Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

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  1. Hii JL, Kan S, Foh CK, Chan MK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1984;78(2):281-2.
    PMID: 6380019
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  2. Khoon CC
    PMID: 4023806
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  3. Cheong WH, Mahadevan S, Loong KP
    PMID: 373133
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
  4. White NJ
    Clin Infect Dis, 2008 Jan 15;46(2):172-3.
    PMID: 18171246 DOI: 10.1086/524889
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
  5. Vythilingam I, Wong ML, Wan-Yussof WS
    Parasitology, 2018 01;145(1):32-40.
    PMID: 27222102 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182016000901
    Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
  6. Reid JA
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1980;74(3):337-9.
    PMID: 7001688
    Anopheles donaldi Reid, a member of the A. barbirostris species group, is a vector of human filariasis and probably malaria. The discovery of some old specimens of this species, collected in Kuala Lumpur town where it no longer occurs, together with evidence from the literature about past malaria in the town, suggest that donaldi may have played a part in transmitting that malaria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  7. Brant HL, Ewers RM, Vythilingam I, Drakeley C, Benedick S, Mumford JD
    Malar J, 2016 07 19;15(1):370.
    PMID: 27430261 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1416-1
    BACKGROUND: Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes.

    METHODS: Mosquito collections were carried out using human landing catches at ground and canopy levels in the Tawau Division of Sabah. Collections were conducted along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient (primary forest, lightly logged virgin jungle reserve and salvage logged forest) between 18:00 and 22:00 h.

    RESULTS: Anopheles balabacensis, a vector of P. knowlesi, was the predominant species in all collection areas, accounting for 70 % of the total catch, with a peak landing time of 18:30-20:00 h. Anopheles balabacensis had a preference for landing on humans at ground level compared to the canopy (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
  8. Jiram AI, Vythilingam I, NoorAzian YM, Yusof YM, Azahari AH, Fong MY
    Malar J, 2012;11:213.
    PMID: 22727041
    The first natural infection of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans was recorded in 1965 in peninsular Malaysia. Extensive research was then conducted and it was postulated that it was a rare incident and that simian malaria will not be easily transmitted to humans. However, at the turn of the 21st century, knowlesi malaria was prevalent throughout Southeast Asia and is life threatening. Thus, a longitudinal study was initiated to determine the vectors, their seasonal variation and preference to humans and macaques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  9. Vythilingam I
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):1-12.
    PMID: 20562807 MyJurnal
    Plasmodium knowlesi in humans is life threatening, is on the increase and has been reported from most states in Malaysia. Anopheles latens and Anopheles cracens have been incriminated as vectors. Malaria is now a zoonoses and is occurring in malaria free areas of Malaysia. It is also a threat to eco-tourism. The importance of the vectors and possible control measures is reviewed here.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  10. Vythilingam I, Tan CH, Asmad M, Chan ST, Lee KS, Singh B
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2006 Nov;100(11):1087-8.
    PMID: 16725166
    Four species of malaria parasites are known to infect humans. A fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi, has been reported to infect humans in Malaysian Borneo. Here we report for the first time the incrimination of Anopheles latens as the vector of P. knowlesi among humans and monkeys in Sarawak, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  11. Singh RK, Haq S, Kumar G, Dhiman RC
    J Commun Dis, 2013 Mar-Jun;45(1-2):1-16.
    PMID: 25141549
    Anopheles annularis is widely distributed mosquito species all over the country. An. annularis has been incriminated as a malaria vector in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia and China. In India, it has been reported to play an important role in malaria transmission as a secondary vector in certain parts of Assam, West Bengal and U.P. In Odisha and some neighbouring countries such as Sri Lanka, Nepal and Myanmar it has been recognised as a primary vector of malaria. This is a species complex of two sibling species A and B but the role of these sibling species in malaria transmission is not clearly known. An. annularis is resistant to DDT and dieldrin/HCH and susceptible to malathion and synthetic pyrethorides in most of the parts of India. In view of rapid change in ecological conditions, further studies are required on the bionomics of An. annularis and its role in malaria transmission in other parts of the country. Considering the importance of An. annularis as a malaria vector, the bionomics and its role in malaria transmission has been reviewed in this paper. In this communication, an attempt has been made to review its bionomics and its role as malaria vector. An. annularis is a competent vector of malaria, thus, due attention should be paid for its control under the vector control programmes specially in border states where it is playing a primary role in malaria transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  12. Vythilingam I, Chan ST, Shanmugratnam C, Tanrang H, Chooi KH
    Acta Trop, 2005 Oct;96(1):24-30.
