Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

  1. Toe CJ, Foo HL, Loh TC, Mohamad R, Abdul Rahim R, Idrus Z
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Apr 10;20(7).
    PMID: 30974873 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20071777
    Amino acids (AAs) are vital elements for growth, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Current technology uses genetically engineered microorganisms for AAs production, which has urged the search for a safer food-grade AA producer strain. The extracellular proteolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be a vital tool to hydrolyze extracellular protein molecules into free AAs, thereby exhibiting great potential for functional AA production. In this study, eight LAB isolated from Malaysian foods were determined for their extracellular proteolytic activities and their capability of producing AAs. All studied LAB exhibited versatile extracellular proteolytic activities from acidic to alkaline pH conditions. In comparison, Pediococcus pentosaceus UP-2 exhibited the highest ability to produce 15 AAs extracellularly, including aspartate, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, glutamate, proline, alanine, valine, leucine, tryptophan, tyrosine, serine, glycine, and cystine, followed by Pediococcus pentosaceus UL-2, Pediococcus acidilactici UB-6, and Pediococcus acidilactici UP-1 with 11 to 12 different AAs production detected extracellularly. Pediococcus pentosaceus UL-6 demonstrated the highest increment of proline production at 24 h of incubation. However, Pediococcusacidilactici UL-3 and Lactobacillus plantarum I-UL4 exhibited the greatest requirement for AA. The results of this study showed that different LAB possess different extracellular proteolytic activities and potentials as extracellular AA producers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  2. Soleimani AF, Kasim A, Alimon AR, Meimandipour A, Zulkifli I
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 2010 Oct;94(5):641-7.
    PMID: 20050954 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2009.00951.x
    High environmental temperature has detrimental effects on the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acute heat stress on endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow in broiler chickens. A total of 90, day-old broiler chicks were housed in battery cages in an environmentally controlled chamber. Chicks were fed a nitrogen-free diet on day 42 following either no heat exposure (no-heat) or 2 weeks exposure to 35 ± 1 °C for 3 h from days 28 to 42 (2-week heat) or 1 week exposure to 35 ± 1 °C for 3 h from days 35 to 42 (1 week heat). The most abundant amino acid in the ileal flow was glutamic acid, followed by aspartic acid, serine and threonine in non-heat stressed group. The EAA flow in 1-week heat and 2-week heat birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those under no heat exposure (14682, 11161 and 9597 mg/kg of dry matter intake respectively). Moreover, the EAA flow of 2-week heat group was less than 1-week heat group by approximately 36%. These observations suggest that the effect of heat stress on EAA flow is mostly quantitative; however, heat stress may also alter the content of EAA flow qualitatively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  3. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E, Ashkani S
    Molecules, 2014 Oct 16;19(10):16693-706.
    PMID: 25325154 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191016693
    The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol) and elevated (800 μmol/mol) CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4%) and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%). In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin) except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW), while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW) and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW) were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  4. Darah I, Nur-Diyana A, Nurul-Husna S, Jain K, Lim SH
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2013 Dec;171(7):1900-10.
    PMID: 24013862 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0496-4
    Keratinous wastes have increasingly become a problem and accumulate in the environment mainly in the form of feathers, generated mainly from a large number of poultry industries. As keratins are very difficult to degrade by general proteases, they pose a major environmental problem. Therefore, microorganisms which would effectively degrade keratins are needed for recycling such wastes. A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3 which was isolated from a soil sample collected from a chicken feather dumping site using a baiting technique, was capable to produce keratinase significantly. The crude keratinase was able to degrade whole chicken feathers effectively. The end product of the degradation was protein that contained essential amino acids and may have potential application in animal feed production. Thus, M. fulvum could be a novel organism to produce keratinase for chicken feathers degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  5. Muhammad N, Man Z, Bustam MA, Mutalib MI, Wilfred CD, Rafiq S
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 Oct;165(3-4):998-1009.
    PMID: 21720837 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9315-y
    In the present work, the dissolution of bamboo biomass was tested using a number of ionic liquids synthesized in laboratory. It was observed that one of the synthesized amino acid-based ionic liquids, namely 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium glycinate, was capable of dissolving the biomass completely. The dissolved biomass was then regenerated using a reconstitute solvent (acetone/water) and was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared to preconditioned bamboo biomass. The regenerated biomass was found to have a more homogenous macrostructure, which indicates that the crystalline form and structure of its cellulose has changed from type Ι to type ΙΙ during the dissolution and regeneration process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  6. Awad EA, Zulkifli I, Soleimani AF, Loh TC
    Poult Sci, 2015 Nov;94(11):2772-7.
