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  1. Wong SP, Lim WH, Cheng SF, Chuah CH
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2012 Jan 1;89:48-52.
    PMID: 21937202 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2011.08.021
    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used as disinfectant in medical care, food industry, detergents and glue industries. This is due to a small concentration of QACs is sufficient to inhibit the growth of various bacteria strains. In this work, the inhibitive power of cationic surfactants, alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C(n)TAB) in the presence of anionic surfactants, sodium alkyl methyl ester α-sulfonate (C(n)MES) was studied. The growth inhibition test with gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were used to determine the toxicity of single and mixed surfactants. Results from this work showed that certain mixed surfactants have lower minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) as compared to the single C(n)TAB surfactants. Besides that, it was also found that alkyl chain length and the mixing ratios of the surfactants play a significant role in determining the mixture inhibitive power.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
  2. Babaei M, Sulong A, Hamat R, Nordin S, Neela V
    PMID: 25858356 DOI: 10.1186/s12941-015-0071-7
    Antiseptics are commonly used for the management of MDR (multiple drug resistance) pathogens in hospitals. They play crucial roles in the infection control practices. Antiseptics are often used for skin antisepsis, gauze dressing, preparation of anatomical sites for surgical procedure, hand sterilization before in contact with an infected person, before an invasive procedure and as surgical scrub.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology*
  3. Lulu T, Park SY, Ibrahim R, Paek KY
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2015 Jun;119(6):712-7.
    PMID: 25511788 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.11.010
    The present study aimed to optimize the conditions for the production of adventitious roots from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, an important medicinal woody plant, in bioreactor culture. The effects of the type and concentration of auxin on root growth were studied, as well as the effects of the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio on adventitious root growth and the production of phenolics and flavonoids. Approximately 5 g L(-1) fresh weight of adventitious roots was inoculated into a 3 L balloon-type bubble bioreactor, which contained 2 L 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) sucrose and cultures were maintained in the dark for 7 weeks at 24 ± 1°C. Higher concentrations of IBA (7.0 and 9.0 mg L(-1)) and NAA (5.0 mg L(-1)) enhanced the biomass and accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids. The adventitious roots were thin, numerous, and elongated in 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 5.0 and 7.0 mg L(-1) IBA, whereas the lateral roots were shorter and thicker with 5.0 mg L(-1) NAA compared with IBA treatment. The optimum biomasses of 50.22 g L(-1) fresh weight and 4.60 g L(-1) dry weight were obtained with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 15:30. High phenolic and flavonoid productions (38.59 and 11.27 mg L(-1) medium, respectively) were also obtained with a ratio of 15:30. Analysis of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity indicated higher antioxidant activity with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 30:15. These results suggest that balloon-type bubble bioreactor cultures are suitable for the large-scale commercial production of E. longifolia adventitious roots which contain high yield of bioactive compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
  4. Dhand C, Balakrishnan Y, Ong ST, Dwivedi N, Venugopal JR, Harini S, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:4473-4492.
    PMID: 30122921 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S159770
    Introduction: In search for cross-linkers with multifunctional characteristics, the present work investigated the utility of quaternary ammonium organosilane (QOS) as a potential cross-linker for electrospun collagen nanofibers. We hypothesized that the quaternary ammonium ions improve the electrospinnability by reducing the surface tension and confer antimicrobial properties, while the formation of siloxane after alkaline hydrolysis could cross-link collagen and stimulate cell proliferation.

    Materials and methods: QOS collagen nanofibers were electrospun by incorporating various concentrations of QOS (0.1%-10% w/w) and were cross-linked in situ after exposure to ammonium carbonate. The QOS cross-linked scaffolds were characterized and their biological properties were evaluated in terms of their biocompatibility, cellular adhesion and metabolic activity for primary human dermal fibroblasts and human fetal osteoblasts.

    Results and discussion: The study revealed that 1) QOS cross-linking increased the flexibility of otherwise rigid collagen nanofibers and improved the thermal stability; 2) QOS cross-linked mats displayed potent antibacterial activity and 3) the biocompatibility of the composite mats depended on the amount of QOS present in dope solution - at low QOS concentrations (0.1% w/w), the mats promoted mammalian cell proliferation and growth, whereas at higher QOS concentrations, cytotoxic effect was observed.

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that QOS cross-linked mats possess anti-infective properties and confer niches for cellular growth and proliferation, thus offering a useful approach, which is important for hard and soft tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology*
  5. Daood U, Matinlinna JP, Pichika MR, Mak KK, Nagendrababu V, Fawzy AS
    Sci Rep, 2020 07 03;10(1):10970.
    PMID: 32620785 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-67616-z
    To study the antimicrobial effects of quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) exposure on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterial biofilms at different concentrations. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus biofilms were cultured on dentine disks, and incubated for bacterial adhesion for 3-days. Disks were treated with disinfectant (experimental QAS or control) and returned to culture for four days. Small-molecule drug discovery-suite was used to analyze QAS/Sortase-A active site. Cleavage of a synthetic fluorescent peptide substrate, was used to analyze inhibition of Sortase-A. Raman spectroscopy was performed and biofilms stained for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Dentine disks that contained treated dual-species biofilms were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis of DAPI within biofilms was performed using CLSM. Fatty acids in bacterial membranes were assessed with succinic-dehydrogenase assay along with time-kill assay. Sortase-A protein underwent conformational change due to QAS molecule during simulation, showing fluctuating alpha and beta strands. Spectroscopy revealed low carbohydrate intensities in 1% and 2% QAS. SEM images demonstrated absence of bacterial colonies after treatment. DAPI staining decreased with 1% QAS (p ammonium silane demonstrated to be a potent antibacterial cavity disinfectant and a plaque inhibitor and can be of potential significance in eliminating caries-forming bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology*
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