Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 107 in total

  1. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Balkrishnan R
    Lancet Glob Health, 2016 08;4(8):e521.
    PMID: 27443777 DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30093-6
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  2. Monowar T, Bhore SJ
    Lancet Infect Dis, 2014 Jul;14(7):549.
    PMID: 24964938 DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70799-6
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  3. Elango S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):465-9.
    PMID: 14750393
    Increasing concern about the antibiotic resistance in acute otitis media (AOM) has led to debate over use of antibiotic in AOM and duration of therapy. Many studies have proved that watchful waiting should be used more often for acute otitis media. In children over two years, the most appropriate treatment was found to be initial observation followed by 5 days of an antibiotic if the child failed to improve spontaneously. In children less than 2 years or one with severe symptoms antibiotic can be started after 24 hours if there is no improvement with symptomatic treatment. Physician should be more selective in the prescription of antibiotics early in AOM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  4. Daud J, Ishak SR, Deris ZZ, Hitam WH
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Oct;1(5):419-20.
    PMID: 23569805 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60092-0
    Infectious conjunctivitis is a very common presentation to medical professional and ophthalmologist all over the world. Although its typically self-limiting and treatable in almost all of the cases, but we need to be aware of the rare and potentially life threatening if the cause is not promptly identified and treated accordingly. In our case report, we highlighted the rare case of Neisseria meningitidis as a primary cause of keratoconjunctivitis. Neisseria meningitidis is a rare etiology of keratoconjunctivitis and its ocular presentations are quite similar with other bacterial or viral infection. The infection may potentially fatal if systemic invasion occurred, however with immediate and proper treatment the outcome is satisfactory. Early diagnosis and proper antibiotic treatment are critical to prevent systemic spread of the infection. Public health intervention is needed to prevent outbreak of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
  5. Chidambaram R
    PMID: 26220069
    Chronic kidney disease, (CKD) a gradual and inevitable deterioration in renal function, is the disease with the most associations in dentistry. Dosage adjustment is one amongst the vital elements to be familiar with during their oral care. CKD patients take extended duration to filter out medications, therefore dosage must always be tailored under the supervision of nephrologist. The relished benefits from antibiotic could transform as anti-microbial resistance on their abuse and nephrotoxic when contraindicated drugs are encouraged. New patented drug belonging to oxazoliodine group has driven the researchers to handle the emerging AMR. The present communication discusses the pharmacological factors influencing in prescribing the antibiotics for CKD patient from the dentist's point of view. The formulas destined for calculating the optimal dosage of antibiotics have been documented to aid oral physicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  6. Islahudin F, Tamezi AM, Shah NM
    PMID: 26466434
    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem globally. Awareness of the impact and significance of antibiotic resistance is a first step in hindering its progression. We conducted this survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotic use in Malaysia. A total of 373 respondents were surveyed, 219 (58.1%) were female and 312 (83%) were Malay ethnicity. Eighty-four point two percent (314) had used antibiotics more than once (> 1) during the previous year. We found respondents who were less likely to take antibiotics (≤ 1) during the previous year were more likely to agree that antibiotic resistance was a serious public health issue compared to those that took antibiotic more than once during the previous year (p < 0.0001). A significantly greater number of patients (67.2%) who took antibiotics more than once during the previous year did not complete the full course than those who took antibiotics no more than once (55.9%) during the previous year (p < 0.01). We found the frequency of antibiotic use was related to knowledge about antibiotics among the study population. It is essential to develop educational interventions to correct the misuse and misunderstanding of antibiotics.
    Study site: general public in Kuantan (Pahang) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  7. Loh LC, Chin HK, Chong YY, Jeyaratnam A, Raman S, Vijayasingham P, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Sep;48(9):813-8.
    PMID: 17728961
    Klebsiella pneumoniae ranks high as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalised patients in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  8. Abdul-Aziz MH, Lipman J, Roberts JA
    Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis., 2017 Apr;30(2):231-239.
    PMID: 28030371 DOI: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000348
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens is increasing in the ICU, and these infections are negatively associated with patient outcomes. Optimization of antibiotic dosing has been suggested as a key intervention to improve clinical outcomes in patients with nosocomial pneumonia. This review describes the recent pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data relevant to antibiotic dosing for nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

    RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal antibiotic treatment is challenging in critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia; most dosing guidelines do not consider the altered physiology and illness severity associated with severe lung infections. Antibiotic dosing can be guided by plasma drug concentrations, which do not reflect the concentrations at the site of infection. The application of aggressive dosing regimens, in accordance to the antibiotic's pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics, may be required to ensure rapid and effective drug exposure in infected lung tissues.