    PMID: 26371331 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pev258
    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding low-protein diets fortified with individual non-essential amino acids (NEAA) on growth performance, serum metabolites (uric acid, UA; triglycerides, TG; total protein, TP; and albumin, Alb), organ weight, breast yield, and abdominal fat weight in broiler chicks raised under the hot and humid tropical climate. Eight isocaloric (3,017 kcal/kg) experimental diets were formulated and fed to male broiler chicks from d 1-21 as follows: 1) 22.2% crude protein (CP) (positive control; PC); 2) 16.2% CP + mixture essential amino acids (EAA) to meet or exceed the National Research Council (1994) recommendations (negative control; NC); 3) NC + glycine (Gly) to equal the total glycine + serine level in the PC; diets 4 through 7 were obtained by supplementing NC diet with individual glutamic acid, proline, alanine, or aspartic acid (Glu, Pro, Ala, or Asp, respectively); 8) NC + NEAA (Gly + Glu + Pro + Ala + Asp) to equal the total level of these NEAA in the PC. Fortifying NC diet with mixture NEAA resulted in a similar growth performance as PC. However, fortification of low-CP diet with individual NEAA failed to improve body weight (BW) (P < 0.0001), feed intake (FI) (P = 0.0001), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.0001). Serum uric acid (UA) was lower (P = 0.0356) in NC birds and NC diet supplemented with individual NEAA birds, whereas serum triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.007) and relative weight of abdominal fat (P = 0.001) were higher in these birds. In conclusion, no single NEAA fortification may compensate the depressed growth performance attributed to a low-CP diet. However, fortification with Gly may improve FCR. There is a possibility that broilers raised under the hot and humid climate require higher Gly fortification than the level used in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  7. Karami A, Karbalaei S, Zad Bagher F, Ismail A, Simpson SL, Courtenay SC
    Environ Pollut, 2016 Aug;215:170-177.
    PMID: 27182978 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.05.014
    Skin is a major by-product of the fisheries and aquaculture industries and is a valuable source of gelatin. This study examined the effect of triploidization on gelatin yield and proximate composition of the skin of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). We further investigated the effects of two commonly used pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and butachlor (BUC), on the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in juvenile full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish. In two separate experiments, diploid and triploid C. gariepinus were exposed for 21 days to graded CPF [mean measured: 10, 16, or 31 μg/L] or BUC concentrations [Mean measured: 22, 44, or 60 μg/L]. No differences in skin gelatin yield, amino acid or proximate compositions were observed between diploid and triploid control groups. None of the pesticide treatments affected the measured parameters in diploid fish. In triploids, however, gelatin yield was affected by CPF treatments while amino acid composition remained unchanged. Butachlor treatments did not alter any of the measured variables in triploid fish. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate changes in the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in any animal as a response to polyploidization and/or contaminant exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  8. Ali NM, Yeap SK, Yusof HM, Beh BK, Ho WY, Koh SP, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2016 Mar 30;96(5):1648-58.
    PMID: 26009985 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7267
    BACKGROUND: Mung bean and soybean have been individually reported previously to have antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects, while fermentation is a well-known process to enhance the bioactive compounds that contribute to higher antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulation effects. In this study, the free amino acids profile, soluble phenolic acids content, antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of fermented and non-fermented mung bean and soybean were compared.

    RESULTS: Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF-7 cells by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ.

    CONCLUSION: Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  9. Abu Bakar MH, Sarmidi MR, Cheng KK, Ali Khan A, Suan CL, Zaman Huri H, et al.
    Mol Biosyst, 2015 Jul;11(7):1742-74.
