Seismic surface waves are a non-destructive technique used to obtain the dynamic properties of soil by measuring the shear wave velocity and calculating the shear modulus of soil. The shear modulus is one of the parameters to measure the stiffness of materials. This study evaluates soil profiles and the position of the sensor while conducting measurements of two , soil profiles, i.e. lateral and vertical non-homogeneities, using a continuous surface wave analysis (CSW) and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Results showed the dispersive curve demonstrated an increased shear wave velocity with increasing depth for the sensor pair measurements on the clay (between columns), and decreased shear wave velocity with increasing depth for the sensor pair measurements on the column. In both instances the surface wave velocity results influenced by the depth and size of the wavelength, indicating that depth and wavelength controlled the volume of measurement in an elliptical shape. Therefore, the shear wave velocities and thus stiffness measured from the surface wave velocity techniques are represented the volume of soil measured across the sensor length.
Secara geologi, kawasan Cameron Highland terdiri daripada batuan granit batolit yang merejah ke dalam batuan sedimen yang lebih tua. Rejahan jasad igneus asidik ini menyebabkan pembentukan batuan meta-sedimen dan batuan metamorfik lain sebagai sisa bumbung. Sekis sering ditemui telah mengalami luluhawa tinggi hingga sepenuhnya, berwarna kelabu cerah hingga gelap dengan butiran halus hingga sederhana dan struktur foliasi yang ketara. Manakala batuan granit mengandungi mineral kuarza, felspar dan butiran biotit dan/atau turmalin. Kebanyakan cerun potongan jalan raya yang dibina merentasi jasad batuan ini dan survei ketidakstabilan cerun dilakukan berdasarkan jenis, geometri dan cirian fiziko-kimia tanah cerun. Hasil cerapan lapangan menunjukkan bahawa jenis cerun yang gagal adalah jenis cerun tanah yang terdiri daripada jenis gelinciran cetek dan dalam. Antara faktor yang menyumbang kepada ketidakstabilan cerun adalah geometri cerun seperti cerun yang tinggi dan sudut muka cerun yang curam, sifat keperoian tanah pada cerun dan kekurangan litupan vegetasi permukaan. Ini menyebabkan permukaan cerun terdedah kepada hentaman terus hujan. Kesan daripada air larian permukaan juga menyebabkan pembentukan alur-alur hakisan pada muka cerun tanah. Sifat fiziko-kimia bahan cerun (tanah) seperti taburan saiz partikel, pH, kandungan ferum oksida, bahan organik, kandungan air, ketumpatan pukal dan sebenar serta keporosan juga didapati memainkan peranan sebagai faktor yang dalaman dalam mempengaruhi kestabilan cerun tertentu yang dikaji. Julat pH tanah yang rendah (sifat asidik) pada semua cerun mengurangkan kandungan ferum oksida dalam tanah yang bertindak sebagai bahan penyimen tanah. Ini menyebabkan agregatan tanah menjadi lemah dan mudah terhakis.
The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.
The mobility of (14)C-chlorpyrifos using soil TLC was investigated in this study. It was found that chlorpyrifos was not mobile in clay, clay loam and peat soil. The mobility of (14)C-chlorpyrifos and non-labelled chlorpyrifos was also tested with silica gel TLC using three types of developing solvent hexane (100%), hexane:ethyl acetate (95:5, v/v); and hexane:ethyl acetate (98:2, v/v). The study showed that both the (14)C-labelled and non-labelled chlorpyrifos have the same Retardation Factor (Rf) for different developing solvent systems. From the soil column study on mobility of chlorpyrifos, it was observed that no chlorpyrifos residue was found below 5 cm depth in three types of soil at simulation rainfall of 20, 50 and 100 mm. Therefore, the soil column and TLC studies have shown similar findings in the mobility of chlorpyrifos.
Metakaolin is a manufactured pozzolan produced by thermal processing of purified kaolinitic clay using electrical furnace. This study has examined the effect of Metakaolin on the properties of cement and concrete at a replacement level of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. The parameters studied were divided into two groups which are chemical compositions, water requirement, setting time and soundness test were carried out for cementitous properties. Workability, compressive strength and bending strength were test for concrete properties. Hardened concrete was cured under different type of curing conditions and tested.. The result showed that the inclusions of Metakaolin as cement replacement minerals have change some of the cementitous and concrete properties. This research reveals, the optimum effect for cementitous and concrete properties for metakaolin was 10%.
