Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Hii JL, Birley MH, Sang VY
    Med. Vet. Entomol., 1990 Apr;4(2):135-40.
    PMID: 2132976
    An exophilic population of the vector mosquito Anopheles balabacensis Baisas was investigated in two mark-recapture studies (16.ix-13.x.1986 and 6-26.i.1987) at an inland, foothill village in Sabah, Malaysia. Wild female mosquitoes were intercepted as they came to feed on man or buffalo, given a bloodmeal, marked with fluorescent dust and released. The recapture rate was about 12%. A new method of analysis is proposed which uses cross-correlation and a time series model. The estimated survival per oviposition cycle was 0.48-0.54 and the oviposition cycle interval 2-3 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  2. Hempolchom C, Yasanga T, Wijit A, Taai K, Dedkhad W, Srisuka W, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2017 Jan;116(1):143-153.
    PMID: 27752768
    Antennal sensilla were first investigated in the eight medically and veterinary important Anopheles mosquito species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (= Anopheles lesteri), Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pursati, and Anopheles sinensis) of the Hyrcanus Group in Thailand, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four types of sensilla, including sensilla chaetica (large and small), sensilla trichodea (sharp- and blunt-tipped), sensilla basiconica or grooved pegs (types I, II, and III), and sensilla coeloconica (large and small), were observed on the female antennae of the eight species. The greatest number of sensilla found along the flagellum of all the Anopheles species consisted of sensilla trichodea. Grooved pegs type II were not found on the antennae of An. peditaeniatus. Interestingly, clusters of 10-15 grooved pegs type III, with blunt-tipped and unevenly grooved-lengthwise sensilla, and a sunken group of 7-12 grooved pegs type III, with slightly curved and point-tipped sensilla, were found distally on flagellomeres 3-7 of An. argyropus and An. peditaeniatus, respectively. In addition, the key for species identification, based on fine structure and morphometrics of antennal sensilla among the eight species, was constructed and differentiated successfully. However, in order to focus intensively on the exact function of these sensilla, further electrophysiological study is needed in understanding their significant role in mosquito behavior, especially when these insects seek hosts for transmitting pathogens to humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology
  3. Vythilingam I, Wong ML, Wan-Yussof WS
    Parasitology, 2018 01;145(1):32-40.
    PMID: 27222102 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182016000901
    Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  4. Jaal Z, MacDonald WW
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1992 Aug;86(4):419-24.
    PMID: 1463364
    In a coastal village in northwest Malaysia, 3231 fed Anopheles females of eight to 10 species were collected, marked with fluorescent dust, and released on three consecutive nights. In collections made on the 10 nights after the first release, 58 mosquitoes of three species, An. lesteri paraliae, An. subpictus and An. vagus, were recaptured; the recapture rates were 3.42%, 1.19% and 0.97%, respectively. The data for An. subpictus and An. vagus were insufficient for further analysis. Those for An. l. paraliae were plotted against time of recapture and, from the regression coefficient, an estimate of 0.68 was obtained for the daily survival rate. An independent estimate based on the parous rate during the previous year was 0.55. The temporal distribution of the recaptures strongly suggested a gonotrophic cycle and oviposition cycle of two days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  5. Jaal Z, Macdonald WW
    PMID: 8160064
    The host preferences of eight species of anophelines were studied in two coastal Malaysian villages, Kampung Permatang Rawa and Sungai Udang Kecil, by seven 12-hour catches in each village. Collections were made concurrently from a human-baited net trap, a cow-baited net trap and by human-bait landing catches. Anopheles campestris was attracted almost equally to man and cow, but An. lesteri paraliae, An. nigerrimus, An. peditaeniatus, An. sinensis, An. indefinitus, An. subpictus and An. vagus showed a strong preference for the cow bait. The human-bait landing catches were more productive than the human-baited net trap, which attracted very few mosquitos. Seven more all-night catches were made at each village employing only the cow-baited trap, and the combined data were used to plot the biting-cycles of each species at each site. Although the biting-cycles at the two localities were in general agreement, there were notable differences. At Sungai Udang Kecil, where the collection site was relatively sheltered, several species showed a steady decline in numbers from sunset to sunrise. At Kampung Permatang Rawa, on the other hand, where the site was more exposed and close to the sea, the same species showed a bimodal pattern of activity with an early evening peak followed by a decline then a period of increased activity before sunrise rising to a second, lesser peak at 0500-0600 hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  6. Brant HL, Ewers RM, Vythilingam I, Drakeley C, Benedick S, Mumford JD
    Malar J, 2016 07 19;15(1):370.
