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  1. Mirsafian H, Mat Ripen A, Singh A, Teo PH, Merican AF, Mohamad SB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:639682.
    PMID: 24707212 DOI: 10.1155/2014/639682
    Synonymous codon usage bias is an inevitable phenomenon in organismic taxa across the three domains of life. Though the frequency of codon usage is not equal across species and within genome in the same species, the phenomenon is non random and is tissue-specific. Several factors such as GC content, nucleotide distribution, protein hydropathy, protein secondary structure, and translational selection are reported to contribute to codon usage preference. The synonymous codon usage patterns can be helpful in revealing the expression pattern of genes as well as the evolutionary relationship between the sequences. In this study, synonymous codon usage bias patterns were determined for the evolutionarily close proteins of albumin superfamily, namely, albumin, α-fetoprotein, afamin, and vitamin D-binding protein. Our study demonstrated that the genes of the four albumin superfamily members have low GC content and high values of effective number of codons (ENC) suggesting high expressivity of these genes and less bias in codon usage preferences. This study also provided evidence that the albumin superfamily members are not subjected to mutational selection pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins/genetics*
  2. Lew MH, Lim RL
    Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2016 Jan;100(2):661-71.
    PMID: 26411458 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-015-6953-y
    Current diagnostic tools for peanut allergy using crude peanut extract showed low predictive value and reduced specificity for detection of peanut allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). The Ara h 2.02, an isoform of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2, contains three IgE epitope recognition sequence of 'DPYSPS' and may be a better reagent for component resolve diagnosis. This research aimed to generate a codon-optimised Ara h 2.02 gene for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and allergenicity study of this recombinant protein. The codon-optimised gene was generated by PCR using overlapping primers and cloned into the pET-28a (+) expression vector. Moderate expression of a 22.5 kDa 6xhistidine-tagged recombinant Ara h 2.02 protein (6xHis-rAra h 2.02) in BL21 (DE3) host cells was observed upon induction with 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The insoluble recombinant protein was purified under denaturing condition using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography and refolded by dialysis in decreasing urea concentration, amounting to a yield of 74 mg/l of expression culture. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunoblot analysis confirmed the production of the recombinant 6xHis-rAra h 2.02. The refolded recombinant 6xHis-rAra h 2.02, with or without adjuvant, was able to elicit comparable level of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 in sensitised Balb/c mice. In addition, the specific IgE antibodies raised against the recombinant protein were able to recognise the native Ara h 2 protein, demonstrating its allergenicity and potential as a reagent for diagnosis and therapeutic study.
    Matched MeSH terms: 2S Albumins, Plant/biosynthesis; 2S Albumins, Plant/genetics*; 2S Albumins, Plant/immunology*; 2S Albumins, Plant/chemistry
  3. Zaman R, Islam RA, Ibnat N, Othman I, Zaini A, Lee CY, et al.
    J Control Release, 2019 Mar 05;301:176-189.
    PMID: 30849445 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.02.016
    Macromolecular protein and peptide therapeutics have been proven to be effective in treating critical human diseases precisely. Thanks to biotechnological advancement, a huge number of proteins and peptide therapeutics were made their way to pharmaceutical market in past few decades. However, one of the biggest challenges to be addressed for protein therapeutics during clinical application is their fast degradation in serum and quick elimination owing to enzymatic degradation, renal clearance, liver metabolism and immunogenicity, attributing to the short half-lives. Size and hydrophobicity of protein molecules make them prone to kidney filtration and liver metabolism. On the other hand, proteasomes responsible for protein destruction possess the capability of specifically recognizing almost all kinds of foreign proteins while avoiding any unwanted destruction of cellular components. At present almost all protein-based drug formulations available in market are administered intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) with high dosing at frequent interval, eventually creating dose-fluctuation-related complications and reducing patient compliance vastly. Therefore, artificially increasing the therapeutic half-life of a protein by attaching to it a molecule that increases the overall size (eg, PEG) or helps with receptor mediated recycling (eg, albumin), or manipulating amino acid chain in a way that makes it more prone towards aggregate formation, are some of the revolutionary approaches to avoid the fast degradation in vivo. Half-life extension technologies that are capable of dramatically enhancing half-lives of proteins in circulation (2-100 folds) and thus improving their overall pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters have been successfully applied on a wide range of protein therapeutics from hormones and enzymes, growth factor, clotting factor to interferon. The focus of the review is to assess the technological advancements made so far in enhancing circulatory half-lives and improving therapeutic potency of proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  4. Vijayan V, Shalini K, Yugesvaran V, Yee TH, Balakrishnan S, Palanimuthu VR
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2018;24(28):3366-3375.