The distribution, enrichment and pollution status of metals in sediment cores from the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters were studied. Seven sediment cores were taken in July 2004 using a gravity box corer. The metals of Cu, Zn and Pb were analyzed by ICP-MS to assess the pollution status of the sediments. The sediment fine fraction and organic carbon content was also analyzed. Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) was calculated as criteria of possible contamination. The results showed that collected sediments were composed with clay, silt and sand as 12 – 74%, 27 – 72% and 0 – 20%, respectively. Meanwhile, organic carbon contents were relatively low and constant over time, based on sediment depth profiles, and it did not exceed 5% at any sampling station. The average metal concentrations in sediment cores at all sampling station were distributed in the ranges of 1.66 ± 1.36 – 6.61 ± 0.12 μgg-1 for Cu, 26.55 ± 1.04 – 57.94 ± 1.58 μgg-1 for Zn and 3.99 ± 0.10 – 14.48 ± 0.32μgg-1 for Pb. According to calculations of EF, Igeo and PLI, it can be concluded that concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were not significantly affected by pollution from anthropogenic sources at the seven sampling locations. Thus, the metal content of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment should not cause pollution problem to the marine environment of Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters and further response measures are not needed.
The soil plant transfer coefficient or f factor of 14 C-carbofuran pesticide was studied in outdoor lysimeter experiment consisting of Brassica sp. vegetable crop, riverine alluvial clayey soil and Bungor series sandy loam soil. Soil transfer coefficients at 0-10 cm soil depth were 4.38 + 0.30, 5.76 + 1.04, 0.99 + 0.25 and 2.66 + 0.71; from 1X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 1X recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 0-25 cm soil depth, soil plant transfer coefficients were 8.96 + 0.91, 10.40 + 2.63, 2.34 + 0.68 and 6.19 + 1.40; from 1X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 1X recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 77 days after treatment (DAT), the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in riverine alluvial soil than Bungor soil whereas shoot and root growth was significantly higher in Bungor soil than in riverine alluvial soil. At both 0-10 cm Brassica sp. rooting depth and 0-25 cm soil depth, the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in 2X recommended application rate of 14 C-carbofuran as compared to 1X recommended application rate, in both Bungor and riverine alluvial soils.
XRF analysis was done on a local zircon samples and the result shows it has a high Fe, Th and U content. The high Fe content in Malaysian zircon had made the mineral to be classified as of a low-grade zircon. Presence of Fe in this mineral may be resulted from clay mineral coating found on the zircon surface. Chemical leaching technique was used for the removal of this Fe and the study also shows that a 600 o C heat pretreatment stage is important for the effectiveness of this process. Other parameters studied are the HCl concentration, leaching temperature and time. By using the optimum leaching parameters, the Fe content had been reduced to 0.049% and thus qualified it to be categorised as a premium grade zircon.
Detailed geophysical investigations have been carried out using integrated geophysical methods with a view to characterising the subsurface lithologic features that might indicate suitable places for structural developments. An overview of the subsurface resistivity distribution has been achieved employing 8Vertical Electrical Soundings with the Schlumberger array and 4 2D resistivity imaging using Wenner array. In order to constrain the results of the electrical resistivity methods, we carried out a ground magnetic survey along E-W direction using the Proton precession magnetometer at 1m sampling interval. Analysis of well logs data available and VES results showed 4 to 5 geoelectric layers corresponding to sand, clayey sand, clay, silty sand and sandy clay. The 2D resistivity imaging sections showed relative decrease of apparent resistivity with depth implying a geological transition from sand with high resistivity value of about 508Ωm to clay with low resistivity value 16Ωm at depths of 0-20m and 25-50m respectively. The magnetic profiles showed that the study area was characterised by short wavelengths and amplitudes ranging from –3800 to 700 nT. The highs and lows of the magnetic responses occasioned by lithological variations and structural features were magnetically resolved. In view of the identified subsurface structures, the suggested depth to the competent layer is about 20m for low to medium structures while above 50m would be suitable for heavy or massive engineering structures. The use of integrated geophysical methods for the delineation, identification and imaging of the subsurface geological structures which could provide clues to the nature and type of foundation suitable for the development of the study area has been successfully achieved.
Pectin bionanocomposite films filled with various concentrations of two different types of halloysite nanotubes were prepared and characterized in this study as potential films for food packaging applications. The two types of halloysite nanotubes were long and thin (patch) (200-30 000 nm length) and short and stubby (Matauri Bay) (50-3000 nm length) with different morphological, physical, and dispersibility properties. Both matrix (pectin) and reinforcer (halloysite nanotubes) used in this study are considered as biocompatible, natural, and low-cost materials. Various characterization tests including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, release kinetics, contact angle, and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to evaluate the performance of the pectin films. Exceptional thermal, tensile, and contact angle properties have been achieved for films reinforced by patch halloysite nanotubes due to the patchy and lengthy nature of these tubes, which form a bird nest structure in the pectin matrix. Matauri Bay halloysite nanotubes were dispersed uniformly and individually in the matrix in low and even high halloysite nanotube concentrations. Furthermore, salicylic acid as a biocidal agent was encapsulated in the halloysite nanotubes lumen to control its release kinetics. On this basis, halloysite nanotubes/salicylic acid hybrids were dispersed into the pectin matrix to develop functional biofilms with antimicrobial properties that can be extended over time. Results revealed that shorter nanotubes (Matauri Bay) had better ability for the encapsulation of salicylic acid into their lumen, while patchy structure and longer tubes of patch halloysite nanotubes made the encapsulation process more difficult, as they might need more time and energy to be fully loaded by salicylic acid. Moreover, antimicrobial activity of the films against four different strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria indicated the effective antimicrobial properties of pectin/halloysite functionalized films and their potential to be used for food packaging applications.
