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  1. Hamizan AW, Rimmer J, Alvarado R, Sewell WA, Kalish L, Sacks R, et al.
    Int Forum Allergy Rhinol, 2017 09;7(9):868-877.
    PMID: 28727909 DOI: 10.1002/alr.21988
    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is based on cutaneous and serological assessment to determine immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated disease. However, discrepancies between these tests and nasal provocation exist. Patients diagnosed as non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) but with positive nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) may represent a local allergic condition or entopy, still suitable to allergy interventions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of nasal reactivity toward allergens among AR and NAR patients, and to describe the diagnostic characteristics of NAPT methodologies.

    METHODS: EMBASE (1947-) and Medline (1946-) were searched until December 8, 2015. A search strategy was used to identify studies on AR or NAR patients subjected to diagnostic local nasal provocation. All studies providing original NAPT data among the AR or NAR population were included. Meta-analysis of proportion data was presented as a weighted probability % (95% confidence interval [CI]).

    RESULTS: The search yielded 4504 studies and 46 were included. The probability of nasal allergen reactivity for the AR population was 86.3% (95% CI, 84.4 to 88.1) and in NAR was 24.7% (95% CI, 22.3 to 27.2). Reactivity was high with pollen for both AR 97.1% (95% CI, 94.2 to 99.2) and NAR 47.5% (95% CI, 34.8 to 60.4), and lowest with dust for both AR 79.1% (95% CI, 76.4 to 81.6) and NAR 12.2% (95% CI, 9.9 to 14.7). NAPT yielded high positivity when defined by subjective end-points: AR 91.0% (95% CI, 86.6 to 94.8) and NAR 30.2% (95% CI, 22.9 to 37.9); and lower with objective end-points: AR 80.8% (95% CI, 76.8 to 84.5) and NAR 14.1% (95% CI, 11.2 to 17.2).

    CONCLUSION: Local allergen reactivity is demonstrated in 26.5% of patients previously considered non-allergic. Similarly, AR, when defined by skin-prick test (SPT) or serum specific IgE (sIgE), may lead to 13.7% of patients with inaccurate allergen sensitization or non-allergic etiologies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  2. Mariana A, Ho TM, Gendeh BS, Iskandar H, Zainuldin-Taib M
    PMID: 11414419
    A species of house dust mite, Suidasia pontifica, was recently shown to produce allergens affecting man. The species may be as important as other allergen producing mite in sensitization and causing allergic symptoms in Malaysians. Surveys conducted demonstrated that 80% of the houses surveyed were positive for this mite with densities ranged from 2 to 50 mites per gram of dust. Colonies of the species has been successfully established and materials from those colonies have been used to produce extracts for studies on sensitization to the mites. A total of 85 suspected allergic rhinitis patients were tested and 74.1% demonstrated positive reactions. Extract of this mite should be considered for routine diagnostic testing and possible immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  3. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Murad S
    PMID: 23082569
    IgE-mediated allergic reaction to squid is one of the most frequent molluscan shellfish allergies. Previously, we have detected a 36 kDa protein as the major allergen of Loligo edulis (white squid) by immunoblotting using sera from patients with squid allergy. The aim of this present study was to further identify this major allergen using a proteomics approach. The major allergen was identified by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. The 2-DE gel fractionated the cooked white squid proteins to more than 50 different protein spots between 10 to 38 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 3.0 to 10.0. A highly reactive protein spot of a molecular mass of 36 kDa and pI of 4.55 was observed in all of the patients' serum samples tested. Mass spectrometry analysis led to identification of this allergen as tropomyosin. This finding can contribute to advancement in component-based diagnosis, management of squid allergic patients, to the development of immunotherapy and to the standardization of allergenic test products as tools in molecular allergology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  4. Ho TM, Tan BH, Ismail S, Bujang MK
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 1995 Jun;13(1):17-22.
    PMID: 7488339
    Aerosampling using Rotorod samplers was conducted in the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from December 1991 to November 1993. Samples were collected twice a week between 10.00 hours to 12.00 hours. Rods were stained and examined microscopically. A total of 8 and 20 types of pollens and mold spores were collected, respectively. More mold spores were collected than pollens. Grass pollen constituted more than 40 percent of total pollen counts. Gramineae pollen counts peaked in March and September. The most abundant mold spore was Cladosporium followed by Rust, Nigrospora, Curvularia and Smut. Cladosporium counts peaked in February and August. Rust counts peaked in June and December whereas counts for Nigrospora peaked in February and October. Highest counts of Smut were recorded in March and October. Curvularia counts peaked in January, June and September.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  5. Gurbachan I, Idruss H
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):121-5.
