Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Yeang HY
    Bioessays, 2009 Nov;31(11):1211-8.
    PMID: 19795408 DOI: 10.1002/bies.200900078
    The plant maintains a 24-h circadian cycle that controls the sequential activation of many physiological and developmental functions. There is empirical evidence suggesting that two types of circadian rhythms exist. Some plant rhythms appear to be set by the light transition at dawn, and are calibrated to circadian (zeitgeber) time, which is measured from sunrise. Other rhythms are set by both dawn and dusk, and are calibrated to solar time that is measured from mid-day. Rhythms on circadian timing shift seasonally in tandem with the timing of dawn that occurs earlier in summer and later in winter. On the other hand, rhythms set to solar time are maintained independently of the season, the timing of noon being constant year-round. Various rhythms that run in-phase and out-of-phase with one another seasonally may provide a means to time and induce seasonal events such as flowering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  2. Harun S, Abdullah-Zawawi MR, Goh HH, Mohamed-Hussein ZA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2020 Jul 15;68(28):7281-7297.
    PMID: 32551569 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01916
    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are plant secondary metabolites comprising sulfur and nitrogen mainly found in plants from the order of Brassicales, such as broccoli, cabbage, and Arabidopsis thaliana. The activated forms of GSL play important roles in fighting against pathogens and have health benefits to humans. The increasing amount of data on A. thaliana generated from various omics technologies can be investigated more deeply in search of new genes or compounds involved in GSL biosynthesis and metabolism. This review describes a comprehensive inventory of A. thaliana GSLs identified from published literature and databases such as KNApSAcK, KEGG, and AraCyc. A total of 113 GSL genes encoding for 23 transcription components, 85 enzymes, and five protein transporters were experimentally characterized in the past two decades. Continuous efforts are still on going to identify all molecules related to the production of GSLs. A manually curated database known as SuCCombase (http://plant-scc.org) was developed to serve as a comprehensive GSL inventory. Realizing lack of information on the regulation of GSL biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms, this review also includes relevant information and their connections with crosstalk among various factors, such as light, sulfur metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism, not only in A. thaliana but also in other crucifers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  3. Valdiani A, Kadir MA, Saad MS, Talei D, Tan SG
    Gene, 2012 Aug 15;505(1):23-36.
    PMID: 22683537 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.05.056
    Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been stated as a low-diverse, endangered and red-listed plant species. Self-pollinated mating system, being an introduced species and experiencing a bottleneck as well as over exploitation cause such a consequence. Inter and intra-specific hybridizations have been suggested as essential techniques for generating genetic diversity. To test the effect of intra-specific hybridization on diversification and heterosis of AP, seven accessions were outcrossed manually in all 21 possible combinations. Three types of markers including morphological, phytochemical and RAPD markers were employed to evaluate the mentioned hypothesis. The results revealed that hybridization acted as a powerful engine for diversification of AP as it caused heterotic expression of the studied traits, simultaneously. Initially, it seems that additive and non-additive gene effects both can be considered as the genetic basis of heterosis in AP for the investigated traits. Agronomic and morphological traits were differentiated from each other, while positive heterosis was recorded mainly for agronomic traits but not for the morphological traits. Intra-specific hybridization increased the genetic diversity in AP population. Nevertheless, a part of this variation could also be attributed to the negative heterosis. The current exploration demonstrated the first ever conducted manual intra-specific hybridization among AP accessions in a mass scale. However, the 17 RAPD primers produced a monomorph pattern, but perhaps increasing the number of markers can feature a new genetic profile in this plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  4. Chen M, Zhang B, Li C, Kulaveerasingam H, Chew FT, Yu H
    Plant Physiol., 2015 Sep;169(1):391-402.
    PMID: 26152712 DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.00943
    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  5. Yeang HY
    Ann Bot, 2015 Jul;116(1):15-22.
    PMID: 26070640 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcv070
    An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  6. Yeang HY
    Yale J Biol Med, 2019 06;92(2):213-223.