The whole Bachok area is covered by alluvial deposit. The alluvium has three aquifers at depth of 0 - 5, 15 - 30 and 40 - 60 meters below surface. Preliminary geophysical surveys including seismic refraction, reflection and resistivity techniques have been carried out to investigate thickness and depth of the aquifers, depth of bedrock and the salinity of the underground water. Results show that the position of first aquifer has been well determined by seismic refraction technique. Whereas the details of deeper aquifers and the bedrock have been determined by seismic reflection techniques. Geoelectrical resistivity low obtained for the first aquifer suggest that it could be due to either salt water intrusion or the presence of marine clay.
Keseluruhan kawasan Bachok merupakan endapan aluvium. Endapan ini mempunyai tiga akuifer pada kedalaman 0 - 5 meter, 15 - 30 meter dan 40 - 60 meter. Kajian geofizik pada tahap awal yang merangkumi aspek seismos biasan, seismos pantulan dan kerintangan geoelektrik telah dilakukan untuk menyiasat ketebalan dan kedalaman akuifer, kedalaman batu dasar dan kemasinan air tanah. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa teknik seismos biasan telah dapat menghasilkan maklumat mengenai kedudukan akuifer pertama. manakala teknik seismos pantulan menghasilkan maklumat terperinci mengenai akuifer kedua dan ketiga serta batu dasar. Nilai kerintangan geoelektrik rendah bagi akuifer pertama menunjukkan sama ada disebabkan oleh intrusi air masin atau kehadiran lempung samudera.
The sorption parameters of two heavy metals (i.e. Pb and Cu) in clay soils from Selangor were studied using batch equilibrium test. The test was conducted in two separate systems, i.e. single and mix solutions. The sorption isotherms data from this test were then used to calculate the sorption parameters, i.e. distribution coefficient (Kd) and maximum adsorption capacity (Am). Langmuir sorption equation was used to model the sorption data with the correlation coefficients (r2) higher than 0.6. The study has revealed that different soils have different sorption capacity for different heavy metals. The Kd values are proportional to the sorption capacity of the soils. The sorption of Pb and Cu in single solution is higher than in mix solution, due to the competition for sorption sites among heavy metals in mix solution. The Kd values for Pb in single solution ranging from 36.18-334.48 L/g and for Cu is 9.29-66.19 L/g. In mix solution, the Kd values for Pb and Cu are much smaller, ranging from 23.13-31.79 L/g and 3.95-18.53 L/g respectively. The Am values in single solution for both Pb and Cu are ranging from 0.48-1.09 mg/g dan 0.18-0.70 mg/g respectively. While in mix solution, the values of Am for Pb ranging from 0.20-1.11 mg/g and Cu within 0.18-0.60 mg/g.
It is well-known that the characteristics of hardness and drillability are influenced by microstructure of rock. In this study, rock properties were analyzed on grain size and grain content. Coarse-grain and fine-grain sandstones were tested under successive indentation condition. Eighteen groups of sandstone and shale were employed for the drillability test. Indentation tests results showed that grain size influenced the low point of residual hardness, the crushing depth and volume and grain content influenced the peak point of hardness. The drillability values of shale increased with increasing contents of clay and quartz. Meanwhile, drillability values of sandstone increased with increasing content of quartz, but decreased with increasing content of clay. Therefore, these preliminary studies show great potential applications for selecting suitable bit type and formulating drilling program as a function of rock microstructure and crushing rock method for bit in the oil drilling.
Ground improvement using artificial crust composite foundation, consisting of stabilization of soft clay and composite foundation, is an effective technique for the treatment of deep soft soil layers under infrastructure embankments. In this study, the load responses and settlement performance of this improvement technique were investigated using two centrifuge model tests to compare the variations of the vertical deformation, pore water pressure, axial force of the piles and tensile stress at the bottom of the artificial crust in the crust composite foundation with those in pile-supported embankment. The results of centrifuge model tests showed that the load responses and settlement performance of artificial crust composite foundation was different from the pile-supported embankment, which displayed mainly that the final middle settlement of crust composite foundation can be reduced by about 15% compared with those of pile-supported embankment with the same length of pile and construction cost. The deformation of the crust with the characteristics of the plate was found based on the change of the tensile stress. Additionally, the excess pore water pressure in the crust composite foundation was lower owing to the stress diffusion effect of the crust during the loading period and the dissipation rate of excess pore water pressure was slower due to lower permeability of the crust at the same loading period. Eventually, the axial force of the middle piles was reduced. At the same time, the boundary stress was functioned with the crust, the axial force of the side piles was improved. The comparison of measured and calculated results was carried out using the stress reduction ratio, the result shows that the bearing capacity of the subsoil in the crust composite was improved.
