Phage display has been applied successfully for the rapid isolation of monoclonal antibodies against various targets including infectious diseases, autoantigens, cancer markers, and even small molecules. The main component in any phage display experiment is the availability of an antibody library to carry out the selection process of target-specific antibodies through an iterative process termed as biopanning. To generate human antibody libraries, the antibody repertoire can be obtained from human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) or directly from cell-sorted B-cell populations. The choice of antibody isotype is dictated by the nature of the library. Naïve libraries would utilize IgM repertoires, whereas the IgG repertoire is commonly used for immune libraries. Antibody genes are amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and paired in a combinatorial fashion to expand the diversity of the cloned library repertoire. The protocol here describes the use of a two-step cloning method that can be applied for the construction of either a naïve or immune human antibody library in Fab format followed by the subsequent panning.
Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries.
Antibodies leverage on their unique architecture to bind with an array of antigens. The strength of interaction has a direct relation to the affinity of the antibodies towards the antigen. In vivo affinity maturation is performed through multiple rounds of somatic hypermutation and selection in the germinal centre. This unique process involves intricate sequence rearrangements at the gene level via molecular mechanisms. The emergence of in vitro display technologies, mainly phage display and recombinant DNA technology, has helped revolutionize the way antibody improvements are being carried out in the laboratory. The adaptation of molecular approaches in vitro to replicate the in vivo processes has allowed for improvements in the way recombinant antibodies are designed and tuned. Combinatorial libraries, consisting of a myriad of possible antibodies, are capable of replicating the diversity of the natural human antibody repertoire. The isolation of target-specific antibodies with specific affinity characteristics can also be accomplished through modification of stringent protocols. Despite the ability to screen and select for high-affinity binders, some 'fine tuning' may be required to enhance antibody binding in terms of its affinity. This review will provide a brief account of phage display technology used for antibody generation followed by a summary of different combinatorial library characteristics. The review will focus on available strategies, which include molecular approaches, next generation sequencing, and in silico approaches used for antibody affinity maturation in both therapeutic and diagnostic applications.
Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths globally and the most prominent among females, yet with limited effective therapeutic options. Most of the current medications are challenged by various factors including low efficacy, incessant resistance, immune evasion and frequent recurrence of the disease. Further understanding of the prognosis and identification of plausible therapeutic channels thus requires multimodal approaches. In this review, epigenetics studies of several pathways to BC oncogenesis via the inducement of oncogenic changes on relevant markers have been overviewed. Similarly, the counter-epigenetic mechanisms to reverse such changes as effective therapeutic strategies were surveyed. The epigenetic oncogenesis occurs through several pathways, notably, DNMT-mediated hypermethylation of DNA, dysregulated expression for ERα, HER2/ERBB and PR, histone modification, overexpression of transcription factors including the CDK9-cyclin T1 complex and suppression of tumour suppressor genes. Scientifically, the regulatory reversal of the mechanisms constitutes effective epigenetic approaches for mitigating BC initiation, progression and metastasis. These were exhibited at various experimental levels by classical chemotherapeutic agents including some repurposable drugs, endocrine inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and miRNAs, natural products, metal complexes and nanoparticles. Dozens of the potential candidates are currently in clinical trials while others are still at preclinical experimental stages showing promising anti-BC efficacy. The review presents a model for a wider understanding of epigenetic oncogenic pathways to BC and reveals plausible channels for reversing the unpleasant changes through epigenetic modifications. It advances the science of therapeutic designs for ameliorating the global burden of BC upon further translational studies.
The incident of two children in Europe who died of diphtheria due to a shortage of anti-toxin drugs has highlighted the need for alternative anti-toxins. Historically, antiserum produced from immunised horses have been used to treat diphtheria. Despite the potential of antiserum, the economical and medial concerns associated with the use of animal antiserum has led to its slow market demise. Over the years, new and emerging infectious diseases have grown to be a major global health threat. The emergence of drug-resistant superbugs has also pushed the boundaries of available therapeutics to deal with new infectious diseases. Antibodies have emerged as a possible alternative to combat the continuous onslaught of various infectious agents. The isolation of antibodies against pathogens of infectious diseases isolated from immune libraries utilising phage display has yielded promising results in terms of affinities and neutralizing activities. This chapter focuses on the concept of immune antibody libraries and highlights the application of immune antibody libraries to generate antibodies for various infectious diseases.
