RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal antibiotic treatment is challenging in critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia; most dosing guidelines do not consider the altered physiology and illness severity associated with severe lung infections. Antibiotic dosing can be guided by plasma drug concentrations, which do not reflect the concentrations at the site of infection. The application of aggressive dosing regimens, in accordance to the antibiotic's pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics, may be required to ensure rapid and effective drug exposure in infected lung tissues.
SUMMARY: Conventional antibiotic dosing increases the likelihood of therapeutic failure in critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia. Alternative dosing strategies, which exploit the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of an antibiotic, should be strongly considered to ensure optimal antibiotic exposure and better therapeutic outcomes in these patients.
METHODS USED TO CONDUCT THE REVIEW: This review was conducted in accordance with the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) recommendation. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Databases and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to March 2017 for relevant trials. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed by using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Case-Control and Cohort Studies. A meta-analysis was conducted using the random-effect model to combine the rate of mortality and length of stay outcomes.
FINDINGS OF THE REVIEW: Nine observational trials involving 2128 patients were considered eligible for inclusion. Although based on low quality evidence, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the impact of de-escalation on hospital stay but not mortality (MD -5.96 days; 95% CI -8.39 to -3.52).
INTERPRETATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This review highlights the need for more rigorous studies to be carried out before a firm conclusion on the benefit of de-escalation therapy is supported.
OBJECTIVES: This study explores the pattern of antibiotic use and practices in a Malaysian community and identifies the variables associated with a likelihood of non-compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.
SETTING: The study was conducted in Cheras, a community located to the south-east of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia.
METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 250 individuals, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of antibiotic use, sources of antibiotics, use of antibiotics without prescription, discontinuation of antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance awareness, handling of unused antibiotics, and association between respondents characteristics and compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.
RESULTS: Approximately 36 % of the participants (n = 91) had taken antibiotics in the year of the study. The majority (66.8 %) obtained antibiotics from clinics. Almost 80 % of the participants had never obtained antibiotics without a doctor's prescription. Nearly 55 % discontinued the course of antibiotics once symptoms disappeared. The most common method of disposing leftover antibiotics was throwing them into the household rubbish bin (78.8 %). Only 6.4 % of participants returned leftover antibiotics to the pharmacist or doctor. Univariate analysis revealed that male gender (p = 0.04), lack of knowledge of antibiotic functions (p < 0.0001), and lack of awareness of antibiotic resistance (p < 0.0001) were all significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment.
CONCLUSION: Most individuals in the Malaysian community obtained antibiotics through prescription. Non-completion of a course of antibiotic treatment and improper disposal of unused antibiotics need to be addressed to prevent AMR. Male gender, lack of knowledge and awareness of antibiotics and resistance were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment. Therefore, patient education and counselling about antibiotics and antibacterial resistance is very important to enhance compliance to antibiotic therapy.