OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of paclitaxel loaded PLGA nanoparticle (PTX-NPs) on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of the different MDA-MB type of cell lines.
METHOD: PTX-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized earlier. The cytotoxicity of PTX-NPs was evaluated by MTT and LDH assay, later apoptosis was calculated by flow cytometry analysis.
RESULTS: The prepared NP size of 317.5 nm and zetapontial of -12.7 mV showed drug release of 89.1 % at 48 h. MDA-MB-231 type cell showed significant cytotoxicity by MTT method of 47.4 ± 1.2 % at 24 h, 34.6 ± 0.8 % at 48 h and 23.5 ± 0.5 % at 72 h and LDH method of 35.9 ± 1.5 % at 24 h, 25.4 ± 0.6 % at 48 h and 19.8 ± 2.2 % at 72 h with apoptosis of 47.3 ± 0.4 %.
CONCLUSION: We have found that PTX-NPs showed the cytotoxic effect on all the MDA-MB cancer cell lines and showed potent anticancer activities against MDA-MB-231 cell line via induction of apoptosis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of administration of VCO on lipid profile, markers of hepatic and renal dysfunction, and hepatic and renal antioxidant activities of alloxan induced diabetic rats.
METHODS: Twenty-four male albino rats were used, and they were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group 1 (Normal Control, NC) received distilled water (1 mL/kg); Group 2 (VCO Control) received VCO (5 mL/kg); Group 3 (Diabetic Control, DC) received distilled water (1 mL/kg); Group 4 (Test Group, TG) received 5 ml/kg of VCO.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in blood glucose, body weights, relative liver weights, relative kidney weights, hepatic and renal Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities, Malondialdehyde (MDA), albumin, aspartate Amino Transaminase (AST), alanine Amino Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, Very Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) concentrations; significant increases in renal Glutathione (GSH), hepatic catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and GSH but significant reduction in renal GPx and catalase activities of VCO control group compared with NC group. There were significant increases in blood glucose, relative liver and kidney weights, hepatic GPx, hepatic and renal MDA concentration, ALP, AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, uric acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL concentrations; and significant decreases in body weight, hepatic SOD and GSH activities and albumin concentration but no significant difference in hepatic catalase activity of DC group compared with NC group. Administration of VCO to diabetic rats positively modulated these parameters compared with the diabetic control.
CONCLUSION: The study showed the potentials of VCO in the management of hyperlipidemia, renal and hepatic dysfunctions imposed by hyperglycemia and by oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 150 children aged 12-36 months.
EXCLUSION CRITERIA: recurrent infections, moderate to severe asthma, recent systemic steroid, other diseases affecting growth/nutrition. Growth parameters, SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium, albumin, protein, calcium, phosphate, B12, iron, and folate values were determined. Parents completed a 3-day food diary.
RESULTS: The prevalence of food restriction was 60.7%. Commonly restricted foods were shellfish 62.7%, nuts 53.3%, egg 50%, dairy 29.3%, and cow's milk 28.7%. Food-restricted children have significantly lower calorie, protein, fat, riboflavin, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus and iron intakes and lower serum iron, protein and albumin values. Z scores of weight-for-age (-1.38 ± 1.02 vs -0.59 ± 0.96, P = .00), height-for-age (-1.34 ± 1.36 vs -0.51 ± 1.22, P = .00), head circumference-for-age (-1.37 ± 0.90 vs -0.90 ± 0.81, P = .00), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)-for-age (-0.71 ± 0.90 vs -0.22 ± 0.88, P = .00), and BMI-for-age (-0.79 ± 1.15 vs -0.42 ± 0.99, P = .04) were significantly lower in food-restricted compared to non-food-restricted children. More food-restricted children were stunted, underweight with lower head circumference and MUAC. Severe disease was an independent risk factor for food restriction with OR 5.352; 95% CI, 2.26-12.68.
CONCLUSION: Food restriction is common in children with AD. It is associated with lower Z scores for weight, height, head circumference, MUAC, and BMI. Severe disease is an independent risk factor for food restriction.
DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.
SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference.
PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries.
INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed.
CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.