    PMID: 25919044 DOI: 10.1039/c5mb00158g
    Metabolomic studies on obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have led to a number of mechanistic insights into biomarker discovery and comprehension of disease progression at metabolic levels. This article reviews a series of metabolomic studies carried out in previous and recent years on obesity and type 2 diabetes, which have shown potential metabolic biomarkers for further evaluation of the diseases. Literature including journals and books from Web of Science, Pubmed and related databases reporting on the metabolomics in these particular disorders are reviewed. We herein discuss the potential of reported metabolic biomarkers for a novel understanding of disease processes. These biomarkers include fatty acids, TCA cycle intermediates, carbohydrates, amino acids, choline and bile acids. The biological activities and aetiological pathways of metabolites of interest in driving these intricate processes are explained. The data from various publications supported metabolomics as an effective strategy in the identification of novel biomarkers for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Accelerating interest in the perspective of metabolomics to complement other fields in systems biology towards the in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the diseases is also well appreciated. In conclusion, metabolomics can be used as one of the alternative approaches in biomarker discovery and the novel understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in obesity and type 2 diabetes. It can be foreseen that there will be an increasing research interest to combine metabolomics with other omics platforms towards the establishment of detailed mechanistic evidence associated with the disease processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  10. Tan NH, Swaminathan S
    Int. J. Biochem., 1992 Jun;24(6):967-73.
    PMID: 1612186
    1. The L-amino acid oxidase of the monocellate cobra (Naja naja kaouthia) venom was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 112,200 as determined by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography, and 57,400 as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 2. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 8.12 and a pH optimum of 8.5. It showed remarkable thermal stability, and, unlike many venom L-amino acid oxidase, was also stable in alkaline medium. The enzyme was partially inactivated by freezing. 3. The enzyme was very active against L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, moderately active against L-tryptophan, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-norleucine, L-arginine and L-norvaline. Other L-amino acids were oxidized slowly or not oxidized. 4. Kinetic studies suggest the presence of a side-chain binding site in the enzyme, and that the binding site comprises of at least four hydrophobic subsites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  11. Tan NH, Saifuddin MN
    Int. J. Biochem., 1991;23(3):323-7.
    PMID: 2044840
    1. Substrate specificity of purified king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase was investigated. 2. The enzyme was highly specific for the L-enantiomer of amino acid. Effective oxidation of L-amino acid by the enzyme requires the presence of a free primary alpha-amino group but the alpha-carboxylate group is not as critical for the catalysis. 3. The enzyme was very active against L-Lys, L-Phe, L-Leu, L-Tyr, L-Tryp, L-Arg, L-Met, L-ornithine, L-norleucine and L-norvaline and moderately active against L-His, L-cystine and L-Ileu. Other L-amino acids were oxidized slowly or not oxidized. 4. The data suggest the presence of a side chain binding site in the enzyme, and that the binding site comprises at least five 'subsites': the hydrophobic subsites a, b and c; and the two 'amino' binding subsites d and e. Subsite b appears to be able to accommodate two methylene/methyl carbons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  12. Azizan A, Ahamad Bustamam MS, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Ismail IS, Nagao N, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2018 May 07;16(5).
    PMID: 29735927 DOI: 10.3390/md16050154
    Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified. The fatty acids and both carotenoid pigments as well as chlorophyll, were observed in the extracts made from medium polar (acetone, chloroform) and non-polar (hexane) solvents. It is suggested that the compounds were the characteristic markers that influenced the separation between the clusters. Based on partial least square (PLS) analysis, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein displayed strong correlation to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. This metabolomics study showed that solvent extractions are one of the main bottlenecks for the maximum recovery of bioactive microalgal compounds and could be a better source of natural antioxidants due to a high value of metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  13. Shahfiza N, Osman H, Hock TT, Abdel-Hamid AZ
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2017;64(2):215-219.
    PMID: 28350402 DOI: 10.18388/abp.2015_1224
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the major public health problems in the world, affecting more than fifty million cases in tropical and subtropical region every year. The metabolome, as pathophysiological end-points, provide significant understanding of the mechanism and progression of dengue pathogenesis via changes in the metabolite profile of infected patients. Recent developments in diagnostic technologies provide metabolomics for the early detection of infectious diseases.

    METHODS: The mid-stream urine was collected from 96 patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital (PGH) and 50 healthy volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, followed by chemometric multivariate analysis. NMR signals highlighted in the orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) S-plots were selected and identified using Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and Chenomx Profiler. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of dengue infected patients versus healthy individuals with the total R2Y (cum) value 0.935, and the total Q2Y (cum) value 0.832.