    PMID: 16076459
    A study was carried out from July 2001 until January 2003 in the Kinabatangan area of Sabah, part of Borneo island, where malaria used to be mesoendemic. Vector surveys determined that Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species and Anopheles balabacensis the primary vector. Malaria cases have dropped drastically over the years but P. falciparum is still predominant. In the present study, Anopheles donaldi was the predominant species and was positive for sporozoites. Although An. balabacensis was present, none were infective. An. donaldi bite more outdoors than indoors and have a peak biting time from 18:00 to 19:00 h when most people are still out of their homes. An integrated malaria control programme along with area development has helped in the control of malaria and its vector.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  13. Wong ML, Chua TH, Leong CS, Khaw LT, Fornace K, Wan-Sulaiman WY, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2015;9(10):e0004135.
    PMID: 26448052 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004135
    BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is emerging as a public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysian Borneo where it now accounts for the greatest burden of malaria cases and deaths. Control is hindered by limited understanding of the ecology of potential vector species.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a one year longitudinal study of P. knowlesi vectors in three sites within an endemic area of Sabah, Malaysia. All mosquitoes were captured using human landing catch. Anopheles mosquitoes were dissected to determine, oocyst, sporozoites and parous rate. Anopheles balabacensis is confirmed as the primary vector of. P. knowlesi (using nested PCR) in Sabah for the first time. Vector densities were significantly higher and more seasonally variable in the village than forest or small scale farming site. However An. balabacensis survival and P. knowlesi infection rates were highest in forest and small scale farm sites. Anopheles balabacensis mostly bites humans outdoors in the early evening between 1800 to 2000 hrs.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates transmission is unlikely to be prevented by bednets. This combined with its high vectorial capacity poses a threat to malaria elimination programmes within the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
  14. Rahman WA, Adanan CR, Abu Hassan A
    PMID: 12693589
    Using the cow-baited trap (CBT) method, 1,845 Anopheles mosquitos, comprising 14 species, were caught in malaria-endemic area of Hulu Perak district, Peninsular Malaysia. The two dominant species were An. barbirostris (18.59%) and An. aconitus (18.86%). Anopheles maculatus, the main malaria vector, constituted 9.11% of the total number of mosquitos sampled. Three hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles larvae, comprising 8 species, were sampled using the North Carolina Biological Station dipper. Anopheles barbirostris larvae amounted to 64.69% of the total number of larvae; An. aconitus accounted for 10.65% of larvae. Seven habitats were identified as breeding places of Anopheles. Most species were found to breed in paddies, fishponds, and rivers. Other less popular habitats were temporary pools, mountain streams, and spring wells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  15. Marzhuki MI, Tham AS, Poovaneswari S
    PMID: 7973937
    The Filariasis Control Program was established more than 30 years ago in the country and the disease is still a public health problem in some states. Since 1983, a total of 17 filariasis control teams were formed throughout the country to carry out filariasis control work. The teams conduct house and population censuses, nocturnal mass blood surveys and treatment of microscopically confirmed cases. Individual case follow-up is being carried out after 3-5 months while the locality is resurveyed after about 2-3 years. During the years 1988 to 1990, there appeared to be a decreasing trend in the number of filariasis cases detected countrywide. In 1991, brugian filariasis accounted for 92% of the cases detected. The microfilaria rate (MFR) also showed a decreasing trend countrywide for the years 1988 (0.57%) to 1990 (0.35%) but there was an increase in 1991 although it remained well below the 5% MFR targeted in the program objective, In 1991, the filariasis control teams and the district multi-purpose teams collected a total of 167, 151 blood slides out of which 871 were found to be positive for microfilaria. To determine the true endemicity of filariasis in the country, the malaria district multi-purpose teams are also utilized to assist in probe surveys in new areas of the district. Two species of filarial worms, namely Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, and the mosquito vectors belonging to the Anopheles and Mansonia genera are involved in the transmission of filariasis in Malaysia. Monkeys and domestic cats are the reservoir hosts for the subperiodic strain of B. malayi.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
  16. Yiallouros M, Storch V, Thiery I, Becker N
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 1994 Mar;10(1):51-5.
