Structure-activity relationships of eleven xanthones were comparatively predicted for four cancer cell lines after the compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against B-lymphocyte cells (Raji), colon carcinoma cells (LS174T), human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32) and skin carcinoma cells (SK-MEL-28). The eleven chemical constituents were obtained naturally from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri. Inophinnin (1) and inophinone (2) were isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum while soulattrin (3) and phylattrin (4) were found from Calophyllum soulattri. The other xanthones were from both Calophyllum sp. and they are pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7), 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). Compound 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic towards all the cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 1.25μg/mL while the simplest xanthone, compound 8 was inactive.
Curcuma ochrorhiza ('temu putih') and C. heyneana ('temu giring') are two Zingiberaceous species which are commonly used in traditional medicine in Malaysia and Indonesia. Phytochemical investigations on these Curcuma species have resulted in the isolation of six sesquiterpenes, namely zerumbone (1), furanodienone (2), zederone (3), oxycurcumenol epoxide (4), curcumenol (5) and isocurcumenol (6), along with phytosterols stigmasterol and alpha-sitosterol. Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained for the first time for C. ochrorhiza while 4 was new to C. heyneana. The hexane extract of C. ochrorhiza and sesquiterpenes 1 and 3 showed very strong cytotoxicity activity against T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells (CEM-SS), with IC(50) values of 6.0, 0.6 and 1.6 microg mL(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, constituents from C. heyneana (4-6) demonstrated moderate inhibition against CEM-SS in cytotoxic assay, with IC(50) values of 11.9, 12.6 and 13.3 microg mL(-1), respectively. The crude extracts and sesquiterpenes isolated were moderately active against certain bacteria tested in antimicrobial screening.
The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) of Alpinia mutica (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes were investigated for their cytotoxic effect against six human carcinoma cell lines, namely KB, MCF7, A549, Caski, HCT116, HT29 and non-human fibroblast cell line (MRC 5) using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The ethyl acetate extract possessed high inhibitory effect against KB, MCF7 and Caski cells (IC₅₀ values of 9.4, 19.7 and 19.8 µg/mL, respectively). Flavokawin B (1), 5,6-dehydrokawain (2), pinostrobin chalcone (3) and alpinetin (4), isolated from the active ethyl acetate extract were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activity. Of these, pinostrobin chalcone (3) and alpinetin (4) were isolated from this plant for the first time. Pinostrobin chalcone (3) displayed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against the tested human cancer cells, such as KB, MCF7 and Caski cells (IC₅₀ values of 6.2, 7.3 and 7.7 µg/mL, respectively). This is the first report of the cytotoxic activity of Alpinia mutica.
Apocynaceae is a large family of tropical trees, shrubs and vines with most species producing white latex. Major metabolites of species are triterpenoids, iridoids, alkaloids and cardenolides, which are known for a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimalarial properties. Prompted by their anticancer and antimalarial properties, the current knowledge on ten genera (Allamanda, Alstonia, Calotropis, Catharanthus, Cerbera, Dyera, Kopsia, Nerium, Plumeria and Vallaris) is updated. Major classes of metabolites are described using some species as examples. Species with antiproliferative (APF) and/or antiplasmodial (APM) properties have been identified. With the exception of the genus Dyera, nine genera of 22 species possess APF activity. Seven genera (Alstonia, Calotropis, Catharanthus, Dyera, Kopsia, Plumeria and Vallaris) of 13 species have APM properties. Among these species, Alstonia angustiloba, Alstonia macrophylla, Calotropis gigantea, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Plumeria alba and Vallaris glabra displayed both APF and APM properties. The chemical constituents of these seven species are compiled for assessment and further research.
The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin was found to be strong towards both cancerous (HGC-27, MCF-7, PANC-1, HeLa), and non-cancerous (3T3) cell lines, especially in cases of dividing cells. Drug exposure studies indicated that the cytotoxic action of goniothalamin was time- and dose-dependent. At the ultrastructural level, goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity revealed a necrotic mode of cell death towards MCF-7 cells.
