Dilobitarsus pendleburyi Fleutiaux, 1934 is recorded for the first time after its original description and is redescribed. This represents the first record from the Malay Peninsula, Malaysia and Sumatra, Indonesia. The systematic position of this species is discussed.
Two new species and one subspecies of the genus Cechetra Zolotuhin Ryabov, 2012 are described from South-East Asia. Cechetra bryki sp.n. is described from Nepal, Myanmar (Burma), southwestern China and northern Vietnam. This species is most closely related in habitus, male genitalia morphology and COI mtDNA to the sympatric species, C. lineosa (Walker, 1856) and C. scotti (Rothschild, 1920) in habitus, male genitalia morphology and COI mtDNA. Cechetra inconspicua sp.n. is described from Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. In habitus, it is closest to C. lineosa and C.subangustata (Rothschild, 1920), but its COI mtDNA (COI-5P "barcode region") is very different from all other species in the genus. Cechetra subangustata continentalis ssp.n. is described from continental Indochina and Taiwan. It differs from the nominotypical subspecies in habitus. Cechetra scotti comb. nov. is transferred to Cechetra from Cechenena Rothschild Jordan, 1903.
We compared climatic distribution ranges between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and the five wild (nondomesticated) species of Albopictus Subgroup of Scutellaris Group of Aedes (Stegomyia) in southern Asia. Distribution sites of the wild species concentrate in seasonal forest and savannah climate zones in India, Indochina, and southern China. The distribution of Ae. albopictus is broader than the wild species under 1) tropical rain-forest climate, 2) steppe and temperate savannah climate, and 3) continental climate with large seasonal temperature variation (hot summer and cold winter) at temperate lowlands (northernmost sites 40°N in Ae. albopictus vs 32°N in the wild species). However, the distribution of Ae. albopictus is more limited at tropical and subtropical highlands where the climate is cool but less continental (small seasonal variation, mild summer, and winter). We discuss a possibility that the broader climate ranges of Ae. albopictus are ecological or eco-evolutionary consequences of adaptation to human habitats. We also propose a general scenario for the origin, dispersal, and adaptation of Ae. albopictus in Asia as a hypothesis for future research.
The Scirtothrips genus-group is here considered to comprise 11 genera, and an identification key to these is presented. These genera are Ajothrips Bhatti, Anascirtothrips Bhatti, Biltothrips Bhatti, Cercyothrips Morgan, Drepanothrips Uzel, Ephedrothrips zur Strassen, Kenyattathrips Mound, Parascirtothrips Masumoto & Okajima, Scirtidothrips Hood, Scirtothrips Shull and Siamothrips Okajima. One genus, Sericopsothrips Hood, is considered a new synonym of Scirtothrips, with the only species now referred to as Scirtothrips palloris (Hood) comb.n. A second species in the genus Siamothrips is described from Malaysia as Siamothrips initium sp.n.
The nematode Pseudoplatycoma malaysianis n. gen. n. sp. is described from the Sulu Sea (Malaysia). The new genus is classified in the subfamily Platycominae Platonova 1976. Revision of the new genus and four other genera in Platycominae, resulted in four species from the genus Platycomopsis being transferred to other genera: P. dimorphica and P. mazjatzavi to the genus Platycoma; P. effilata to the genus Micoletzkyia; and P. gibbonensis to the genus Anticoma. Pilosinema is regarded as a asynonym of Platycomopsis and Platycomopsis paracobbi is regarded as a synonym for P. cobbi. A key for identification of the genera and species of Platycominae is presented.
Four new species of Cephennomicrus are described from Malaysia: C. curvidens sp. n., C. gentingensis sp. n. (both from the Genting Highlands, West Malaysia), C. santubongensis sp. n. and C. muluensis sp. n. (both from Sarawak, East Malaysia). Male genitalia of all new taxa are illustrated and diagnostic characters are discussed.