    PMID: 27430261 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1416-1
    BACKGROUND: Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes.

    METHODS: Mosquito collections were carried out using human landing catches at ground and canopy levels in the Tawau Division of Sabah. Collections were conducted along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient (primary forest, lightly logged virgin jungle reserve and salvage logged forest) between 18:00 and 22:00 h.

    RESULTS: Anopheles balabacensis, a vector of P. knowlesi, was the predominant species in all collection areas, accounting for 70 % of the total catch, with a peak landing time of 18:30-20:00 h. Anopheles balabacensis had a preference for landing on humans at ground level compared to the canopy (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  7. Hawkes F, Manin BO, Ng SH, Torr SJ, Drakeley C, Chua TH, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 Jul 18;10(1):338.
    PMID: 28720113 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2277-3
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is found in macaques and is the only major zoonotic malaria to affect humans. Transmission of P. knowlesi between people and macaques depends on the host species preferences and feeding behavior of mosquito vectors. However, these behaviours are difficult to measure due to the lack of standardized methods for sampling potential vectors attracted to different host species. This study evaluated electrocuting net traps as a safe, standardised method for sampling P. knowlesi vectors attracted to human and macaque hosts. Field experiments were conducted within a major focus on P. knowlesi transmission in Malaysian Borneo to compare the performance of human (HENET) or macaque (MENET) odour-baited electrocuting nets, human landing catches (HLC) and monkey-baited traps (MBT) for sampling mosquitoes. The abundance and diversity of Anopheles sampled by different methods were compared over 40 nights, with a focus on the P. knowlesi vector Anopheles balabancensis.

    RESULTS: HLC caught more An. balabacensis than any other method (3.6 per night). In contrast, no An. balabacensis were collected in MBT collections, which generally performed poorly for all mosquito taxa. Anopheles vector species including An. balabacensis were sampled in both HENET and MENET collections, but at a mean abundance of less than 1 per night. There was no difference between HENET and MENET in the overall abundance (P = 0.05) or proportion (P = 0.7) of An. balabacensis. The estimated diversity of Anopheles species was marginally higher in electrocuting net than HLC collections, and similar in collections made with humans or monkey hosts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Host-baited electrocuting nets had moderate success for sampling known zoonotic malaria vectors. The primary vector An. balabacensis was collected with electrocuting nets baited both with humans and macaques, but at a considerably lower density than the HLC standard. However, electrocuting nets were considerably more successful than monkey-baited traps and representatively characterised anopheline species diversity. Consequently, their use allows inferences about relative mosquito attraction to be meaningfully interpreted while eliminating confounding factors due to trapping method. On this basis, electrocuting net traps should be considered as a useful standardised method for investigating vector contact with humans and wildlife reservoirs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  8. Avicor SW, Wajidi M FF, Jaal Z
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Jun;32(2):386-9.
    PMID: 26691267 MyJurnal
    Residents in irrigated urban agricultural sites face numerous mosquito problems such as increased mosquito populations and reduced insecticides susceptibility due to the creation of mosquito breeding sites and agricultural use of insecticides and hence require effective protective products against them. In this study, the protection effectiveness of three pyrethroid formulated mosquito coils of Malaysian origin against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an irrigated urban agricultural site in Ghana were evaluated for their potential use. Sucrose fed An. gambiae s.l. were exposed to insecticide-containing coils in a 70 cm x 70 cm x 70 cm glass chamber to assess the insecticidal effect of the coils. The 0.005% metofluthrin coil caused the most rapid knockdown of 50% of the test mosquitoes. The mean lethal effect of the coils on An. gambiae s.l. were as follows; 0.005% metofluthrin (86%), 0.3% d-allethrin (74.33%), 0.15% d-trans allethrin (72%) and the 0.25% d-allethrin reference coil (69%). The 0.005% metofluthrin coil achieved the highest insecticidal effect on An. gambiae s.l. compared to the other coils and hence performed better than the others as an anti-mosquito product. All the three test coils were effective against An. gambaie s.l. from the irrigated agricultural site compared to the reference coil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  9. Qureshi N, Chawla S, Likitvivatanavong S, Lee HL, Gill SS
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2014 Sep;80(18):5689-97.