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease responsible for morbidity and disability that affects 1.2 billion people worldwide, mainly the poor communities. Currently, filarial antigen testing is the method of choice for the detection of bancroftian filariasis, and to date, there are two commonly used tests. In the present study, a recently reported recombinant monoclonal antibody (5B) specific to BmSXP filarial antigen was used in developing an ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen in sera of patients with bancroftian filariasis. The performance of the ELISA was evaluated using 124 serum samples. The ELISA was positive with all sera from microfilaremic bancroftian filariasis patients (n = 34). It also showed 100% diagnostic specificity when tested with sera from 50 healthy individuals and 40 patients with other parasitic diseases. The developed assay using the novel 5B recombinant monoclonal antibody could potentially be a promising alternative antigen detection test for bancroftian filariasis.
Gene assembly methods are an integral part of molecular cloning experiments. The majority of existing vector assembly methods stipulate a need for exonucleases, endonucleases and/or the use of single-stranded DNA as starting materials. Here, we introduced a vector assembly method that employs conventional PCR to amplify stable double-stranded DNA fragments and assembles them into functional vectors specifically for antibody chain shuffling. We successfully formed vectors using cassettes amplified from different templates and assembled an array of single chain fragment variable clones of fixed variable heavy chain, with different variable light chains - a chain shuffling process for antibody maturation. The method provides an easy alternative to the conventional cloning process.
Directed evolution is a proven approach to fine tune or modify biomolecules for various applications ranging from research to industry. The process of evolution requires methods that are capable of not only generating genetic diversity but also to distinguish the variants of desired characteristics. One method that is synonymous with directed evolution of proteins is phage display. Here, we present a protocol describing the application of magnetic nanoparticles coupled with a processor to carry out the identification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from a diverse antibody library via phage display. Target antigens are coupled to magnetic nanoparticles as the solid phase for the isolation of the binding mAbs via affinity. A gradual enrichment in clones would result in increasing ELISA readouts with increasing rounds of panning. During monoclonal level analysis, positivity can be deduced with comparison to background and controls. The biopanning process can also be adopted for the directed evolution of enzymes, scaffold proteins or even peptides.
Many countries are facing an uphill battle in combating the spread of infectious diseases. The constant evolution of microorganisms magnifies the problem as it facilitates the re-emergence of old infectious diseases as well as promote the introduction of new and more deadly variants. Evidently, infectious diseases have contributed to an alarming rate of mortality worldwide making it a growing concern. Historically, antibodies have been used successfully to prevent and treat infectious diseases since the nineteenth century using antisera collected from immunized animals. The inherent ability of antibodies to trigger effector mechanisms aids the immune system to fight off pathogens that invades the host. Immune libraries have always been an important source of antibodies for infectious diseases due to the skewed repertoire generated post infection. Even so, the role and ability of naïve antibody libraries should not be underestimated. The naïve repertoire has its own unique advantages in generating antibodies against target antigens. This chapter will highlight the concept, advantages and application of human naïve libraries as a source to isolate antibodies against infectious disease target antigens.
A recombinant Fab monoclonal antibody (Fab) C37, previously obtained by phage display and biopanning of a random antibody fragment library against Burkholderia pseudomallei protease, was expressed in different strains of Escherichia coli. E. coli strain HB2151 was deemed a more suitable host for Fab expression than other E. coli strains when grown in media supplemented with 0.2 % glycerol. The expressed Fab fragment was purified by affinity chromatography on a Protein G-Sepharose column, and the specificity of the recombinant Fab C37 towards B. pseudomallei protease was proven by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by proteolytic activity neutralization. In addition, polyclonal antibodies against B. pseudomallei protease were produced in rabbits immunized with the protease. These were isolated from high titer serum by affinity chromatography on recombinant-Protein A-Sepharose. Purified polyclonal antibody specificity towards B. pseudomallei protease was proven by Western blotting and ELISA.