A new species of the Oriental genus Elacatophora, E. euconnoides sp. n., is described from the Cameron Highlands, West Malaysia. Diagnostic characters, including the male genitalia, are illustrated and discussed. A new case of subjective synonymy was discovered: Elacatophora minae (Makhan & Ezzatpanah, 2011) is placed as syn. n. of E. soesilae (Makhan & Ezzatpanah, 2011).
The genus Hemitrochostoma Bergroth, 1913 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Plataspidae) is redescribed and reviewed. Two species are recognized: the type species Hemitrochostomaaltilabris Bergroth, 1913 (Malaysia: Sarawak), and Hemitrochostomarutabulum sp. n. (Malaysia: Perak). The following new subjective synonymies are proposed: Hemitrochostoma Bergroth, 1913 = Inflatilabrum Tomokuni, 2012, syn. n.; Hemitrochostomaaltilabris Bergroth, 1913 = Inflatilabrumlambirense Tomokuni, 2012, syn. n.
Nine species of Thripinae that inhabit bamboo are recorded from Malaysia. Clypeothrips idrisi sp.n. is described as a second species in the genus, and Trichromothrips bruncurrum Reyes is considered a syn.n. of Neocorynothrips asiaticus Ramakrishna & Margabandhu. Six species are newly recorded from Malaysia: N. asiaticus, Okajimaella tubercula, Simulothrips banpoti, Stenchaetothrips bambusicola, S. bambusae and S. spinalis. Seven species of Stenchaetothrips are now known from Malaysia. Illustrations and descriptions of each species are provided.
The leafhopper subfamily Idiocerinae is revised for Malaysia. Thirteen genera and 17 species are recognized including 1 new genus, Serridiocerus n. gen., 2 new species, Serridiocerus membranaceus n. sp. and Burmascopus longidens n. sp., 3 newly recorded genera and 2 newly recorded species: Burmascopus n. rec., Chunra n. rec., Philipposcopus n. rec., Chunra australis n. rec., Philipposcopus maquilingensis n. rec.. A checklist and a key to species of Malaysian Idiocerinae are also provided.
The phasmid genus Ramulus Saussure, 1862 belongs to the nominotypical tribe of subfamily Clitumninae of the Phasmatidae. This genus consists of 159 species distributed in India (21 species), Sri Lanka (6 species), Bhutan (1 species), Myanmar (6 species), Thailand (1 species), Vietnam (12 species), Malaysia (4 species from Peninsular part and Borneo), Indonesia (18 species from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Key islands), the Philippines (3 species), China including Taiwan (74 species), Japan (1 species), Korea (1 species), and Russia (1 species) (Brock et al., 2021). Three phasmid species have been described in the genus Baculum Saussure, 1861 from the Russian Far East, Korea and North-East China respectively (Bey-Bienko, 1960; Kwon et al., 1992; Chen He, 1994) and later transferred to the genus Ramulus (Otte Brock, 2005). As a result of detailed examination of the type specimens of Ramulus ussurianus (Bey-Bienko, 1960), additional material and descriptions of these species, it became clear that specimens from Russia, Korea and North-East China are conspecific.
For the first time in 21 years, a new genus of cardiochiline braconid wasp, Orientocardiochiles Kang & Long, gen. nov. (type species Orientocardiochiles joeburrowi Kang, sp. nov.), is discovered and described. This genus represents the ninth genus in the Oriental region. Two new species (O. joeburrowi Kang, sp. nov. and O. nigrofasciatus Long, sp. nov.) are described and illustrated, and a key to species of the genus, with detailed images, is added. Diagnostic characters of the new genus are analyzed and compared with several other cardiochiline genera to allow the genus to key out properly using an existing generic treatment. The scientific names validated by this paper and morphological data obtained from this project will be utilized and tested in the upcoming genus-level revision of the subfamily based on combined morphological and molecular data.
The genus Chaetonerius Hendel has 25 valid species, predominantly distributed in the Afrotropical Region with only three species recorded for the Oriental Region. Herein, we describe a new species, Chaetonerius colavitei sp. n., from material collected in Thailand and Malaysia.