    SUMMARY: Conventional antibiotic dosing increases the likelihood of therapeutic failure in critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia. Alternative dosing strategies, which exploit the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of an antibiotic, should be strongly considered to ensure optimal antibiotic exposure and better therapeutic outcomes in these patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  9. Ng A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1975 Dec;30(2):133-4.
    PMID: 1241709
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  10. Fisher D, Michaels J, Hase R, Zhang J, Kataria S, Sim B, et al.
    J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 2017 04 01;72(4):1221-1226.
    PMID: 28077673 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw551
    Objectives: Healthcare facilities internationally have grown outpatient parenteral antibiotic administration services for the last few decades. The literature contains publications from dozens of countries describing systematized processes with specialist oversight and their levels of service provision and outcomes. Such descriptions are absent in the majority of Asian countries. We sought to elucidate the extent and nature of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in Asia and to consider the ramifications and opportunities for improvement.
    Methods: Utilizing colleagues and their personal networks, we surveyed healthcare facilities across 17 countries in Asia to ascertain the current means (if any) of providing OPAT. In that survey we also sought to explore the capacity and interest of these facilities in developing systematized OPAT services.
    Results: Responses were received from 171 different healthcare facilities from 17 countries. Most (97/171, 57%) stated that they administer outpatient parenteral antibiotics, but only 5 of 162 facilities (3%) outside of Singapore described comprehensive services with specialist oversight.
    Conclusions: There is very likely a large unrecognized problem of unchecked outpatient parenteral antibiotic administration in Asia. Developing comprehensive and systematized OPAT in Asia is needed as a priority in an environment in which the infectious diseases community is demanding broad stewardship approaches. There are nonetheless challenges in establishing and sustaining OPAT programmes. Local champions and leverage off identified local incentives and needs are key to regional advancement.
    Study site: unclear (convenient sample from contacts of investigators)
    Note: Questionnaire available here:
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  11. Khan RA, Aziz Z
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2017 Aug;39(4):906-912.
    PMID: 28643112 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-017-0499-2
    Background Antibiotic de-escalation is an important strategy to conserve the effectiveness of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, the outcome of this strategy for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has not been widely studied in developing countries. Objectives To evaluate the outcome on intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, 28 days mortality, and length of ICU stay among VAP patients who receive de-escalation therapy. Setting This study was conducted in an ICU of a Malaysian public hospital. Method The electronic medical records of patients who developed VAP in the ICU were retrieved and relevant data was collected. Records of antibiotic prescriptions were also reviewed to collect the details of changes to antibiotic therapy (de-escalation). Main outcome measure Impact of antibiotic de-escalation on mortality. Results The mean age of the 108 patients was 46.2 ± 18.2 years; the majority being males (80%). The antibiotic de-escalation rate was about 30%. Out of this, 84% involved a change from broad to narrow-spectrum antibiotics and the remaining, withdrawal of one or more antibiotics. ICU mortality was 23% while 28 days mortality was 37%. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality rate, survival probability and the mean length of ICU stay between the de-escalation and the non-de-escalation group. However, patients with Simplified Acute Physiology Score II of ≥50 were significantly associated with ICU mortality and 28 days mortality. Conclusions In VAP patients, antibiotic de-escalation provides an opportunity to promote the judicious use of antibiotics without affecting the clinical outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  12. Ling Tan JS, Roberts CJ, Billa N
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2019 Apr;24(4):504-512.
    PMID: 30132723 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2018.1515225
    This study describes the properties of an amphotericin B-containing mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), with the intent to maximize uptake within the gastrointestinal tract. We have reported previously that lipid nanoparticles can significantly improve the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmpB). On the other hand, the aggregation state of AmpB within the NLC has been ascribed to some of the side effects resulting from IV administration. In the undissolved state, AmpB (UAmpB) exhibited the safer monomeric conformation in contrast to AmpB in the dissolved state (DAmpB), which was aggregated. Chitosan-coated NLC (ChiAmpB NLC) presented a slightly slower AmpB release profile as compared to the uncoated formulation, achieving 26.1% release in 5 hours. Furthermore, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation appeared to prevent the expulsion of AmpB upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal pH media, whereby up to 63.9% of AmpB was retained in the NLC compared to 56.1% in the uncoated formulation. The ChiAmpB NLC demonstrated mucoadhesive properties in pH 5.8 and 6.8. Thus, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation is well-primed for pharmacokinetic studies to investigate whether delayed gastrointestinal transit may be exploited to improve the systemic bioavailability of AmpB, whilst simultaneously addressing the side-effect concerns of AmpB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
  13. Ooi SY, Lee SW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 12;72(6):367-369.
    PMID: 29308776 MyJurnal
    Pneumonia is primarily a disease that is usually managed medically with antibiotics. However, in rare cases it may progress to necrotising pneumonia, which is an uncommon but severe complication of bacterial pneumonia. This case illustrates a typical case of necrotising pneumonia complicated with parenchymal and pleural complication such as empyema, pneumothorax with possible bronchopleural fistula. Early consultation with thoracic surgeon can be life-saving.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
  14. Ambaras Khan R, Aziz Z
    Int. J. Clin. Pract., 2018 Oct;72(10):e13245.
    PMID: 30144239 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.13245
    OBJECTIVES OF THE REVIEW: Antibiotic de-escalation is part of an antibiotic stewardship strategy to achieve adequate therapy for infections while avoiding the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, there is a paucity of clinical evidence on the clinical impact of this strategy in pneumonia patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This review aimed to evaluate the impact of antibiotic de-escalation therapy for adult patients diagnosed with pneumonia in the ICU.