    PMID: 6621441
    This study shows that out of 774 patients tested, the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) provoked the maximum response (51.81%) the house dust was second (42.81%), and shrimp was third (23.92%). The moderate allergenic extracts were cat fur (12.79%), dog fur (10.72%), cockroach (8.47%) egg white (7.56%) and orris powder (6.30%). Among the low allergenic extracts were Aspergillus fumigatus (5.38%), Staphyloccus aureaus (3.53%) and chicken feathers (3.18%). The authors are of the opinion that the skin sensitivity test is an important diagnostic tool in allergic rhinitis and since this is a preliminary study any short listing of allergens to be used is not recommended yet. Skin sensitivity tests is a useful tool for differentiating allergic rhinitis from vasomotor rhinitis. Estimation of allergen specific IgE concentration in the serum will not offer any major advantages over the intradermal skin test in determining the clinical significance of house dust mite allergy. 21 The development of local materials for skin testing may enhance the usefulness of these investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  6. Jambari NN, Wang X, Alcocer M
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2017;1592:129-137.
    PMID: 28315216 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6925-8_10
    Protein microarray is a miniaturized multi-analyte, solid-phased immunoassay where thousands of immobilized individual protein spots on a microscopic slide bind are bound to specific antibodies (immunoglobulins) from serum samples, which are then detected by fluorescent labeling. The image processing and pattern recognition are then quantitatively analyzed using advanced algorithms. Here, we describe the use of an in-house-produced complex protein microarray containing extracts and pure proteins that has been probed with antibodies present in the horse sera and detection by fluorophore-conjugated antibody and data analysis. The flexibility of the number and types of proteins that can be printed on the microarray allows different set of specific IgE immunoassay analysis to be carried out.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  7. Yip E, Cacioli P
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2002 Aug;110(2 Suppl):S3-14.
    PMID: 12170237 DOI: 10.1067/mai.2002.124499
    Gloves that will provide a barrier of protection from infectious organisms are an essential feature of medical practice for the protection of both patients and medical personnel. Natural rubber latex has consistently been the most satisfactory raw material for the manufacture of gloves. Certain latex proteins, carried over into the finished product by inadequate manufacturing processes, may pose a risk of provoking allergic reactions in some patients and medical workers. As with any allergy, the risk depends on the route of exposure and dose. Hence, the method of manufacture, including the means used to coat gloves to make donning easy, can influence the eventual exposure of sensitive people to latex allergens. In this article, we describe the several processes in use and their effects on latex protein content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  8. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Yusof F, Sunderasan E
    Methods, 2002 May;27(1):32-45.
    PMID: 12079415 DOI: 10.1016/S1046-2023(02)00049-X
    As the living cytoplasm of laticiferous cells, Hevea brasiliensis latex is a rich blend of organic substances that include a mélange of proteins. A small number of these proteins have given rise to the problem of latex allergy. The salient characteristics of H. brasiliensis latex allergens that are recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) are reviewed. These are the proteins associated with the rubber particles, the cytosolic C-serum proteins and the B-serum proteins that originate mainly from the lutoids. Procedures for the isolation and purification of latex allergens are discussed, from latex collection in the field to various preparative approaches adopted in the laboratory. As interest in recombinant latex allergens increases, there is a need to validate recombinant proteins to ascertain equivalence with their native counterparts when used in immunological studies, diagnostics, and immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  9. Dhami S, Nurmatov U, Arasi S, Khan T, Asaria M, Zaman H, et al.
    Allergy, 2017 Nov;72(11):1597-1631.
    PMID: 28493631 DOI: 10.1111/all.13201
    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of AIT in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    METHODS: We searched nine international biomedical databases for published, in-progress, and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened by two reviewers against predefined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established instruments. Our primary outcomes of interest were symptom, medication, and combined symptom and medication scores. Secondary outcomes of interest included cost-effectiveness and safety. Data were descriptively summarized and then quantitatively synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses.