In tropical regions, different species of fiddler crabs coexist on the mangrove floor, which sometimes makes it difficult to define species-specific habitat by visual inspection. The aim of this study is to find key environmental parameters which affect the distribution of fiddler crabs and to determine the habitats in which each species was most abundant. Crabs were collected from 19 sites within the mudflats of Sepang-Lukut mangrove forest. Temperature, porewater salinity, organic matter, water content, carbon and nitrogen content, porosity, chlorophyll content, pH, redox potential, sediment texture and heavy metals were determined in each 1 m2 quadrate. Pearson correlation indicated that all sediment properties except pH and redox potential were correlated with sediment grain size. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that Uca paradussumieri was negatively correlated with salinity and redox potential. Sand dwelling species, Uca perplexa and Uca annulipes, were highly dependent on the abundance of 250 μm and 150 μm grain size particles in the sediment. Canonical Discriminative Analysis (CDA) indicated that variation in sediment grain size best explained where each crab species was most abundant. Moreover, U. paradussumieri commonly occupies muddy substrates of low shore, while U. forcipata lives under the shade of mangrove trees. U. annulipes and U. perplexa with the high number of spoon tipped setae on their second maxiliped are specialized to feed on the sandy sediments. U. rosea and U. triangularis are more common on muddy sediment with high sediment density. In conclusion, sediment grain size that influences most sediment properties acts as a main factor responsible for sediment heterogeneity. In this paper, the correlation between fiddler crab species and environmental parameters, as well as the interaction between sediment characteristics, was explained in order to define the important environmental factors in fiddler crab distributions.
The simuliid fauna of the Oriental Region is reviewed in comparison with those in five other zoogeographical regions. It is relatively young, represented by only one genus Simulium, which is regarded as the most specialized among 26 genera of the family Simuliidae. The Oriental Region has the second largest simuliid fauna with 524 species or 23.8% of the world total of 2204 extant species. This species richness is associated with a high speciation index (15.4), reflected especially by the high speciation rates of two dominant subgenera Gomphostilbia and Simulium although the number of lineages in the Oriental Region is moderate (34 or 20.6% of the total 165). The Oriental fauna has relationships with all other zoogeographical regions at the lineage level, having the highest affinity index (31.9) with the Palearctic Region. It is inferred that eight of 10 Oriental subgenera moved during the ice ages from the Palaearctic to the Oriental Regions; the subgenus Gomphostilbia evolved into 11 species-groups and underwent species radiation in the Oriental Region. On the other hand, two other subgenera, Nevermannia and Simulium, moved southward during the ice ages after evolving into species-groups. In the post-ice ages, most lineages retreated northward, with different portions of species left in the Oriental Region, although some lineages failed to retreat and survived as relict lineages in the Oriental Region.
Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene.
Pairwise similarity coefficients are downward biased when samples only record presences and sampling is partial. A simple but forgotten index proposed by Stephen Forbes in 1907 can help solve this problem. His original equation requires knowing the number of species absent in both samples that could have been present. It is proposed that this count should simply be ignored and that the coefficient should be adjusted using a simple heuristic correction. Four analyses show that the corrected equation outperforms the Dice and Simpson indices, which are highly correlated with many others. In two-sample simulations, similarity is almost always closer to the assumed value when the species pool size and sampling intensity are varied, regardless of whether the underlying abundance distribution is uniform, log-normal, or geometric. The index is also much more robust when sampling is unequal. An analysis of bat samples from peninsular Malaysia buttresses these conclusions. The corrected coefficient also indicates that local assemblages of North American mammals are random subsamples of larger species pools by returning similarity of values of around 1, and it suggests a more consistent relationship between biome-scale comparisons and local-scale comparisons. Finally, it yields a better-dispersed pattern when the biome-scale inventories are ordinated. If these results are generalizable, then the new and old equation should see wide application, potentially taking the place of the two most commonly used alternatives (the interrelated Dice and Jaccard indices) whenever sampling is incomplete.