We have used the phagemid pComb3H to construct recombinant phages displaying the single chain variable fragment (ScFv) towards exotoxin of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Variable heavy and light chain fragments were amplified from the hybridoma 6E6A8F3B line, with a wide spectrum of primers specific to mouse antibody genes. Through overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction, the heavy and light chain fragments were linked to form the ScFv which was subsequently cloned into the phage display vector and transformed into ER2537 cells to yield a complexity of 10(8) clones. The transformants were screened by four rounds of biopanning against the exotoxin and resulted in selective enrichment of exotoxin-binding antibodies by 301 fold. The phage pool from the final round of selection displayed antibodies of high-affinity to the exotoxin as demonstrated by ELISA. Several clones were selected randomly from this pool and analysed by restriction enzyme digestion, fingerprinting and sequencing. Restriction analysis confirmed that all clones carried a 700-800 bp insert whose sequences, in general, corresponded to that of mouse IgG. Fingerprinting profiles delineated the antibodies into two families with different CDR sequences.
Helminth parasite infections are significantly impacting global health, with more than two billion infections worldwide with a high morbidity rate. The complex life cycle of the nematodes has made host immune response studies against these parasites extremely difficult. In this study, we utilized two phage antibody libraries; the immune and naïve library were used to identify single chain fragment variable (scFv) clones against a specific filarial antigen (BmR1). The V-gene analysis of isolated scFv clones will help shed light on preferential VDJ gene segment usage against the filarial BmR1 antigen in healthy and infected states. The immune library showed the usage of both lambda and kappa light chains. However, the naïve library showed preferential use of the lambda family with different amino acid distributions. The binding characteristics of the scFv clones identified from this work were analyzed by immunoassay and immunoaffinity pull down of BmR1. The work highlights the antibody gene usage pattern of a naïve and immune antibody library against the same antigen as well as the robust nature of the enriched antibodies for downstream applications.
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces a family of microneme proteins that are thought to play diverse roles in aiding the parasite's intracellular existence. Among these, TgMIC2 has a putative function in parasite adhesion to the host cell to initiate the invasion process. The invasion process may be localized and inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against the protein(s) involved. Here we report on the construction of a phage-displayed single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library from mice immunized with whole T. gondii parasites. The library was subsequently panned against recombinant TgMIC2 (rpTgMIC2) and 2 different groups of antibody clones were obtained, based on fingerprinting and sequencing data. The expressed recombinant scFv antibody was able to recognize rpTgMIC2 in a Western blot detection experiment. These results show that the phage display technology allows quick and effective production of monoclonal antibodies against parasite antigens. By panning the scFv-displayed library, we should be able to obtain a plethora of multi-functional scFv antibodies towards T. gondii proteins.
Antibodies have different chemical properties capable of targeting a diverse nature of antigens. Traditionally, immune antibody libraries are perceived to be disease-specific with a skewed repertoire. The complexity during the generation of a combinatorial antibody library allows for a skewed but diverse repertoire to be generated. Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite that causes strongyloidiasis, a potentially life-threatening disease with a complex diagnosis that impedes effective control and treatment of the disease. This study describes the isolation of monoclonal antibodies against S. stercoralis NIE recombinant protein using an immune antibody phage display library derived from lymphatic filaria-infected individuals. The isolated antibody clones showed both lambda and kappa light chains gene usage, with diverse amino acid distributions. Structural analysis showed that electropositivity and the interface area could determine the binding affinity of the clones with NIE. The successful identification of S. stercoralis antibodies from the filarial immune library highlights the breadth of antibody gene diversification in an immune antibody library that can be applied for closely related infections.