    PMID: 30179118 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180903110301
    BACKGROUND: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is not treatable by chemotherapy drugs, due to the lack of Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) on the cell surface.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of paclitaxel loaded PLGA nanoparticle (PTX-NPs) on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of the different MDA-MB type of cell lines.

    METHOD: PTX-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized earlier. The cytotoxicity of PTX-NPs was evaluated by MTT and LDH assay, later apoptosis was calculated by flow cytometry analysis.

    RESULTS: The prepared NP size of 317.5 nm and zetapontial of -12.7 mV showed drug release of 89.1 % at 48 h. MDA-MB-231 type cell showed significant cytotoxicity by MTT method of 47.4 ± 1.2 % at 24 h, 34.6 ± 0.8 % at 48 h and 23.5 ± 0.5 % at 72 h and LDH method of 35.9 ± 1.5 % at 24 h, 25.4 ± 0.6 % at 48 h and 19.8 ± 2.2 % at 72 h with apoptosis of 47.3 ± 0.4 %.

    CONCLUSION: We have found that PTX-NPs showed the cytotoxic effect on all the MDA-MB cancer cell lines and showed potent anticancer activities against MDA-MB-231 cell line via induction of apoptosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  5. Norfarizan Hanoon N, Asmah R, Fauziah O, Rokiah M, Faridah H
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:403-409.
    This study evaluated four different doses of Strobilanthes crispa juice (700, 2100, 3500 and 4900 mg kg-1 of body weight) administered orally to normal female and male Sprague dawley rats on possible changes in various physical, behaviour, morphology and biochemical parameter. The rats were treated with a single dose of juice and observed for 14 days. No significant toxicity was observed with respect to clinical parameters and organ morphology. In addition, no significant changes were observed in the level of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase,
    creatinine and albumin. The S. crispa juice was found to be safe at the maximum dose used in this study (4900 mg kg-1 of body weight).
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  6. Petrick P, Kong NC, Nordiah AJ, Cheong IK, Tamil MA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Oct;62(4):329-34.
    PMID: 18551939 MyJurnal
    The clinical outcome of bacteraemic patients is influenced by many factors. It is vital to know one's own local hospital epidemiological data so as to provide optimal care to the affected patients. This was a prospective, observational study carried out in the said patient population over a period of four months in the year 2005. One hundred and ninety one patients presented with bacteraemia over the study period. Fifty-two (27%) of the patients died. Mechanical ventilation, inappropriate empirical antibiotic usage, Chinese ethnicity and low serum albumin levels independently affected prognosis. These factors should alert physicians to those patients who require more intensive monitoring and care.
