control group. At the recommended TCM-D™ dose the levels in treated animals were significantly lower than that of control animals and at pre-treatment. When compared with pre-treatment, the glucose levels were lowest at Week 8 of treatment, the mean levels being 111.23%, 83.32% and 70.33% in control, and in animals given 1 x and 10 x the recommended TCM-D™ dosage respectively. The blood glucose lowering effect was also associated with a significant weight loss in treated animals. There were transient increases in AST and ALT levels but these reverted to normal at Week 8 of treatment. The levels of bilirubin, g-GT, albumin, creatinine and blood urea were also not significantly different at Week 8 from pre-treatment levels in all groups. Conclusion: Even at 10 times the dosage recommended for humans, TCM-D™ did not affect the liver and renal functions of treated animals. Treated and control animals remained healthy and normal throughout the period of observation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  9. Tanaka KI, Shimoda M, Chuang VTG, Nishida K, Kawahara M, Ishida T, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2018 Jan 15;535(1-2):140-147.
    PMID: 29122608 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.11.012
    Zinc (Zn) is a co-factor for a vast number of enzymes, and functions as a regulator for immune mechanism and protein synthesis. However, excessive Zn release induced in pathological situations such as stroke or transient global ischemia is toxic. Previously, we demonstrated that the interaction of Zn and copper (Cu) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various metal ions induced neuronal death. Thioredoxin-Albumin fusion (HSA-Trx) is a derivative of thioredoxin (Trx), an antioxidative protein, with improved plasma retention and stability of Trx. In this study, we examined the effect of HSA-Trx on Cu2+/Zn2+-induced neurotoxicity. Firstly, HSA-Trx was found to clearly suppress Cu2+/Zn2+-induced neuronal cell death in mouse hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1-7 cells). Moreover, HSA-Trx markedly suppressed Cu2+/Zn2+-induced ROS production and the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as heme oxygenase-1. In contrast, HSA-Trx did not affect the intracellular levels of both Cu2+ and Zn2+ after Cu2+/Zn2+ treatment. Finally, HSA-Trx was found to significantly suppress endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by Cu2+/Zn2+ treatment in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that HSA-Trx counteracted Cu2+/Zn2+-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing the production of ROS via interfering the related gene expressions, in addition to the highly possible radical scavenging activity of the fusion protein. Based on these findings, HSA-Trx has great potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of refractory neurological diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  10. Petrick P, Kong NC, Nordiah AJ, Cheong IK, Tamil MA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Oct;62(4):329-34.
    PMID: 18551939 MyJurnal
    The clinical outcome of bacteraemic patients is influenced by many factors. It is vital to know one's own local hospital epidemiological data so as to provide optimal care to the affected patients. This was a prospective, observational study carried out in the said patient population over a period of four months in the year 2005. One hundred and ninety one patients presented with bacteraemia over the study period. Fifty-two (27%) of the patients died. Mechanical ventilation, inappropriate empirical antibiotic usage, Chinese ethnicity and low serum albumin levels independently affected prognosis. These factors should alert physicians to those patients who require more intensive monitoring and care.
    Bacteraemia, Blood Culture Positive, Outcome, Risk factors, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  11. Ghazali WSW, Iberahim R, Ashari NSM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Oct;24(5):62-72.
    PMID: 29386973 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.5.7
    Background: Previous studies have shown that serum VEGF levels were elevated in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in those with lupus nephritis (LN). In this case control study, we aimed to compare serum levels of VEGF in SLE patients between LN, non-LN and healthy participants to determine the association between serum VEGF levels and the activity and histological classes of lupus nephritis.
    Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 92 SLE patients (46 LN and 46 non-LN) and 26 controls. Data were collected from medical records. Serum VEGF assays were performed by specific, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (ELISA). Laboratory investigations included urinalysis, urine protein-creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, albumin and VEGF levels. Blood pressure, renal biopsy result and treatment were recorded. LN activity was evaluated using the renal subscale of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (rBILAG, 2004). The rBILAG measures blood pressure (diastolic and systolic), urine protein, serum creatinine, calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), presence of active urinary sediments and histological evidence of active nephritis.
    Results: Serum VEGF was elevated in SLE patients with LN compared with the non-LN group and healthy controls. The levels found were significantly higher in the sera of patients with active nephritis compared to those with quiescent nephritis (P = 0.024). The study did not find a statistically significant relationship between serum VEGF levels and histological classes of LN.
    Conclusion: There was no significant difference of serum VEGF level between LN and non-LN SLE groups and between the non-LN group and healthy controls. However, there were increased levels of serum VEGF in the LN group, especially in patients with active nephritis as compared to quiescent nephritis group. This reflects the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, however the clinical potential of this biomarker needs further study.
    Study site: Rheumatology clinic, medical wards, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  12. Ng TP
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1351-1355.
    Dementia poses a major global burden of care to society and health systems in ageing populations. The majority (over 60%) of persons with dementia in the world are found in Asia and developing countries with rapid rates of population ageing. Improving and maintaining the cognitive health of older persons is vital to national strategies for dementia prevention. Increasing numbers of population-based ageing cohort studies in the past decade have provided a better understanding of the factors that contribute to cognitive function and decline in old age. The roles of major demographic, psychosocial, lifestyle, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors contributing to cognitive health were discussed using examples from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. They include socio-demographic factors, particularly education and marital status, leisure time activity such as physical activity, social engagement and mental activities, psychological factors such as depression, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors: obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome, under-nutrition, low albumin, low hemoglobin, nutritional factors such as blood folate, B12 and homocysteine, omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, tea drinking and curcumin-rich turmeric in curry meals. These factors are found to be associated variously with cognitive functions (memory and learning, language, visuospatial, attention and information processing speed), rates of cognitive impairment and cognitive decline, or increased risk of developing MCI and progression to dementia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
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