    PMID: 31249482
    The widely held explanation for photoperiod-controlled flowering in long-day plants is largely embodied in the External Coincidence Hypothesis which posits that flowering is induced when activity of a rhythmic gene that regulates it (a putative "flowering gene") occurs in the presence of light. Nevertheless, re-examination of the Arabidopsis flowering data from non 24-hour cycles of Roden et al. suggests that External Coincidence is not tenable if the circadian rhythm of the "flowering gene" were entrained to sunrise as commonly accepted. On the other hand, the hypothesis is supported if circadian cycling of the gene conforms to a solar rhythm, and its entrainment is to midnight on the solar clock. Data available point to flowering being induced by the gene which peaks in its expression between 16 to 19 h after midnight. In the normal 24 h cycle, that would be between 4 p.m. and 7 p.m., regardless of the photoperiod. Such timing of the "flowering gene" expression allows for variable coincidence between gene activity and light, depending on the photoperiod and cycle period. A correlation is found between earliness of flowering and the degree of coincidence of "flowering gene" expression with light (r = 0.88, p<0.01).
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  7. Huang W, Chen X, Guan Q, Zhong Z, Ma J, Yang B, et al.
    Gene, 2019 Mar 20;689:43-50.
    PMID: 30528270 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.11.083
    Atmospheric CO2 level is one of the most important factors which affect plant growth and crop production. Although many crucial genes and pathways have been identified in response to atmospheric CO2 changes, the integrated and precise mechanisms of plant CO2 response are not well understood. Alternative splicing (AS) is an important gene regulation process that affects many biological processes in plants. However, the AS pattern changes in plants in response to elevated CO2 levels have not yet been investigated. Here, we used RNA-Seq data of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under different CO2 concentration to analyze the global changes in AS. We found that AS increased with the rise in CO2 concentration. Additionally, we identified 345 differentially expressed (DE) genes and 251 differentially alternative splicing (DAS) genes under the elevated CO2 condition. Moreover, the results showed that the expression of most of the DAS genes did not change significantly, indicating that AS can serve as an independent mechanism for gene regulation in response to elevated CO2. Furthermore, our analysis of function categories revealed that the DAS genes were associated mainly with the stimulus response. Overall, this the first study to explore the changes of AS in plants in response to elevated CO2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  8. Chan KL, Rosli R, Tatarinova TV, Hogan M, Firdaus-Raih M, Low EL
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2017 Jan 27;18(Suppl 1):1426.
    PMID: 28466793 DOI: 10.1186/s12859-016-1426-6
    BACKGROUND: Gene prediction is one of the most important steps in the genome annotation process. A large number of software tools and pipelines developed by various computing techniques are available for gene prediction. However, these systems have yet to accurately predict all or even most of the protein-coding regions. Furthermore, none of the currently available gene-finders has a universal Hidden Markov Model (HMM) that can perform gene prediction for all organisms equally well in an automatic fashion.

    RESULTS: We present an automated gene prediction pipeline, Seqping that uses self-training HMM models and transcriptomic data. The pipeline processes the genome and transcriptome sequences of the target species using GlimmerHMM, SNAP, and AUGUSTUS pipelines, followed by MAKER2 program to combine predictions from the three tools in association with the transcriptomic evidence. Seqping generates species-specific HMMs that are able to offer unbiased gene predictions. The pipeline was evaluated using the Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes. Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) analysis showed that the pipeline was able to identify at least 95% of BUSCO's plantae dataset. Our evaluation shows that Seqping was able to generate better gene predictions compared to three HMM-based programs (MAKER2, GlimmerHMM and AUGUSTUS) using their respective available HMMs. Seqping had the highest accuracy in rice (0.5648 for CDS, 0.4468 for exon, and 0.6695 nucleotide structure) and A. thaliana (0.5808 for CDS, 0.5955 for exon, and 0.8839 nucleotide structure).

    CONCLUSIONS: Seqping provides researchers a seamless pipeline to train species-specific HMMs and predict genes in newly sequenced or less-studied genomes. We conclude that the Seqping pipeline predictions are more accurate than gene predictions using the other three approaches with the default or available HMMs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  9. Martí Ruiz MC, Hubbard KE, Gardner MJ, Jung HJ, Aubry S, Hotta CT, et al.