    PMID: 25002432 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01139-14
    The management and control of mosquito vectors of human disease currently rely primarily on chemical insecticides. However, larvicidal treatments can be effective, and if based on biological insecticides, they can also ameliorate the risk posed to human health by chemical insecticides. The aerobic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus have been used for vector control for a number of decades. But a more cost-effective use would be an anaerobic bacterium because of the ease with which these can be cultured. More recently, the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium bifermentans subsp. malaysia has been reported to have high mosquitocidal activity, and a number of proteins were identified as potentially mosquitocidal. However, the cloned proteins showed no mosquitocidal activity. We show here that four toxins encoded by the Cry operon, Cry16A, Cry17A, Cbm17.1, and Cbm17.2, are all required for toxicity, and these toxins collectively show remarkable selectivity for Aedes rather than Anopheles mosquitoes, even though C. bifermentans subsp. malaysia is more toxic to Anopheles. Hence, toxins that target Anopheles are different from those expressed by the Cry operon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology
  10. Vythilingam I
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):1-12.
    PMID: 20562807 MyJurnal
    Plasmodium knowlesi in humans is life threatening, is on the increase and has been reported from most states in Malaysia. Anopheles latens and Anopheles cracens have been incriminated as vectors. Malaria is now a zoonoses and is occurring in malaria free areas of Malaysia. It is also a threat to eco-tourism. The importance of the vectors and possible control measures is reviewed here.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology
  11. Singh RK, Haq S, Kumar G, Dhiman RC
    J Commun Dis, 2013 Mar-Jun;45(1-2):1-16.
    PMID: 25141549
    Anopheles annularis is widely distributed mosquito species all over the country. An. annularis has been incriminated as a malaria vector in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia and China. In India, it has been reported to play an important role in malaria transmission as a secondary vector in certain parts of Assam, West Bengal and U.P. In Odisha and some neighbouring countries such as Sri Lanka, Nepal and Myanmar it has been recognised as a primary vector of malaria. This is a species complex of two sibling species A and B but the role of these sibling species in malaria transmission is not clearly known. An. annularis is resistant to DDT and dieldrin/HCH and susceptible to malathion and synthetic pyrethorides in most of the parts of India. In view of rapid change in ecological conditions, further studies are required on the bionomics of An. annularis and its role in malaria transmission in other parts of the country. Considering the importance of An. annularis as a malaria vector, the bionomics and its role in malaria transmission has been reviewed in this paper. In this communication, an attempt has been made to review its bionomics and its role as malaria vector. An. annularis is a competent vector of malaria, thus, due attention should be paid for its control under the vector control programmes specially in border states where it is playing a primary role in malaria transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  12. Wong ML, Chua TH, Leong CS, Khaw LT, Fornace K, Wan-Sulaiman WY, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2015;9(10):e0004135.
    PMID: 26448052 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004135
    BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is emerging as a public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysian Borneo where it now accounts for the greatest burden of malaria cases and deaths. Control is hindered by limited understanding of the ecology of potential vector species.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a one year longitudinal study of P. knowlesi vectors in three sites within an endemic area of Sabah, Malaysia. All mosquitoes were captured using human landing catch. Anopheles mosquitoes were dissected to determine, oocyst, sporozoites and parous rate. Anopheles balabacensis is confirmed as the primary vector of. P. knowlesi (using nested PCR) in Sabah for the first time. Vector densities were significantly higher and more seasonally variable in the village than forest or small scale farming site. However An. balabacensis survival and P. knowlesi infection rates were highest in forest and small scale farm sites. Anopheles balabacensis mostly bites humans outdoors in the early evening between 1800 to 2000 hrs.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates transmission is unlikely to be prevented by bednets. This combined with its high vectorial capacity poses a threat to malaria elimination programmes within the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology
  13. Rahman WA, Adanan CR, Abu Hassan A
    PMID: 12693589