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. White tea is made from the buds and young leaves of the tea plant which are steamed and dried, whilst undergoing minimal oxidation. The MTT assay was used to test the extract on the effect of the proliferation of the colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. The extract inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC50 of 87μg/ml. The extract increased the levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity in the cells. DNA damage in 3T3-L1 normal cells was detected by using the comet assay. The extract protected 3T3-L1 cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage. The results from this study show that white tea has antioxidant and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, but protect normal cells against DNA damage. Regular intake of white tea can help to maintain good health and protect the body against disease.
Seaweeds have been used by mankind as medicine and food for more than 13,000 years. Marine algae are considered to produce a valuable phytoconstituents characterized by a broad spectrum of antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of different solvent extracts of Sargassum wightii, Greville against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss male albino mice. DAL cells were injected intraperitoneally 1 x10(6) cell to the mice. Two days after cells injection the animals were treated with different solvent extracts of Sargassum wightii at dose of 200 mg kg(-1) for 14 days. 5-fluorouracil (20 mg kg(-1)) was used as reference drug. On day 11, cancer cell number, packed cell volume, decrease in tumour weight of the mice, increase in life span and hematological parameters were evaluated and compared with the same parameters in control. A significant increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number and tumour weight were noted in the tumour-induced mice after treatment with the extract. The haematological parameters were also normalized by the ethanolic and chloroform extracts in tumour-induced mice. These observations are suggestive of the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Sargassum wightii is comparatively better than other two tested extracts against Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL).
A phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the bark of Endiandra kingiana led to the isolation of seven new tetracyclic endiandric acid analogues, kingianic acids A-G (1-7), together with endiandric acid M (8), tsangibeilin B (9) and endiandric acid (10). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR analysis in combination with HRMS experiments. The structure of compounds 9 and 10 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These compounds were screened for Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 binding affinities and cytotoxic activity on various cancer cell lines. Compound 5 showed moderate cytotoxic activity against human colorectal adeno-carcinoma (HT-29) and lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cell lines, with IC50 values in the range 15-17 µM, and compounds 3, 6 and 9 exhibited weak binding affinity for the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1.
In the present study phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Horsfieldia superba led to the isolation of twenty compounds (1-20), of which three (1-3) were new. However, compounds 2 and 3 were previously reported as synthetic alpha,beta-lactones. The compounds were characterized as (-)-3,4',7-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavan (1), (-)-5,6-dihydro-6-undecyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2), and (-)-5,6-dihydro-6-tridecyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3). Seventeen other known compounds were also isolated and identified as (-)-viridiflorol (4), hexacosanoic acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6), methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (methylorsellinate) (7), methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoate (8), (-)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavan (9), (-)-4',7-dihydroxyflavan (10), (-)-4',7-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavan (11), (+)-3,4',7-trihydroxyflavan (12), (-)-catechin (13), (-)-epicatechin (14), (-)-7-hydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan (15), 2',3,4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone (16), 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (17), (+)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (18), hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) (19) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (20). The structures of the compounds were fully characterized by various physical methods (melting point, optical rotation), spectral (UV, IR, ID and 2D NMR) and mass spectrometric techniques. In vitro assay of compounds 2 and 3 demonstrated moderate cytotoxic activities against human prostate (PC-3), colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells, while the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of H. superba were found to exhibit moderate AChE inhibitory activity (IC50 72 and 60 microg/mL).
A study on the leaves of Aglaia exima led to the isolation of one new and seven known compounds: six triterpenoids and two steroids. Their structures were elucidated and analyzed mainly by using spectroscopic methods; 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, UV spectrometry and X-ray. All the triterpenoids and steroids were measured in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against eight cancer cell lines; lung (A549), prostate (DU-145), skin (SK-MEL-5), pancreatic (BxPC-3), liver (Hep G2), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and (MDA-MB-231). The new cycloartane triterpenoid, 24(E)-cycloart-24-ene-26-ol-3-one 1, showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon (HT-29) cancer cell line (IC(50) 11.5μM).