    Nat Plants, 2018 09;4(9):690-698.
    PMID: 30127410 DOI: 10.1038/s41477-018-0224-8
    In the last decade, the view of circadian oscillators has expanded from transcriptional feedback to incorporate post-transcriptional, post-translational, metabolic processes and ionic signalling. In plants and animals, there are circadian oscillations in the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt), though their purpose has not been fully characterized. We investigated whether circadian oscillations of [Ca2+]cyt regulate the circadian oscillator of Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that in Arabidopsis, [Ca2+]cyt circadian oscillations can regulate circadian clock function through the Ca2+-dependent action of CALMODULIN-LIKE24 (CML24). Genetic analyses demonstrate a linkage between CML24 and the circadian oscillator, through pathways involving the circadian oscillator gene TIMING OF CAB2 EXPRESSION1 (TOC1).
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  10. Saelim L, Akiyoshi N, Tan TT, Ihara A, Yamaguchi M, Hirano K, et al.
    J Plant Res, 2019 Jan;132(1):117-129.
    PMID: 30478480 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-018-1074-1
    The cell wall determines morphology and the environmental responses of plant cells. The primary cell wall (PCW) is produced during cell division and expansion, determining the cell shape and volume. After cell expansion, specific types of plant cells produce a lignified wall, known as a secondary cell wall (SCW). We functionally analyzed Group IIId Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP genes, namely ERF34, ERF35, ERF38, and ERF39, which are homologs of a rice ERF gene previously proposed to be related to SCW biosynthesis. Expression analysis revealed that these four genes are expressed in regions related to cell division and/or cell differentiation in seedlings (i.e., shoot apical meristems, the primordia of leaves and lateral roots, trichomes, and central cylinder of primary roots) and flowers (i.e., vascular tissues of floral organs and replums and/or valve margins of pistils). Overexpression of ERF genes significantly upregulated PCW-type, but not SCW-type, CESA genes encoding cellulose synthase catalytic subunits in Arabidopsis seedlings. Transient co-expression reporter analysis indicated that ERF35, ERF38, and ERF39 possess transcriptional activator activity, and that ERF34, ERF35, ERF38, and ERF39 upregulated the promoter activity of CESA1, a PCW-type CESA gene, through the DRECRTCOREAT elements, the core cis-acting elements known to be recognized by AP2/ERF proteins. Together, our findings show that Group IIId ERF genes are positive transcriptional regulators of PCW-type CESA genes in Arabidopsis and are possibly involved in modulating cellulose biosynthesis in response to developmental requirements and environmental stimuli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  11. Mohamed ME, Pahirulzaman KA, Lazarus CM
    Mol Biotechnol, 2016 Mar;58(3):172-8.
    PMID: 26718544 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-015-9911-0
    Pyrethrins are natural insecticides, which accumulate to high concentrations in pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) flowers. Synthetic pyrethroids are more stable, more efficacious and cheaper, but contemporary requirements for safe and environmentally friendly pesticides encourage a return to the use of natural pyrethrins, and this would be favoured by development of an efficient route to their production by microbial fermentation. The biosynthesis of pyrethrins involves ester linkage between an acid moiety (chrysanthemoyl or pyrethroyl, synthesised via the mevalonic acid pathway from glucose), and an alcohol (pyrethrolone). Pyrethrolone is generated from 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid, which originates from α-linolenic acid via the jasmonic acid biosynthetic cascade. The first four genes in this cascade, encoding lipoxygenase 2, allene-oxide synthase, allene-oxide cyclase 2 and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase 3, were amplified from an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, cloned in a purpose-built fungal multigene expression vector and expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. HPLC-MS analysis of the transgenic fungus homogenate gave good evidence for the presence of 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  12. Abu Bakar F, Yeo CC, Harikrishna JA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2016 Apr 20;17(4).