    Using the cow-baited trap (CBT) method, 1,845 Anopheles mosquitos, comprising 14 species, were caught in malaria-endemic area of Hulu Perak district, Peninsular Malaysia. The two dominant species were An. barbirostris (18.59%) and An. aconitus (18.86%). Anopheles maculatus, the main malaria vector, constituted 9.11% of the total number of mosquitos sampled. Three hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles larvae, comprising 8 species, were sampled using the North Carolina Biological Station dipper. Anopheles barbirostris larvae amounted to 64.69% of the total number of larvae; An. aconitus accounted for 10.65% of larvae. Seven habitats were identified as breeding places of Anopheles. Most species were found to breed in paddies, fishponds, and rivers. Other less popular habitats were temporary pools, mountain streams, and spring wells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  14. Rahman WA, Abu Hassan A, Adanan CR, Mohd Razha R
    PMID: 8629076
    Twelve species of Anopheles were collected by using cow-baited net trap in a malarial endemic village in northern Peninsular Malaysia. Anopheles maculatus which is the main malaria vector with its densities were related to drought. An. aconitus, An. kochi and An. philippinensis were less susceptible to P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, and are not considered important in falciparum or vivax malaria transmission. Biting activities of An. kochi and An. vagus were primarily active after dusk and steadily declined after midnight. An. maculatus and An. aconitus showed biting activities throughout the night but An. maculatus showed two peaks of biting activity in the first half of the night.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  15. Hii JL, Chew M, Sang VY, Munstermann LE, Tan SG, Panyim S, et al.
    J Med Entomol, 1991 Sep;28(5):675-84.
    PMID: 1682492
    During the intermonsoon period from mid-September to mid-October 1986, wild-caught Anopheles balabacensis Baisas females were marked and released in a host-choice experiment. Association between capture and recapture of marked mosquitoes from human and bovid hosts and blood meal host identification of recaptured females were determined on a daily basis. Although the mark-recapture and blood meal data indicated behavioral heterogeneity between buffalo and human biters, restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed no differences in repeat sequence profiles. Doubly-marked recaptures strongly indicated a "learning" component involved in a separate host preference experiment. In a "habitat loyalty" experiment conducted in January 1987, females of An. balabacensis preferentially returned to the resting sites (indoor surfaces and exit traps) where they were first caught. Of nine isozyme loci found to be polymorphic, the genotypic frequencies of Esterase-3 and Isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 were different in "faithfully" endophilic and exophilic subpopulations. Genetic heterozygosity, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was greater in exophilic than endophilic population components. These results confirm that genetic and learning components can significantly influence house resting and host seeking behavior and may contribute to local epidemiological patterns of malaria transmission observed in Sabah, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology
  16. Chua TH, Manin BO, Vythilingam I, Fornace K, Drakeley CJ
    Parasit Vectors, 2019 Jul 25;12(1):364.
    PMID: 31345256 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-019-3627-0
    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of five common habitat types on the diversity and abundance of Anopheles spp. and on the biting rate and time of Anopheles balabacensis (currently the only known vector for Plasmodium knowlesi in Sabah) at Paradason village, Kudat, Sabah. The habitats were forest edge, playground area, longhouse, oil palm plantation and shrub-bushes area. Sampling of Anopheles was done monthly using the human landing catch method in all habitat types for 14 months (October 2013 to December 2014, excluding June 2014). The Anopheles species were morphologically identified and subjected to PCR assay for the detection of Plasmodium parasites. Generalised linear mixed models (GLMM) were applied to test the variation in abundance and biting rates of An. balabacensis in different habitat types.

    RESULTS: A total of 1599 Anopheles specimens were collected in the village, of which about 90% were An. balabacensis. Anopheles balabacensis was present throughout the year and was the dominant Anopheles species in all habitat types. The shrub bushes habitat had the highest Anopheles species diversity while forest edge had the greatest number of Anopheles individuals caught. GLMM analysis indicated that An. balabacensis abundance was not affected by the type of habitats, and it was more active during the early and late night compared to predawn and dawn. PCR assay showed that 1.61% of the tested An. balabacensis were positive for malaria parasites, most of which were caught in oil palm estates and infected with one to two Plasmodium species.