    RESULTS: Data showed that dengue infection is related to amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid intermediates cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded in infected patients including amino acids, various organic acids, betaine, valerylglycine, myo-inositol and glycine.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolomics approach provides essential insight into host metabolic disturbances following dengue infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  14. Adamu A, Wahab RA, Shamsir MS, Aliyu F, Huyop F
    Comput Biol Chem, 2017 Oct;70:125-132.
    PMID: 28873365 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2017.08.007
    The l-2-haloacid dehalogenases (EC specifically cleave carbon-halogen bonds in the L-isomers of halogenated organic acids. These enzymes have potential applications for the bioremediation and synthesis of various industrial products. One such enzyme is DehL, the l-2-haloacid dehalogenase from Rhizobium sp. RC1, which converts the L-isomers of 2-halocarboxylic acids into the corresponding D-hydroxycarboxylic acids. However, its catalytic mechanism has not been delineated, and to enhance its efficiency and utility for environmental and industrial applications, knowledge of its catalytic mechanism, which includes identification of its catalytic residues, is required. Using ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations, molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations, and classical molecular dynamic simulation of a three-dimensional model of DehL-l-2-chloropropionic acid complex, we predicted the catalytic residues of DehL and propose its catalytic mechanism. We found that when Asp13, Thr17, Met48, Arg51, and His184 were individually replaced with an alanine in silico, a significant decrease in the free energy of binding for the DehL-l-2-chloropropionic acid model complex was seen, indicating the involvement of these residues in catalysis and/or structural integrity of the active site. Furthermore, strong inter-fragment interaction energies calculated for Asp13 and L-2-chloropropionic acid, and for a water molecule and His184, and maintenance of the distances between atoms in the aforementioned pairs during the molecular dynamics run suggest that Asp13 acts as the nucleophile and His184 activates the water involved in DehL catalysis. The results of this study should be important for the rational design of a DehL mutant with improved catalytic efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  15. Mazlan M, Hamezah HS, Taridi NM, Jing Y, Liu P, Zhang H, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2017;2017:6019796.
    PMID: 29348790 DOI: 10.1155/2017/6019796
    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism is involved in the aging and neurodegenerative processes. This study sought to determine the effects of age and vitamin E supplementation in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on brain arginine metabolism. Male Wistar rats at ages of 3 and 21 months were supplemented with TRF orally for 3 months prior to the dissection of tissue from five brain regions. The tissue concentrations of L-arginine and its nine downstream metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found age-related alterations in L-arginine metabolites in the chemical- and region-specific manners. Moreover, TRF supplementation reversed age-associated changes in arginine metabolites in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Multiple regression analysis revealed a number of significant neurochemical-behavioral correlations, indicating the beneficial effects of TRF supplementation on memory and motor function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  16. Lin C, Chen Z, Zhang L, Wei Z, Cheng KK, Liu Y, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2019 Jun 13;12(1):300.
    PMID: 31196218 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-019-3554-0
    BACKGROUND: Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) is caused by the growth of Echinococcus multilocularis larvae in the liver. It is a chronic and potentially lethal parasitic disease. Early stage diagnosis for this disease is currently not available due to its long asymptomatic incubation period. In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomics approach was applied in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the altered metabolic profiles in blood serum and urine samples obtained from HAE patients. The aim of the study was to identify the metabolic signatures associated with HAE.

    RESULTS: A total of 21 distinct metabolic differences between HAE patients and healthy individuals were identified, and they are associated with perturbations in amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Furthermore, the present results showed that the Fischer ratio, which is the molar ratio of branched-chain amino acids to aromatic amino acids, was significantly lower (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
  17. Lim YH, Foo HL, Loh TC, Mohamad R, Abdul Rahim R
    Molecules, 2020 Feb 11;25(4).