    METHODS USED TO CONDUCT THE REVIEW: This review was conducted in accordance with the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) recommendation. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Databases and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to March 2017 for relevant trials. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed by using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Case-Control and Cohort Studies. A meta-analysis was conducted using the random-effect model to combine the rate of mortality and length of stay outcomes.

    FINDINGS OF THE REVIEW: Nine observational trials involving 2128 patients were considered eligible for inclusion. Although based on low quality evidence, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the impact of de-escalation on hospital stay but not mortality (MD -5.96 days; 95% CI -8.39 to -3.52).

    INTERPRETATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This review highlights the need for more rigorous studies to be carried out before a firm conclusion on the benefit of de-escalation therapy is supported.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
  15. Cheng CW, Feng CM, Chua CS
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Nov;98(48):e18156.
    PMID: 31770258 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000018156
    RATIONALE: Streptococcus anginosus mostly colonizes the digestive and genitourinary system, including the oropharyngeal region. It commonly causes invasive pyogenic infection, but less likely causes infective endocarditis (IE).

    PATIENT CONCERNS: An 18-year-old woman who had an underlying mitral valve prolapse without mitral regurgitation presented to our hospital with low-grade fever, left leg weakness, and left abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with brain infarction and microabscess as well as IE. The patient totally recovered after the 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics.

    DIAGNOSIS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain infarction and microabscess. Abdominal computed tomography revealed splenic and left renal infarction. Three sets of blood culture were positive for S anginosus. Transthoracic echocardiogram identified mitral valve prolapse with moderate eccentric mitral valve regurgitation, and a 0.3 × 0.6-cm vegetation was found on the left mitral valve. All of these results meet the modified Duke criteria.

    INTERVENTIONS: The abdominal pain and left leg weakness were improving after 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotics treatment. No neurological sequelae were noted after completing the 6-week course of medical treatment.

    OUTCOMES: The patient was successfully treated and discharged after completing the 6-week intravenous antibiotics treatment.