    CONCLUSIONS: The identification of infected vectors in a range of habitats, including agricultural and farming areas, illustrates the potential for humans to be exposed to P. knowlesi outside forested areas. This finding contributes to a growing body of evidence implicating environmental changes due to deforestation, expansion of agricultural and farming areas, and development of human settlements near to forest fringes in the emergence of P. knowlesi in Sabah.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology*
  17. Rahman WA, Che'Rus A, Ahmad AH
    PMID: 9561615
    Until today, malaria is still one of the most important diseases in Malaysia. This is because Malaysia is located within the equatorial zone with high temperatures and humidities, usually important for the transmission of malaria. The number of malaria cases were estimated to be around 300,000 before the launching of the Malaria Eradication Program (MEP). The program was successful in reducing the numbers progressively during the 1967-1982 period. During the period 1980-1991, the highest number of malaria cases recorded for the country was 65,283 in 1989 (16,902 in Peninsular Malaysia, 47,545 in Sabah and 836 in Sarawak) whilst the lowest was 22,218 (10,069 in Peninsular Malaysia, 11,290 in Sabah and 859 in Sarawak) in 1983. In Malaysia, there are 434 species of mosquitos, representing 20 genera. Of these, 75 species are Anopheles that comprise of 2 subgenus, i.e. Anopheles and Cellia. Of the 75 species, only 9 have been reported as vectors: An. maculatus, An balabacensis, An. dirus, An. letifer An. campestris, An. sundaicus, An. donaldi, An. leucophyrus and An. flavirostris. The behavior, seasonal abundance, biting activities and breeding sites of these species are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology
  18. Murugan K, Wei J, Alsalhi MS, Nicoletti M, Paulpandi M, Samidoss CM, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2017 Feb;116(2):495-502.
    PMID: 27815736 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-016-5310-0
    A main challenge in parasitology is the development of reliable tools to prevent or treat mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) produced by Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (strain MSR-1) on chloroquine-resistant (CQ-r) and sensitive (CQ-s) Plasmodium falciparum, dengue virus (DEN-2), and two of their main vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. MNP were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They were toxic to larvae and pupae of An. stephensi, LC50 ranged from 2.563 ppm (1st instar larva) to 6.430 ppm (pupa), and Ae. aegypti, LC50 ranged from 3.231 ppm (1st instar larva) to 7.545 ppm (pupa). MNP IC50 on P. falciparum were 83.32 μg ml(-1) (CQ-s) and 87.47 μg ml(-1) (CQ-r). However, the in vivo efficacy of MNP on Plasmodium berghei was low if compared to CQ-based treatments. Moderate cytotoxicity was detected on Vero cells post-treatment with MNP doses lower than 4 μg ml(-1). MNP evaluated at 2-8 μg ml(-1) inhibited DEN-2 replication inhibiting the expression of the envelope (E) protein. In conclusion, our findings represent the first report about the use of MNP in medical and veterinary entomology, proposing them as suitable materials to develop reliable tools to combat mosquito-borne diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology
  19. Panneerselvam C, Murugan K, Roni M, Aziz AT, Suresh U, Rajaganesh R, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2016 Mar;115(3):997-1013.
    PMID: 26612497 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-015-4828-x
    Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, hypaphorine, khellol glucoside, umbelliferose, violaxanthin, ergotamine tartrate, palmatine chloride, deacylgymnemic acid, methyl laurate, and palmitoyl acetate. In DPPH scavenging assays, the IC50 value of the P. aquilinum leaf extract was 10.04 μg/ml, while IC50 of BHT and rutin were 7.93 and 6.35 μg/ml. In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 of P. aquilinum leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae were 220.44 ppm (larva I), 254.12 ppm (II), 302.32 ppm (III), 395.12 ppm (IV), and 502.20 ppm (pupa). LC50 of P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP were 7.48 ppm (I), 10.68 ppm (II), 13.77 ppm (III), 18.45 ppm (IV), and 31.51 ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of P. aquilinum extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. Both the P. aquilinum extract and AgNP reduced longevity and fecundity of An. stephensi adults. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against An. stephensi adults showed that P. aquilinum leaf-, stem-, and root-based coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (57, 50, 41, and 49 %, respectively). Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of P. aquilinum leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of P. falciparum. IC50 of P. aquilinum were 62.04 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 71.16 μg/ml (CQ-r); P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50 of 78.12 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 88.34 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, our results highlighted that fern-synthesized AgNP could be candidated as a new tool against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum and different developmental instars of its primary vector An. stephensi. Further research on nanosynthesis routed by the LC/MS-identified constituents is ongoing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/physiology
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