    KEY WORDS:
    Bacteraemia, Blood Culture Positive, Outcome, Risk factors, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  7. Mohammed Saad, A.M., Mohammed Imad, A.M., Aini, H.H., Seman, M.R.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: HCV infection is frequent in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis, with prevalence between 8 and 10%. Hepatitis C has an adverse effect on both patient and graft survival in those who get renal transplants. There are relatively scarce reports on the natural fluctuation in viral load level in patients on chronic haemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This is a longitudinal short-term three months study, where 27 chronic haemodialysis patients infected with known HCV genotypes were recruited from seven haemodialysis centres in Pahang. Serum samples were collected monthly, both pre- and post-haemodialysis sessions, over a period of three months. Viral RNA was extracted from serum using QIAamp Viral RNA Extraction kit (Qiagen). The HCV viral load was measured using one-step reverse transcriptase qPCR (Applied Biosystems) targeting the 5`HCV non-coding region (5’UTR). The serum α-IFN level was measured using commercial ELISA kit (Amersham, UK). Six biochemical liver function tests (AST, ALP, TP, albumin, ALT and TB) were also done for all pre-haemodialysis samples. Results: All patients showed persistent low level viral load that varied significantly over the study period (p = 0.001). HCV genotype 1 viral load was significantly higher than that of genotype 3. Conclusion: No apparent correlation could be recognized between the viral loads and the corresponding interferon-alpha levels which were detectable in only a few patients during the period of study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  8. Donald, Koh Fook Chen, Joon, Wah Mak, Soo, Shen Ooi, Kwai Hoe Chong, Kok, Fee Mak
    MyJurnal
    Background: A number of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preparations are being used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some components of these preparations have biochemical effects other than those of lowering blood glucose and indeed have been used for other medical indications in traditional practice. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect of the oral mixture of Traditional Chinese Medicine for diabetes (TCM-D™ complex) on blood glucose level and the biochemical changes if any, on the liver (ALT, AST, gamma-GT, albumin, globulin) and renal (blood creatinine, urea) functions in normal mice. The oral mixture is an aqueous extract of four wellknown traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and consists of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch., and Panax ginseng (red) CA Meyer in the proportion of 36%, 28%, 18%, and 18% respectively of the dry weight. These herbs have
    been shown to have blood glucose lowering activity and have been used for other traditional medicinal purposes.The safety of the combination was evaluated in the present study. Methods: Experimental Balb/c mice were treated orally via gastric tube with the extract at daily doses equivalent to 1 and 10 times the recommended human dose for 8 weeks. Blood glucose and other biochemical profiles were monitored at pre-treatment and monthly posttreatment until killed. Results: When compared to pre-treatment levels, the blood glucose levels were significantly lower in treated animals compared to those in the control group. At the recommended TCM-D™ dose the levels in treated animals were significantly lower than that of control animals and at pre-treatment. When compared with pre-treatment, the glucose levels were lowest at Week 8 of treatment, the mean levels being 111.23%, 83.32% and 70.33% in control, and in animals given 1 x and 10 x the recommended TCM-D™ dosage respectively. The blood glucose lowering effect was also associated with a significant weight loss in treated animals. There were transient increases in AST and ALT levels but these reverted to normal at Week 8 of treatment. The levels of bilirubin, g-GT, albumin, creatinine and blood urea were also not significantly different at Week 8 from pre-treatment levels in all groups. Conclusion: Even at 10 times the dosage recommended for humans, TCM-D™ did not affect the liver and renal functions of treated animals. Treated and control animals remained healthy and normal throughout the period of observation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  9. Hamid, A.J., Azmi, M.T.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction : A retrospective cohort study was conducted among ESRD who received dialysis treatment (Haemodialysis and CAPD) in all government hospitals in the State of Pahang from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004.
    Objective : The aim of the study was to identify factors affecting the survival of patients undergoing dialysis in the state of Pahang.
    Methods : Survival time was measured from the date of dialysis until the subjects died, lost to follow up or until the end of the study period at 31st December 2004.
    Results : Diabetes mellitus was the major cause for ESRD (33%) out of 132 subjects eligible for the study. Seven (7.1%) and five (15.2%) deaths occurred among haemodialysis and CAPD patients respectively, but statistically of no difference between the two treatments (log-rank, p=0.093). Factors influencing the survival of haemodialysis patients were diabetes mellitus (p=0.014), albumin (p=0.0005), creatinine (p=0.020) and hemoglobin level (p=0.002), while age of treatment and diabetes mellitus affecting the survival of CAPD patient. Cox Proportional Hazard Regression showed that haemodialysis subjects with low albumin (HR 0.669 df 95% 0.513 - 0.873) and hemoglobin (HR 0.403 df 95% 0.225 - 0.720) level had lower survival rate but none for CAPD.
    Conclusion : Good nutritional status, higher hemoglobin level and prevention of diabetes mellitus are important for the survival of haemodialysis patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  10. Tanaka KI, Shimoda M, Chuang VTG, Nishida K, Kawahara M, Ishida T, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2018 Jan 15;535(1-2):140-147.