    PMID: 32054138 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25040779
    Tryptophan is one of the most extensively used amino acids in livestock industry owing to its effectiveness in enhancing the growth performance of animals. Conventionally, the production of tryptophan relies heavily on genetically modified Escherichia coli but its pathogenicity is a great concern. Our recent study demonstrated that a lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Pediococcus acidilactici TP-6 that isolated from Malaysian food was a promising tryptophan producer. However, the tryptophan production must enhance further for viable industrial application. Hence, the current study evaluated the effects of medium components and optimized the medium composition for tryptophan production by P. acidilactici TP-6 statistically using Plackett-Burman Design, and Central Composite Design. The optimized medium containing molasses (14.06 g/L), meat extract (23.68 g/L), urea (5.56 g/L) and FeSO4 (0.024 g/L) significantly enhanced the tryptophan production by 150% as compared to the control de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. The findings obtained in this study revealed that rapid evaluation and effective optimization of medium composition governing tryptophan production by P. acidilactici TP-6 were feasible via statistical approaches. Additionally, the current findings reveal the potential of utilizing LAB as a safer alternative tryptophan producer and provides insight for future exploitation of various amino acid productions by LAB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  18. Wang H, Tao Y, Li Y, Wu S, Li D, Liu X, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2021 May;73:105486.
    PMID: 33639530 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105486
    In this work, low-intensity ultrasonication (58.3 and 93.6 W/L) was performed at lag, logarithmic and stationary growth phases of Lactobacillus plantarum in apple juice fermentation, separately. Microbial responses to sonication, including microbial growth, profiles of organic acids profile, amino acids, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity, were examined. The results revealed that obvious responses were made by Lactobacillus plantarum to ultrasonication at lag and logarithmic phases, whereas sonication at stationary phase had a negligible impact. Sonication at lag and logarithmic phases promoted microbial growth and intensified biotransformation of malic acid to lactic acid. For example, after sonication at lag phase for 0.5 h, microbial count and lactic acid content in the ultrasound-treated samples at 58.3 W/L reached 7.91 ± 0.01 Log CFU/mL and 133.70 ± 7.39 mg/L, which were significantly higher than that in the non-sonicated samples. However, the ultrasonic effect on microbial growth and metabolism of organic acids attenuated with fermentation. Moreover, ultrasonication at lag and logarithmic phases had complex influences on the metabolism of apple phenolics such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, procyanidin B2, catechin and gallic acid. Ultrasound could positively affect the hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid to caffeic acid, the transformation of procyanidin B2 and decarboxylation of gallic acid. The metabolism of organic acids and free amino acids in the sonicated samples was statistically correlated with phenolic metabolism, implying that ultrasound may benefit phenolic derivation by improving the microbial metabolism of organic acids and amino acids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  19. Huang Z, Aweya JJ, Zhu C, Tran NT, Hong Y, Li S, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2020;11:574721.
    PMID: 33224140 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.574721
    Aquaculture production of crustaceans (mainly shrimp and crabs) has expanded globally, but disease outbreaks and pathogenic infections have hampered production in the last two decades. As invertebrates, crustaceans lack an adaptive immune system and mainly defend and protect themselves using their innate immune system. The immune system derives energy and metabolites from nutrients, with amino acids constituting one such source. A growing number of studies have shown that amino acids and their metabolites are involved in the activation, synthesis, proliferation, and differentiation of immune cells, as well as in the activation of immune related signaling pathways, reduction of inflammatory response and regulation of oxidative stress. Key enzymes in amino acid metabolism have also been implicated in the regulation of the immune system. Here, we reviewed the role played by amino acids and their metabolites in immune-modulation in crustaceans. Information is inferred from mammals and fish where none exists for crustaceans. Research themes are identified and the relevant research gaps highlighted for further studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism
  20. Hussain H, Mohd Fuat AR, Vimala B, Ghazali HM
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):351-61.
    PMID: 22041756
    Assessment of amino acid decarboxylase activity can be conducted using tubed broth or plated agar. In this study, the test was carried out in microtitre plates containing lysine, ornithine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine or histidine as biogenic amine precursors. Møller decarboxylase base broth (MDB) with or without 1% of a known amino acid were added to wells of a 96 well-microtitre plate. The wells were inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter anitratus or Staphylococcus aureus to the final concentration of 6.0 x 10(7) cfu/ml and incubated at 35ºC. The absorbance of the culture broth was read at 570 nm at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 hour. Comparison of means of A'(570) between 0 hour and a specified incubation time was determined statistically. Positive decarboxylase activities were detected in the media inoculated with E. coli and K. pneumoniae in less than 6 hours. The current method is suitable for immediate producers of amino acid decarboxylase enzymes. It costs less as it uses less amino acid and it has the potential to be used for screening aliquots of food materials for amino acid decarboxylase activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amino Acids/metabolism*
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