    PMID: 27104531 DOI: 10.3390/ijms17040321
    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have various cellular functions, including as part of the general stress response. The genome of the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors several putative TA systems, including yefM-yoeBSpn, which is one of four systems that had been demonstrated to be biologically functional. Overexpression of the yoeBSpn toxin gene resulted in cell stasis and eventually cell death in its native host, as well as in Escherichia coli. Our previous work showed that induced expression of a yoeBSpn toxin-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusion gene apparently triggered apoptosis and was lethal in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-expression of the yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic A. thaliana. When co-expressed in Arabidopsis, the YefMSpn antitoxin was found to neutralize the toxicity of YoeBSpn-GFP. Interestingly, the inducible expression of both yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic hybrid Arabidopsis resulted in larger rosette leaves and taller plants with a higher number of inflorescence stems and increased silique production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a prokaryotic antitoxin neutralizing its cognate toxin in plant cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  13. Yeap WC, Namasivayam P, Ooi TEK, Appleton DR, Kulaveerasingam H, Ho CL
    Plant Cell Environ, 2019 05;42(5):1657-1673.
    PMID: 30549047 DOI: 10.1111/pce.13503
    Abiotic stress reduces plant growth and crop productivity. However, the mechanism underlying posttranscriptional regulations of stress response remains elusive. Herein, we report the posttranscriptional mechanism of nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport of stress-responsive transcripts mediated by EgRBP42, a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-like RNA-binding protein from oil palm, which could be necessary for rapid protein translation to confer abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing EgRBP42 showed early flowering through alteration of gene expression of flowering regulators and exhibited tolerance towards heat, cold, drought, flood, and salinity stresses with enhanced poststress recovery response by increasing the expression of its target stress-responsive genes. EgRBP42 harbours nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity mediated by the nuclear localization signal and the M9-like domain of EgRBP42 and interacts directly with regulators in the nucleus, membrane, and the cytoplasm. EgRBP42 regulates the nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport of target stress-responsive transcripts through direct binding to their AG-rich motifs. Additionally, EgRBP42 transcript and protein induction by environmental stimuli are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Taken together, the posttranscriptional regulation of RNA transport mediated by EgRBP42 may change the stress-responsive protein profiles under abiotic stress conditions leading to a better adaptation of plants to environmental changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  14. Sukiran NL, Ma JC, Ma H, Su Z
    Plant Mol Biol, 2019 Jan;99(1-2):161-174.
    PMID: 30604322 DOI: 10.1007/s11103-018-0810-1
    KEY MESSAGE: Morphological and transcriptomic evidences provide us strong support for the function of ANAC019 in reproductive development under drought stress. Plants are sensitive to drought conditions, particularly at the reproductive stage. Several studies have reported drought effects on crop reproductive development, but the molecular mechanism underlying drought response during reproduction is still unclear. A recent study showed that drought induces in Arabidopsis inflorescence increased expression of many genes, including ANAC019. However, the function of ANAC019 in drought response during reproductive development has not been characterized. Here, we report an investigation of the ANAC019 function in the response to drought during reproduction. ANAC019 is preferentially expressed in the inflorescence compared with the leaf, suggesting possible roles in regulating both stress response and flower development. The anac019 mutant was more sensitive to drought than WT plant, and exhibited a delay in recovery of floral organ development under prolonged drought stress. Moreover, many fewer genes were differentially expressed in the anac019 inflorescence under drought than that of WT, suggesting that the mutant was impaired in drought-induced gene expression. The genes affected by ANAC019 were associated with stress and hormone responses as well as floral development. In particular, the expression levels of several key drought-induced genes, DREB2A, DREB2B, ARF2, MYB21 and MYB24, were dramatically reduced in the absence of ANAC019, suggesting that ANAC019 is an upstream regulator these genes for drought response and flower development. These results provide strong support for the potential function of ANAC019 in reproductive development under drought stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  15. Liaw Y, Liu Y, Teo C, Cápal P, Wada N, Fukui K, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 21;22(11).