Recently there was huge increase in using of 'herbal products'. These can be defined as plants, parts of plants or extracts from plants that are used for curing disease. However, Calophyllum species is a tropical plant and it has been used in traditional medicine, the limitation in safety and effectiveness information could lead to serious health problems. Providing information for communities by evaluating the phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities will improve the therapeutic values. Three main Calophyllum canum fractions (none - high polar) were tested to find out the phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol content, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating iron ions. Also were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition, cytotoxic activity was assayed against lung cancer A549 cell line. The methanol fraction showed no bioactivity but achieved the highest amount of phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid contents, also it showed a significant result as antioxidant, reducing power and chelating agent. The n-hexane fraction achieved the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 12.5 μg. mL(-1) against B. cereus while the MIC value for DCM fraction was 25 μg. mL(-1). The DCM fraction was more active against S. aureus where the result was 50 μg. mL(-1) while the n-hexane fraction was 100 μg. mL(-1). The three main fractions have shown no activity against gram negative bacterial and fungal. The n-hexane and DCM fractions have shown cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell line; the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 22 ± 2.64 and 32 ± 3.78 μg. mL(-1) respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the results, C. canum fractions proved to be effective against gram positive bacterial and anti-proliferation activity. Also it showed antioxidant activity as well. The results provided beneficial information for communities as well as can help to search for alternative drugs, and will contribute to establish safe and effective use of phytomedicines in the treatment of diseases.
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is one of the principle compounds of the medicinal plant, Andrographis paniculata Nees. This study explored the mechanisms of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide-induced toxicity and non-apoptotic cell death in T-47D breast carcinoma cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide exerted its cytotoxic effects by regulating genes that inhibit the cell cycle or promote cell cycle arrest. This compound regulated genes that are known to reduce/inhibit cell proliferation, induce growth arrest and suppress cell growth. The growth suppression activities of this compound were demonstrated by a downregulation of several genes normally found to be over-expressed in cancers. Microscopic analysis revealed positive monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining at 8h, indicating possible autophagosomes. TEM analysis revealed that the treated cells were highly vacuolated, thereby suggesting that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide may cause autophagic morphology in these cells. This morphology may be correlated with the concurrent expression of genes known to affect lysosomal activity, ion transport, protein degradation and vesicle transport. Interestingly, some apoptotic-like bodies were found, and these bodies contained multiple large vacuoles, suggesting that this compound is capable of eliciting a combination of apoptotic and autophagic-like morphological characteristics.
A new furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, artomandin (1), together with three other flavonoid derivatives, artoindonesianin C, artonol B, and artochamin A, as well as β-sitosterol were isolated from the stem bark of Artocarpus kemando. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectral evidence. All of these compounds displayed inhibition effects to a very susceptible degree in cancer cell line tests. Compound 1 also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity in the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl tests.
Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated.
Seven new indole alkaloids of the Aspidosperma type, jerantinines A-G (1-7), were isolated from a leaf extract of the Malayan Tabernaemontana corymbosa. The structures were established using NMR and MS analysis. Five of the alkaloids isolated and two derivatives (1-5, 8, 9) displayed pronounced in vitro cytotoxicity against human KB cells (IC50 < 1 microg/mL).
Investigation on the leaves of Melicope bonwickii (F.Muell.) T.Hartley (Rutaceae) afforded a new 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-chloroprenyloxy)-4-methoxyfuroquinoline (1) together with the known 7-(2',3'-epoxyprenyloxy)-4-methoxyfuroquinoline (2), evellerine (3) kokusaginine (4) and an amide aurantiamide acetate (5). Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant activity against cervical cell lines (Hela).
Artabotrys crassifolius Hook. f. & Thomson is a medicinal plant used in Malaysia. The cytotoxic effects of the hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the leaves and bark were examined in vitro against MCF-7, MDA-468 and HCT-116 cells. The chloroform extract of the bark inhibited the growth of all cell lines with GI₅₀ values ranging from 4.2 µg/mL to 9.4 µg/mL. Silica gel column chromatography of this extract yielded artabotrine, liridine, atherospermidine and lysicamine. Artabotrine and lysicamine inhibited the growth of HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells with GI₅₀ values ranging from 3.3 µM to 3.9 µM. These alkaloids were not toxic to human embryonic kidney cells (HEK297) up to a concentration of 50 µg/mL.