    RESULTS: We identified 5960 studies of which 160 studies satisfied our eligibility criteria. There was a substantial body of evidence demonstrating significant reductions in standardized mean differences (SMD) of symptom (SMD -0.53, 95% CI -0.63, -0.42), medication (SMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.49, -0.26), and combined symptom and medication (SMD -0.49, 95% CI -0.69, -0.30) scores while on treatment that were robust to prespecified sensitivity analyses. There was in comparison a more modest body of evidence on effectiveness post-discontinuation of AIT, suggesting a benefit in relation to symptom scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: AIT is effective in improving symptom, medication, and combined symptom and medication scores in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis while on treatment, and there is some evidence suggesting that these benefits are maintained in relation to symptom scores after discontinuation of therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  10. Kamaruzaman NA, Sulaiman SA, Kaur G, Yahaya B
    PMID: 24886260 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-176
    Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  11. Jie Y, Isa ZM, Jie X, Ju ZL, Ismail NH
    PMID: 23625129 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6898-1_2
    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  12. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Bakhtiar F, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2016 Apr;15(2):156-60.
    PMID: 27090369
    Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  13. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Arip M, Murad S
    PMID: 21710860
    The aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of wildflower honey in local patients with atopic disease. SDS-PAGE revealed ten protein bands of 25 to 110 kDa, with a heavy cluster in region of 40-75 kDa. Immunoblotting demonstrated seven IgE-binding bands of 39 to 110 kDa. The 60 kDa protein had the highest frequency of IgE-binding (100%) followed by 54 kDa protein (95%), thus identified as the major allergens of wildflowerhoney. Our findings indicate that the allergen extract used for diagnosis of honey allergy contains both the 54 kDa and 60 kDa proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  14. Hajeb P, Selamat J
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, 2012 Jun;42(3):365-85.
    PMID: 22045217 DOI: 10.1007/s12016-011-8284-9
    Seafood is common item in the world diet; Asian countries have the highest rates of fish consumption in the world, which is higher than world average. Several studies have been conducted on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of seafood allergy in different countries, and some of the fish and seafood allergens unique to those regions have been characterized. Review on published data showed that seafood allergy is very ubiquitous in some regions of the world. Fish and shellfish are the most common seafood that cause adverse allergic reactions among nations; the symptoms ranged from oral allergy syndromes to urticaria and anaphylaxis. The major identified allergens are parvalbumin in fish and tropomyosin in shellfish. Nevertheless, such studies are lacking from some regions with high fish and seafood consumption. Furthermore, the published data are mostly from small groups of populations, which large-scale epidemiological studies need to be performed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology
  15. Misnan R, Murad S, Jones M, Taylor G, Rahman D, Arip M, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2008 Dec;26(4):191-8.
    PMID: 19317337
    The purpose of this study was to characterize major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli) which is among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. Raw and cooked extracts of the fish were prepared. Protein profiles and IgE binding patterns were produced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from subjects with fish allergy. The major allergens of the fish were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of the raw extract revealed 27 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while the cooked extract demonstrated only six protein fractions. The 1-DE immunoblotting detected 14 IgE-binding proteins, with a molecular weight range from 90 to < 6.5 kDa. Three protein fractions with molecular weights of approximately 51, 46 and 12 kDa were identified as the major allergens of this fish. The approximately 12 kDa band was a heat-resistant protein while the approximately 51 and 46 kDa proteins were sensitive to heat. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated > 100 distinct protein spots and immunoblotting detected at least 10 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses as expected and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. A comparison of the major allergenic spot sequences of the 12 kDa proteins with known protein sequences in databases revealed extensive similarity with fish parvalbumin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a parvalbumin which is similar to Gad c 1 is the major allergen of Indian scad. Interestingly, we also detected heat-sensitive proteins as major allergenic components in our fish allergy patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  16. Yeoh SM, Kuo IC, Wang DY, Liam CK, Sam CK, De Bruyne JA, et al.
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2003 Nov;132(3):215-20.
    PMID: 14646382 DOI: 10.1159/000074302
    BACKGROUND: The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) are the most common house dust mite species in Southeast Asia. To date, there have only been a few studies on the sensitization profile of the general populations in Southeast Asia to house dust mites. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles of Der p and Blo t sensitization among Singaporean and Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect specific IgE to Der p and Blo t mite crude extracts as well as purified Der p 1, Der p 2 and Blo t 5 allergens. Sera used were from 229 Singaporean subjects (124 with rhinitis, 105 without rhinitis) and 143 Malaysian subjects (94 adults and 49 children with asthma).