    PMID: 29122608 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.11.012
    Zinc (Zn) is a co-factor for a vast number of enzymes, and functions as a regulator for immune mechanism and protein synthesis. However, excessive Zn release induced in pathological situations such as stroke or transient global ischemia is toxic. Previously, we demonstrated that the interaction of Zn and copper (Cu) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various metal ions induced neuronal death. Thioredoxin-Albumin fusion (HSA-Trx) is a derivative of thioredoxin (Trx), an antioxidative protein, with improved plasma retention and stability of Trx. In this study, we examined the effect of HSA-Trx on Cu2+/Zn2+-induced neurotoxicity. Firstly, HSA-Trx was found to clearly suppress Cu2+/Zn2+-induced neuronal cell death in mouse hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1-7 cells). Moreover, HSA-Trx markedly suppressed Cu2+/Zn2+-induced ROS production and the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as heme oxygenase-1. In contrast, HSA-Trx did not affect the intracellular levels of both Cu2+ and Zn2+ after Cu2+/Zn2+ treatment. Finally, HSA-Trx was found to significantly suppress endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by Cu2+/Zn2+ treatment in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that HSA-Trx counteracted Cu2+/Zn2+-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing the production of ROS via interfering the related gene expressions, in addition to the highly possible radical scavenging activity of the fusion protein. Based on these findings, HSA-Trx has great potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of refractory neurological diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  11. Golime R, Chandra B, Palit M, Dubey DK
    Arch. Toxicol., 2019 Mar 28.
    PMID: 30923868 DOI: 10.1007/s00204-019-02435-4
    Humans are constantly exposed to a wide range of reactive and toxic chemicals from the different sources in everyday life. Identification of the exposed chemical helps in the detection and understanding the exposure associated adverse health effects. Covalent adducts of proteins and DNA formed after xenobiotics exposure may serve as readily measurable indicators of these exposures. Measuring the exposed chemicals with focus on adducts resulting from the nucleophilic interactions with blood proteins is useful in the development of diagnostic markers. Particularly, the most abundant proteins such as albumin and hemoglobin acts as dominant scavengers for many reactive chemicals in blood and can serve as excellent diagnostic candidates to determine the type of chemical exposure. This review focuses on the potential application of an adductomics approach for the screening of bimolecular adducts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Recent incidents of CWAs use in Syria, Malaysia, and the UK illustrate the continuing threat of chemical warfare agents in the modern world. Detection of CWAs and their metabolites in blood or in other body fluids of victims depends on immediate access to victims. Concentrations of intact CWAs in body fluids of surviving victims may decline rapidly within a few days. Certain CWAs, particularly nerve agents and vesicants, form covalent bonds with certain amino acids to form CWA-protein adducts. Proteins that are abundant in the blood, including albumin and hemoglobin, may carry these adducts longer after the original exposure. We searched MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases using the key terms "adductomics" "adducts of CWAs," "CWAs adducts detection in the biological samples," "protein adducts of CWAs," alone and in combination with the keywords "detection" "intoxication" "exposure" "adverse effects" and "toxicity." We also included non-peer-reviewed sources such as text books, relevant newspaper reports, and applicable Internet resources. We screened bibliographies of identified articles for additional relevant studies including non-indexed reports. These searches produced 1931 citations of which only relevant and nonduplicate citations were considered for this review. The analysis of biomedical samples has several purposes including detecting and identifying the type of chemical agent exposed, understanding the biological mechanism, assists in giving adequate treatment, determining the cause of death and providing evidence in a court of justice for forensic investigations. Rapid advances in the mass spectrometry to acquire high-quality data with greater resolution enabled the analysis of protein and DNA adducts of xenobiotics including CWAs and place the rapidly advancing 'adductomics' next to the other "-omics" technologies. Adductomics can serve as a powerful bioanalytical tool for the verification of CWAs exposure. This review mostly describes the protein adducts for nerve agents and vesicants, outlines the procedures for measuring adducts, and suggests the evolving (or future) use of adducts in the detection and verification of CWAs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  12. Chan MW, Cheah HM, Mohd Padzil MB
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2019 Oct;41(5):1282-1289.