    PMID: 34063996 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22115426
    Methylation systems have been conserved during the divergence of plants and animals, although they are regulated by different pathways and enzymes. However, studies on the interactions of the epigenomes among evolutionarily distant organisms are lacking. To address this, we studied the epigenetic modification and gene expression of plant chromosome fragments (~30 Mb) in a human-Arabidopsis hybrid cell line. The whole-genome bisulfite sequencing results demonstrated that recombinant Arabidopsis DNA could retain its plant CG methylation levels even without functional plant methyltransferases, indicating that plant DNA methylation states can be maintained even in a different genomic background. The differential methylation analysis showed that the Arabidopsis DNA was undermethylated in the centromeric region and repetitive elements. Several Arabidopsis genes were still expressed, whereas the expression patterns were not related to the gene function. We concluded that the plant DNA did not maintain the original plant epigenomic landscapes and was under the control of the human genome. This study showed how two diverging genomes can coexist and provided insights into epigenetic modifications and their impact on the regulation of gene expressions between plant and animal genomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  16. Yeang HY
    J Exp Bot, 2013 Jul;64(10):2643-52.
    PMID: 23645867 DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ert130
    In photoperiodic flowering, long-day (LD) plants are induced to flower seasonally when the daylight hours are long, whereas flowering in short-day (SD) plants is promoted under short photoperiods. According to the widely accepted external coincidence model, flowering occurs in LD Arabidopsis when the circadian rhythm of the gene CONSTANS (CO) peaks in the afternoon, when it is light during long days but dark when the days are short. Nevertheless, extending this explanation to SD flowering in rice, Oriza sativa, requires LD and SD plants to have 'opposite light requirements' as the CO orthologue in rice, HEADING-DATE1 (Hd1), promotes flowering only under short photoperiods. This report proposes a role of the plant's solar rhythm in promoting seasonal flowering. The interaction between rhythmic genes entrained to the solar clock and those entrained to the circadian clock form the basis of an internal coincidence model that explains both LD and SD flowering equally well. The model invokes no presumption of opposite light requirements between LD and SD plants, and further argues against any specific requirement of either light or darkness for SD flowering. Internal coincidence predicts the inhibition of SD flowering of the rice plant by a night break (a brief interruption of light), while it also provides a plausible explanation for how a judiciously timed night break promotes Arabidopsis flowering even on short days. It is the timing of the light transitions (sunrise and sunset) rather than the duration of light or darkness per se that regulates photoperiod-controlled flowering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  17. Ng SM, Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Aizat-Juhari MA, Adam JH, Mohamed R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 11 22;8(1):17258.
    PMID: 30467394 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35173-1
    Parasitic plants are known to discard photosynthesis thus leading to the deletion or loss of the plastid genes. Despite plastid genome reduction in non-photosynthetic plants, some nucleus-encoded proteins are transported back to the plastid to carry out specific functions. In this work, we study such proteins in Rafflesia cantleyi, a member of the holoparasitic genus well-known for producing the largest single flower in the world. Our analyses of three transcriptome datasets, two holoparasites (R. cantleyi and Phelipanche aegyptiaca) and one photosynthetic plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggest that holoparasites, such as R. cantleyi, retain some common plastid associated processes such as biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids, but are missing photosynthesis components that can be extensions of these pathways. The reconstruction of two selected biosynthetic pathways involving plastids correlates the trend of plastid retention to pathway complexity - transcriptome evidence for R. cantleyi suggests alternate mechanisms in regulating the plastidial heme and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathways. The evolution to holoparasitism from autotrophy trends towards devolving the plastid genes to the nuclear genome despite the functional sites remaining in the plastid, or maintaining non-photosynthetic processes in the plastid, before the eventual loss of the plastid and any site dependent functions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
  18. Abdullah-Zawawi MR, Ahmad-Nizammuddin NF, Govender N, Harun S, Mohd-Assaad N, Mohamed-Hussein ZA
    Sci Rep, 2021 10 04;11(1):19678.