    RESULTS: The sensitization profile of rhinitis subjects to the dust mite allergens used in this study was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 91/124 (73%); Blo t 5 positive: 62/124 (50%); Der p extract positive: 61/124 (49%); Der p 1 positive: 53/124 (43%); Der p 2 positive: 45/124 (36%). The nonrhinitis subjects' sensitization profile was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 60/105 (57%); Blo t 5 positive: 24/105 (23%); Der p extract positive: 38/105 (36%); Der p 1 positive: 14/105 (13%); Der p 2 positive: 17/105 (16%). The study of Malaysian asthmatic adults showed that 39% of them were sensitized to Der p 1, 32% to Der p 2 and 37% to Blo t 5. Among the asthmatic children, sensitization to Blo t 5, Der p 1 and Der p 2 was 90, 57 and 39%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly revealed that dual sensitization to B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus is common in the general populations of Singapore and Malaysia. Sensitization to Blo t 5 is more prevalent than to Der p 1 and Der p 2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  17. Sam CK, Kesavan-Padmaja, Liam CK, Soon SC, Lim AL, Ong EK
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 1998 Mar;16(1):1-4.
    PMID: 9681122
    In this paper we report results of skin prick tests (SPT) using pollen extracts on 200 patients with clinical symptoms of asthma, and results of a parallel study in which pollen was collected and classified over a period of 18 months. The patients were outpatients from the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, while the pollen grains were collected with a spore trap placed in the campus of the University of Malaya, approximately one kilometer from the University Hospital. Pollen extracts of 3 grasses (Bahia, Bermuda, rough pigweed) and 2 flowering trees, Acacia and Melaleuca, were used in the SPT. Of the 29.5% asthmatics with positive SPT reactions, 21.5% were to one or more of the grass pollens, 21.5% to Acacia and 7.5% to Melaleuca pollen. Acacia and Bermuda grass extracts were the most allergenic, which agreed with results of the pollen collection which showed grass and Acacia pollen grains to be the two most commonly found pollens.

    Study site: University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  18. Sam CK, Soon SC, Liam CK, Padmaja K, Cheng HM
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 1998 Mar;16(1):17-20.
    PMID: 9681124
    We investigated the aeroallergens affecting 200 asthmatics from the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and found 164 (82%) patients with skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to one or more of a panel of 14 allergens, which included indoor and outdoor animal and plant aeroallergens. Reactivity was most frequent to the indoor airborne allergens, with 159 (79.5%) reacting to either or both house dust mite (Dermatophagoides) species and 87 (43.5%) to cockroach. The SPT reactivity to house dust mites corresponded with the finding that patients found house dust to be the main precipitant of asthmatic attacks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  19. Yeang HY, Ward MA, Zamri AS, Dennis MS, Light DR
    Allergy, 1998 May;53(5):513-9.
    PMID: 9636811 DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1998.tb04089.x
    Separate studies have reported spina bifida patients to be especially allergic to proteins of 27 and 23 kDa found in the serum of centrifuged natural rubber latex. An insoluble latex protein located on the surface of small rubber particles, Hev b 3, has similarly been found to be allergenic to spina bifida patients. In this study, internal amino acid sequences of Hev b 3 showed similarity to the published sequences for the 27- and 23-kDa latex proteins. The latter allergens are hence identified as Hev b 3. Determination of the molecular weight of Hev b 3 revealed various species of 22-23 kDa. The consistent gaps of about 266 Da observed between various forms of the intact protein suggest that the protein undergoes post-translational modification. To determine whether Hev b 3 also occurs in a soluble form in the latex serum, its presence in molecular-filtered serum was checked by ELISA and Western blot. The results showed Hev b 3 to be largely absent in the C-serum from fresh latex. The protein is therefore insoluble in its native state. However, a small amount of the solubilized protein was detected in ammonia-stabilized latex (commonly used in the manufacture of latex products).
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
  20. Ho TM, Murad S, Kesavapillai R, Singaram SP
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 1995 Jun;13(1):11-6.
    PMID: 7488338
    This study was conducted to determine the seasonal prevalence of allergies to house dust, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, cat fur, dog hair, mixed moulds, mixed grass pollens and American cockroach. A total of 314 patients with clinically suspected allergic rhinitis was examined by prick test using commercial preparations of the above allergens. Total serum IgE of the patients was determined by a Sandwich ELISA. Ninety-six percent of the patients tested positive to more than one allergen. Most were positive to a combination of 4 allergens. More than 70% of the patients were positive to house dust, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat fur. Analysis indicates that for an individual who tests positive for house dust, there is a very high risk of the person being allergic to the dust mites and cat fur too. Most of the allergens had 2 peak period of high positive PT rates; mixed moulds and mixed grass pollens had 3 peaks. There was significant positive correlation between the monthly positive PT rates against mixed moulds and mixed grass pollens with maximum daily mean temperature and mean temperature at 14.00 hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/immunology*
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