    LESSONS: IE should be considered in young patients with native valve disease who have prolonged fever. Though S anginosus commonly causes invasive pyogenic infection, patients with native valve disease should be checked for IE.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  16. Hussein-Al-Ali SH, El Zowalaty ME, Hussein MZ, Ismail M, Dorniani D, Webster TJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:351-62.
    PMID: 24453486 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S53847
    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of iron salts in sodium hydroxide followed by coating separately with chitosan (CS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form CS-MNPs and PEG-MNPs nanoparticles, respectively. They were then loaded with kojic acid (KA), a pharmacologically bioactive natural compound, to form KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites, respectively. The MNPs and their nanocomposites were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction data suggest that all formulations consisted of highly crystalline, pure magnetite Fe3O4. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the presence of both polymers and KA in the nanocomposites. Magnetization curves showed that both nanocomposites (KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs) were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetizations of 8.1 emu/g and 26.4 emu/g, respectively. The KA drug loading was estimated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which gave a loading of 12.2% and 8.3% for the KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites, respectively. The release profile of the KA from the nanocomposites followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The agar diffusion test was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity for both KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites against a number of microorganisms using two Gram-positive (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and one Gram-negative (Salmonella enterica) species, and showed some antibacterial activity, which could be enhanced in future studies by optimizing drug loading. This study provided evidence for the promise for the further investigation of the possible beneficial biological activities of KA and both KA-CS-MNPs and KA-PEG-MNPs nanocomposites in nanopharmaceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
  17. Sheshala R, Ying LT, Hui LS, Barua A, Dua K
    PMID: 23746224
    In order to achieve better treatment for local wounds and bacterial infections, topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn. were developed. These formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and antimicrobial efficacy against various strains of microorganisms. Semisolid formulations containing 5% w/w of Cocos nucifera Linn. were prepared by employing different dermatological bases and were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties, FTIR-spectroscopic analysis, thermodynamic stability and stability studies. The antimicrobial activity of each prepared formulation was determined using disk-diffusion method against various strains of microorganisms. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable and exhibited suitable physicochemical characteristics including pH, viscosity and spreadability which are necessary for an ideal topical preparation, in addition to strong antimicrobial activity. Carbopol gel base was found to be the most suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. in comparsion to other bases. Cocos nucifera Linn. formulations showed great potential for wounds and local bacterial infections. Moreover, carbopol gel base with its aesthetic appeal was found to be a suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. semisolid formulation as it had demonstrated significant physicochemical properties and greater diffusion when assessed using disk- diffusion method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  18. Tan SL, Neoh CY, Tan HH
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Feb;53(2):e24-7.
    PMID: 22337196
    Rhinoscleroma is a chronic, slowly progressive, inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract. It is associated with Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis infection. We present the clinical and pathological features of four patients diagnosed with rhinoscleroma at the National Skin Centre, Singapore between 1997 and 2010. All four patients presented with only cutaneous involvement, and the diagnosis was clinched via histological examination. The patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics. Two patients who were on follow-up at the time of this writing responded positively to the antibiotic treatment, while two were lost to follow-up. Rhinoscleroma is a diagnostic challenge, as it is an uncommon disease in Singapore and Malaysia. We highlight this condition to raise awareness of the disease in order to aid in early diagnosis of patients. Without treatment, this condition can result in significant complications, including involvement of the lower airways. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment help to reduce morbidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
  19. Lee SL, Azmi S, Wong PS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Apr;67(2):190-8.
    PMID: 22822642 MyJurnal
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore clincians' baseline knowledge, practice beliefs and acceptance of intravenous (IV)-to-oral antibiotic switching practice in Hospital Pulau Pinang. The factors most highly rated for antibiotic conversion were the ability to maintain oral intake (85.6%) and microbiology etiology (85.0%). Majority of the clinicians (76%) agreed with the traditional clinical rule that "patient should be afebrile for 24 hours before IV-to-oral switch". Specialists and consultants had the highest knowledge score among the clinicians. However, they were generally less positive about a guideline being integrated into practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
  20. Fatokun O
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2014 Jun;36(3):564-9.
    PMID: 24700341 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-014-9937-6
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, antibacterial agents are among the most utilized drugs. There has been an increase in their use in recent years, contributing to an increase of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

    OBJECTIVES: This study explores the pattern of antibiotic use and practices in a Malaysian community and identifies the variables associated with a likelihood of non-compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.

    SETTING: The study was conducted in Cheras, a community located to the south-east of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 250 individuals, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of antibiotic use, sources of antibiotics, use of antibiotics without prescription, discontinuation of antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance awareness, handling of unused antibiotics, and association between respondents characteristics and compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.

    RESULTS: Approximately 36 % of the participants (n = 91) had taken antibiotics in the year of the study. The majority (66.8 %) obtained antibiotics from clinics. Almost 80 % of the participants had never obtained antibiotics without a doctor's prescription. Nearly 55 % discontinued the course of antibiotics once symptoms disappeared. The most common method of disposing leftover antibiotics was throwing them into the household rubbish bin (78.8 %). Only 6.4 % of participants returned leftover antibiotics to the pharmacist or doctor. Univariate analysis revealed that male gender (p = 0.04), lack of knowledge of antibiotic functions (p < 0.0001), and lack of awareness of antibiotic resistance (p < 0.0001) were all significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Most individuals in the Malaysian community obtained antibiotics through prescription. Non-completion of a course of antibiotic treatment and improper disposal of unused antibiotics need to be addressed to prevent AMR. Male gender, lack of knowledge and awareness of antibiotics and resistance were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment. Therefore, patient education and counselling about antibiotics and antibacterial resistance is very important to enhance compliance to antibiotic therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*
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