    PMID: 7912261
    Clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia (C.b.m.) is highly toxic to mosquito larvae. In this study, the following aquatic nontarget invertebrates were treated with high C.b.m. concentrations (up to 1,600-fold the toxic concentration for Anopheles stephensi) to study their susceptibility towards the bacterial toxin: Planorbis planorbis (Pulmonata); Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda); Daphnia pulex (Cladocera); Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera); Plea leachi (Heteroptera); and Eristalis sp., Chaoborus crystallinus, Chironomus thummi, and Psychoda alternata (Diptera). In addition, bioassays were performed with mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens). Psychoda alternata larvae were very susceptible, with LC50/LC90 values comparable to those of mosquito larvae (about 10(3)-10(5) spores/ml). The tests with Chaoborus crystallinus larvae showed significant mortality rates at high concentrations, but generally not before 4 or 5 days after treatment. The remaining nontarget organisms did not show any susceptibility. The investigation confirms the specificity of C.b.m. to nematocerous Diptera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
  17. Southgate BA, Bryan JH
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1992 9 1;86(5):523-30.
    PMID: 1475823
    Quantitative understanding of the transmission dynamics of lymphatic filarial parasites is essential for the rational planning of control strategies. One of the most important determinants of transmission dynamics is the relationship between parasite yield, the success rate of ingested microfilariae (mf) becoming infective larvae in a mosquito vector, and mf density in the source of the human blood meal. Three types of relationship have been recognized in human filaria/mosquito couples--limitation, facilitation and proportionality; facilitation has hitherto been observed only in the couple Wuchereria bancrofti/Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso, in experimental studies on a high density mf carrier. The present paper demonstrates facilitation in W. bancrofti/An. gambiae and W. bancrofti/An. arabiensis in lower mf density carriers in The Gambia and Tanzania, and in W. bancrofti/An. funestus in Tanzania. Facilitation was not found in An. melas in The Gambia nor in An. merus in Tanzania. Analysis of published data shows limitation at low level mf densities in W. bancrofti/Culex quinquefasciatus in Sri Lanka, and in the same couple in India. Limitation also occurs in Brugia malayi/Aedes togoi in experimental cats; proportionality occurs in B. malayi/Mansonia bonneae in Malaysia. The epidemiological significance of these host/parasite relationships is discussed, and supporting evidence for its validity is presented from the published results of large-scale control programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology*
  18. Kittayapong P, Edman JD, Harrison BA, Delorme DR
    J Med Entomol, 1992 May;29(3):379-83.
    PMID: 1625287
    The relationship among body size (as indicated by wing length), age (as indicated by parity dissections), and malaria infection were observed in host-seeking Anopheles maculatus Theobald females collected in aboriginal villages of peninsular Malaysia. Both ELISA and salivary gland dissections were used to determine malaria infection. The wings of parous females were significantly longer than those of nulliparous females, suggesting that larger females live longer than smaller ones, and thus have a higher vectorial capacity. Body size differences were not detected between infected parous and uninfected parous females. Females infected with only oocysts were significantly larger than females infected with sporozoites. No correlation was found between the number of oocysts or sporozoites and body size in this small sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
  19. Lee M, Harrison BA, Lewis GE
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1990 Apr;42(4):314-9.
    PMID: 2184690
    A modified version of the standard 2-site sporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as the substrate chromogen solution was adapted for rapid detection and identification of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite (CS) proteins. The TMB-ELISA was evaluated using sporozoites from experimentally infected mosquitoes and laboratory colonized uninfected mosquitoes. Our data indicate comparable sensitivity levels between the TMB-ELISA and the standard ELISA, i.e., 50 P. falciparum or P. vivax sporozoites/50 microliters of test solution. Reactions inherent to the method were specific and background reactivity was minimal. The TMB-ELISA is rapid (1 hr), simple, uses a minimal amount of monoclonal antibodies, and is suitable for use in a wide range of laboratories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/parasitology
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