This paper investigates the compressibility characteristics of compacted clay treated with cement, peat ash and silica
sand. For this purpose, one dimensional consolidation tests were conducted to determine the soil consolidation properties.
The test specimens were trimmed from the compaction test specimen. The 1D consolidation test specimen was subjected
to the normal pressures of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 kPa in sequence on the test specimen which was saturated with
distilled water. At the end of the loading period of 80 kPa, the vertical load was removed and the specimen was allowed
to expand for 24 h for the purpose of evaluating of its swelling behavior. The results showed that void ratio of the soil
specimens decreased with increasing effective normal pressure. The laboratory investigation clearly demonstrates that,
settlement is as the compression of a soil specimen due to vertical loading applied at the top surface of the 1D consolidation
test specimen. It was concluded that, the compression settlement of the stabilized soil with the binder composition of
18% cement, 2% peat ash and 5% silica sand improved by almost 1.3-fold. A notable discovery is the suitability of the
stabilized soil for road embankment and low lying marginal area for foundation works; also solving the environmental
problems in relation to peaty ground. However, sufficient laboratory and field testing are required.
Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone.
Waste plastics contain a substantial number of valuable chemicals. The wastes from post-consumer as well as from industrial production can be recycled to valuable chemical feedstock, which can be used in refineries and/or petrochemical industries. This chemical recycling process is an ideal approach in recycling the waste for a better environment. Polymer cracking using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor concentrated on the used highly contaminated catalyst, E-Cat 2. Even though E-Cat 2 had low activity due to fewer acid sites, the products yielded were similar with amorphous ASA and were far better than thermal cracking. The high levels of heavy metals, namely nickel and vanadium, deposited during their lifetime as an FCC catalyst, did not greatly affect on the catalyst activity. It was also shown that E-Cat 2 could be used with and without regeneration. Although there was more deactivation when there was no regeneration step, the yield of gases (C(2)-C(7)) remained fairly constant. For the first time, these results indicate that "waste" FCC catalyst (E-Cat) is a good candidate for future feedstock recycling of polymer waste. The major benefits of using E-Cat are a low market price, the ability to tolerate reuse and regeneration capacity.
Development of new materials for different applications especially as bio-composites has received great attention. This study concentrates on development of a biopolymer based on chitosan (CT) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and evaluates the copper removal intake as a potential application of this bio-composite. In this study, CT/HNT beads were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extrusion-dripping method for the first time. Two sources of HNTs (i.e. Dragonite and Matauri Bay) were added into a chitosan solution (2wt.%) at various loading fractions (25, 50, 75wt.%). The effect of ultrasound as a mixing device was also studied by varying the amplitude at constant frequency of 25%, 50% and 75%. Characteristics and physical properties of the prepared CT/HNT beads were also analyzed by SEM, FTIR, TGA and BET the results show that introducing HNT to chitosan increases the adsorption capacity toward copper ions; however HNT loading fraction above 50wt.% resulted in a decrease in adsorption capacity attributed to limited accessibility of the amino groups. The adsorption capacity of the CT/HNT beads prepared from Dragonite source had a larger adsorption capacity of 14.2mg/g as compared to that of Matauri Bay, 10.55mg/g. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of the beads toward copper ions decreased when the loading fraction of HNT is increased at constant ultrasound amplitude. The result of this study helps to understand the links between the characteristics and adsorption abilities of CT/HNT beads.
This study reports the use of sewage sludge generated from sewage treatment plant (STP) as raw material in a clay brick-making process. The physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the sewage sludge and clay were carried out in order to identify the major technological constraints and to define the sludge pretreatment requirements if necessary. Moreover, the effects on processing conditions and/or on changes of typical final characteristics are also evaluated. Bricks were produced with sewage sludge additions ranging from 10 to 40% by dry weight. The texture and finishing of the surface of sludge-amended clay bricks were rather poor. As for the physical and chemical properties, bricks with a sludge content of up to 40 wt.% were capable of meeting the relevant technical standards. However, bricks with more than 30 wt.% sludge addition are not recommended for use since they are brittle and easily broken even when handled gently. A tendency for a general degradation of brick properties with sludge additions was observed due to its refractory nature. Therefore, sludge bricks of this nature are only suitable for use as common bricks, which are normally not exposed to view, because of poor surface finishing.