    PMID: 31302884 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-019-00878-4
    Background Hyperphosphatemia is a common consequence in end stage renal disease. It is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality, also development of hyperparathyroidism and mineral bone disease. A patient educational program involving physician, pharmacist and dietician was developed to manage hyperphosphatemia among hemodialysis patients. Objective To investigate the efficacy of the program in optimal phosphate control among hemodialysis patients. Setting Kuala Lipis Hospital, Malaysia. Method This was a non-randomized, single-arm community trial running for a period of 6 months. The program consisted of a small group seminar and individual counseling sessions. Two individual counseling sessions were conducted for each patient, focusing on diet and medication adherence, by an accredited dietician and pharmacist respectively. The group seminar was delivered by a multidisciplinary team involving a physician, pharmacist and dietician. Topics included basic knowledge of hyperphosphatemia, phosphate binder and dietary phosphate control. Eligible and consented patients had knowledge and medication adherence assessment, measurement of pre-dialysis serum calcium, albumin, phosphate, haemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase before and after the educational program. Main outcome measure Phosphate level, knowledge and medication adherence assessment. Results Fifty-seven patients completed the program and were included into final data analysis. The median (IQR) phosphate level (mmol/L) was 1.86 (1.45-2.24) before and decreased to 1.47 (1.21-1.91) and 1.49 (1.28-1.81) 3 months and 6 months after PEP (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  13. Ghazali WSW, Iberahim R, Ashari NSM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Oct;24(5):62-72.
    PMID: 29386973 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.5.7
    Background: Previous studies have shown that serum VEGF levels were elevated in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in those with lupus nephritis (LN). In this case control study, we aimed to compare serum levels of VEGF in SLE patients between LN, non-LN and healthy participants to determine the association between serum VEGF levels and the activity and histological classes of lupus nephritis.
    Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 92 SLE patients (46 LN and 46 non-LN) and 26 controls. Data were collected from medical records. Serum VEGF assays were performed by specific, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (ELISA). Laboratory investigations included urinalysis, urine protein-creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, albumin and VEGF levels. Blood pressure, renal biopsy result and treatment were recorded. LN activity was evaluated using the renal subscale of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (rBILAG, 2004). The rBILAG measures blood pressure (diastolic and systolic), urine protein, serum creatinine, calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), presence of active urinary sediments and histological evidence of active nephritis.
    Results: Serum VEGF was elevated in SLE patients with LN compared with the non-LN group and healthy controls. The levels found were significantly higher in the sera of patients with active nephritis compared to those with quiescent nephritis (P = 0.024). The study did not find a statistically significant relationship between serum VEGF levels and histological classes of LN.
    Conclusion: There was no significant difference of serum VEGF level between LN and non-LN SLE groups and between the non-LN group and healthy controls. However, there were increased levels of serum VEGF in the LN group, especially in patients with active nephritis as compared to quiescent nephritis group. This reflects the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, however the clinical potential of this biomarker needs further study.
    Study site: Rheumatology clinic, medical wards, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  14. Ng TP
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1351-1355.
    Dementia poses a major global burden of care to society and health systems in ageing populations. The majority (over 60%) of persons with dementia in the world are found in Asia and developing countries with rapid rates of population ageing. Improving and maintaining the cognitive health of older persons is vital to national strategies for dementia prevention. Increasing numbers of population-based ageing cohort studies in the past decade have provided a better understanding of the factors that contribute to cognitive function and decline in old age. The roles of major demographic, psychosocial, lifestyle, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors contributing to cognitive health were discussed using examples from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. They include socio-demographic factors, particularly education and marital status, leisure time activity such as physical activity, social engagement and mental activities, psychological factors such as depression, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors: obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome, under-nutrition, low albumin, low hemoglobin, nutritional factors such as blood folate, B12 and homocysteine, omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, tea drinking and curcumin-rich turmeric in curry meals. These factors are found to be associated variously with cognitive functions (memory and learning, language, visuospatial, attention and information processing speed), rates of cognitive impairment and cognitive decline, or increased risk of developing MCI and progression to dementia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  15. Eleazu C, Ekeleme CE, Famurewa A, Mohamed M, Akunna G, David E, et al.