    PMID: 34608238 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-99206-y
    Transcription factors (TFs) form the major class of regulatory genes and play key roles in multiple plant stress responses. In most eukaryotic plants, transcription factor (TF) families (WRKY, MADS-box and MYB) activate unique cellular-level abiotic and biotic stress-responsive strategies, which are considered as key determinants for defense and developmental processes. Arabidopsis and rice are two important representative model systems for dicot and monocot plants, respectively. A comprehensive comparative study on 101 OsWRKY, 34 OsMADS box and 122 OsMYB genes (rice genome) and, 71 AtWRKY, 66 AtMADS box and 144 AtMYB genes (Arabidopsis genome) showed various relationships among TFs across species. The phylogenetic analysis clustered WRKY, MADS-box and MYB TF family members into 10, 7 and 14 clades, respectively. All clades in WRKY and MYB TF families and almost half of the total number of clades in the MADS-box TF family are shared between both species. Chromosomal and gene structure analysis showed that the Arabidopsis-rice orthologous TF gene pairs were unevenly localized within their chromosomes whilst the distribution of exon-intron gene structure and motif conservation indicated plausible functional similarity in both species. The abiotic and biotic stress-responsive cis-regulatory element type and distribution patterns in the promoter regions of Arabidopsis and rice WRKY, MADS-box and MYB orthologous gene pairs provide better knowledge on their role as conserved regulators in both species. Co-expression network analysis showed the correlation between WRKY, MADs-box and MYB genes in each independent rice and Arabidopsis network indicating their role in stress responsiveness and developmental processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  19. Graham NS, Hammond JP, Lysenko A, Mayes S, O Lochlainn S, Blasco B, et al.
    Plant Cell, 2014 Jul;26(7):2818-30.
    PMID: 25082855 DOI: 10.1105/tpc.114.128603
    Although Ca transport in plants is highly complex, the overexpression of vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters in crops is a promising new technology to improve dietary Ca supplies through biofortification. Here, we sought to identify novel targets for increasing plant Ca accumulation using genetical and comparative genomics. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping to 1895 cis- and 8015 trans-loci were identified in shoots of an inbred mapping population of Brassica rapa (IMB211 × R500); 23 cis- and 948 trans-eQTLs responded specifically to altered Ca supply. eQTLs were screened for functional significance using a large database of shoot Ca concentration phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. From 31 Arabidopsis gene identifiers tagged to robust shoot Ca concentration phenotypes, 21 mapped to 27 B. rapa eQTLs, including orthologs of the Ca(2+) transporters At-CAX1 and At-ACA8. Two of three independent missense mutants of BraA.cax1a, isolated previously by targeting induced local lesions in genomes, have allele-specific shoot Ca concentration phenotypes compared with their segregating wild types. BraA.CAX1a is a promising target for altering the Ca composition of Brassica, consistent with prior knowledge from Arabidopsis. We conclude that multiple-environment eQTL analysis of complex crop genomes combined with comparative genomics is a powerful technique for novel gene identification/prioritization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics*
  20. Teh OK, Ramli US
    Mol Biotechnol, 2011 Jun;48(2):97-108.
    PMID: 21113689 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-010-9350-x
    As the world population grows, the demand for food increases. Although vegetable oils provide an affordable and rich source of energy, the supply of vegetable oils available for human consumption is limited by the "fuel vs food" debate. To increase the nutritional value of vegetable oil, metabolic engineering may be used to produce oil crops of desirable fatty acid composition. We have isolated and characterized β-ketoacyl ACP-synthase II (KASII) cDNA from a high-oleic acid palm, Jessenia bataua. Jessenia KASII (JbKASII) encodes a 488-amino acid polypeptide that possesses conserved domains that are necessary for condensing activities. When overexpressed in E. coli, recombinant His-tagged JbKASII was insoluble and non-functional. However, Arabidopsis plants expressing GFP-JbKASII fusions had elevated levels of arachidic acid (C20:0) and erucic acid (C22:1) at the expense of stearic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1). Furthermore, JbKASII failed to complement the Arabidopsis KASII mutant, fab1-2. This suggests that the substrate specificity of JbKASII is similar to that of ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), which preferentially elongates stearic and oleic acids, and not palmitic acid. Our results suggest that the KCS-like JbKASII may elongate C18:0 and C18:1 to yield C20:0 and C22:1, respectively. JbKASII may, therefore, be an interesting candidate gene for promoting the production of very long chain fatty acids in transgenic oil crops.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arabidopsis/genetics
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