    PMID: 30659555 DOI: 10.2174/1871530319666190119101058
    BACKGROUND: Research studies that holistically investigated the effect of administration of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) on diabetic humans or animals are limited in literature.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of administration of VCO on lipid profile, markers of hepatic and renal dysfunction, and hepatic and renal antioxidant activities of alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    METHODS: Twenty-four male albino rats were used, and they were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group 1 (Normal Control, NC) received distilled water (1 mL/kg); Group 2 (VCO Control) received VCO (5 mL/kg); Group 3 (Diabetic Control, DC) received distilled water (1 mL/kg); Group 4 (Test Group, TG) received 5 ml/kg of VCO.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences in blood glucose, body weights, relative liver weights, relative kidney weights, hepatic and renal Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities, Malondialdehyde (MDA), albumin, aspartate Amino Transaminase (AST), alanine Amino Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, Very Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) concentrations; significant increases in renal Glutathione (GSH), hepatic catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and GSH but significant reduction in renal GPx and catalase activities of VCO control group compared with NC group. There were significant increases in blood glucose, relative liver and kidney weights, hepatic GPx, hepatic and renal MDA concentration, ALP, AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, uric acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL concentrations; and significant decreases in body weight, hepatic SOD and GSH activities and albumin concentration but no significant difference in hepatic catalase activity of DC group compared with NC group. Administration of VCO to diabetic rats positively modulated these parameters compared with the diabetic control.

    CONCLUSION: The study showed the potentials of VCO in the management of hyperlipidemia, renal and hepatic dysfunctions imposed by hyperglycemia and by oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  16. Low DW, Jamil A, Md Nor N, Kader Ibrahim SB, Poh BK
    Pediatr Dermatol, 2019 Oct 30.
    PMID: 31667896 DOI: 10.1111/pde.14004
    BACKGROUND: Multiple factors affect growth in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). We investigated food restriction practice, nutrition, and growth in children with AD. Food restriction is defined as restriction ≥3 types of food due to AD or food allergy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 150 children aged 12-36 months.

    EXCLUSION CRITERIA: recurrent infections, moderate to severe asthma, recent systemic steroid, other diseases affecting growth/nutrition. Growth parameters, SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium, albumin, protein, calcium, phosphate, B12, iron, and folate values were determined. Parents completed a 3-day food diary.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of food restriction was 60.7%. Commonly restricted foods were shellfish 62.7%, nuts 53.3%, egg 50%, dairy 29.3%, and cow's milk 28.7%. Food-restricted children have significantly lower calorie, protein, fat, riboflavin, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus and iron intakes and lower serum iron, protein and albumin values. Z scores of weight-for-age (-1.38 ± 1.02 vs -0.59 ± 0.96, P = .00), height-for-age (-1.34 ± 1.36 vs -0.51 ± 1.22, P = .00), head circumference-for-age (-1.37 ± 0.90 vs -0.90 ± 0.81, P = .00), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)-for-age (-0.71 ± 0.90 vs -0.22 ± 0.88, P = .00), and BMI-for-age (-0.79 ± 1.15 vs -0.42 ± 0.99, P = .04) were significantly lower in food-restricted compared to non-food-restricted children. More food-restricted children were stunted, underweight with lower head circumference and MUAC. Severe disease was an independent risk factor for food restriction with OR 5.352; 95% CI, 2.26-12.68.

    CONCLUSION: Food restriction is common in children with AD. It is associated with lower Z scores for weight, height, head circumference, MUAC, and BMI. Severe disease is an independent risk factor for food restriction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  17. Alomari G, Al-Trad B, Hamdan S, Aljabali A, Al-Zoubi M, Bataineh N, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 Oct 21.
    PMID: 31637677 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-019-00675-6
    Several recent studies have reported that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) attenuate hyperglycemia in diabetic animal models without any observed side effects. The present study was intended to provide insight into the effects of 50-nm AuNPs on diabetic kidney disease. Adult male rats were divided into three groups (n = 7/group): control (non-diabetic, ND), diabetic (D), and diabetic treated intraperitoneally with 50-nm AuNPs (AuNPs + D; 2.5 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Diabetes was induced by a single-dose injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin. The result showed that AuNP treatment prevented diabetes-associated increases in the blood glucose level. Reduction in 24-h urinary albumin excretion rate, glomerular basement membrane thickness, foot process width, and renal oxidative stress markers was also demonstrated in the AuNP-treated group. In addition, the results showed downregulation effect of AuNPs in renal mRNA or protein expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), fibronectin, collagen IV, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Moreover, the protein expression of nephrin and podocin, podocyte markers, in glomeruli was increased in the AuNPs + D group compared with the D group. These results provide evidence that 50-nm AuNPs can ameliorate renal damage in experimental models of diabetic nephropathy through improving the renal function and downregulating extracellular matrix protein accumulation, along with inhibiting renal oxidative stress and amelioration of podocyte injury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  18. Devasvaran K, Tan JJ, Ng CT, Fong LY, Yong YK
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2019;2019:1202676.
    PMID: 31531177 DOI: 10.1155/2019/1202676
    Malaysian Tualang honey (TH) is a known therapeutic honey extracted from the honeycombs of the Tualang tree (Koompassia excelsa) and has been reported for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and wound healing properties. However, the possible vascular protective effect of TH against oxidative stress remains unclear. In this study, the effects of TH on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) elicited vascular hyperpermeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Balb/c mice were evaluated. Our data showed that TH concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 1.00% showed no cytotoxic effect to HUVECs. Induction with 0.5 mM H2O2 was found to increase HUVEC permeability, but the effect was significantly reversed attenuated by TH (p < 0.05), of which the permeability with the highest inhibition peaked at 0.1%. In Balb/c mice, TH (0.5 g/kg-1.5 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced H2O2 (0.3%)-induced albumin-bound Evans blue leak, in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed that TH reduced actin stress fiber formation while increasing cortical actin formation and colocalization of caveolin-1 and β-catenin in HUVECs. Signaling studies showed that HUVECs pretreated with TH significantly (p < 0.05) decreased intracellular calcium release, while sustaining the level of cAMP when challenged with H2O2. These results suggested that TH could inhibit H2O2-induced vascular hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo by suppression of adherence junction protein redistribution via calcium and cAMP, which could have a therapeutic potential for diseases related to the increase of both oxidant and vascular permeability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  19. Sartini C, Lomivorotov V, Pisano A, Riha H, Baiardo Redaelli M, Lopez-Delgado JC, et al.
    J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth., 2019 Oct;33(10):2685-2694.
    PMID: 31064730 DOI: 10.1053/j.jvca.2019.03.022
    OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings.

    DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.

    SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference.

    PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries.

    INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed.

    CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
  20. Famurewa AC, Ekeleme-Egedigwe CA, David EE, Eleazu CO, Folawiyo AM, Obasi NA
    PMID: 31532279 DOI: 10.1080/15376516.2019.1669243
    Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer chemotherapy since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration in 1977. However, TAM therapy is accompanied with hepatotoxicity - a source of worry to clinicians. Oxidative stress and inflammation are the major implicated mechanisms contributing to TAM hepatotoxicity. In this study, we explored whether zinc (Zn) supplementation could prevent TAM-induced hepatotoxicity in female Wistar rats. Rats were subjected to oral pretreatment of Zn (100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) for 14 days against hepatic toxicity induced by single intraperitoneal administration of TAM (50 mg/kg b.w.) on day 13. TAM markedly elevated serum liver enzymes, whereas total protein and albumin considerably reduced. TAM caused prominent depletion of hepatic-reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Also, TAM significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Further, it raised liver levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β, (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) confirmed by the liver histopathological alterations. The mechanistic inflammatory expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB), and expression of caspase-3 protein prominently increased. Zinc supplementation significantly modulated serum liver function markers, antioxidant enzymes, and GSH and MDA levels. Zinc downregulated the expression of cytokines, NO, iNOS, NF-ĸB and caspase-3, and ameliorated histopathological changes. Zinc protects against TAM-induced hepatotoxicity; it may serve as an adjuvant supplement for female patients undergoing TAM chemotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Albumins
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