Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 278 in total

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  1. Syed Mohd Sobri SNS, Kanapathy J, Liew CS, Cheong SC
    Oral Dis, 2020 Jul;26(5):1094-1097.
    PMID: 32145142 DOI: 10.1111/odi.13320
    The majority of oral cancer cases occur in Asia and the incidence is expected to continue to rise. Oral cancer is amenable to early detection through visual oral examination yet in many Asian countries, the disease presents at a late stage. The barriers to early detection are similar across the Asia-Pacific countries therefore, strategies to address these could be more effective if there were concerted efforts and joint resources amongst the countries. To facilitate better engagement and collaboration between stakeholders in oral cancer detection and management, the Asia-Pacific Oral Cancer Network (APOCNET) was established and the inaugural meeting was held in Kuala Lumpur on the 13th to 15th of September 2019. In this meeting, we identified the challenges faced in the early detection and management of oral cancer amongst the stakeholder countries, showcased the successful oral cancer programs in the region and identified strategic areas for collaboration. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities and the Ministry of Health Malaysia were invited to share their experiences. The lessons learned from our neighbouring countries could lead to the implementation of similar programs that could help reduce the oral cancer burden in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  2. Nikolopoulos GK, Kostaki EG, Paraskevis D
    Infect Genet Evol, 2016 Dec;46:256-268.
    PMID: 27287560 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.06.017
    HIV strains continuously evolve, tend to recombine, and new circulating variants are being discovered. Novel strains complicate efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV and may exhibit higher transmission efficiency and virulence, and elevated resistance to antiretroviral agents. The United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) set an ambitious goal to end HIV as a public health threat by 2030 through comprehensive strategies that include epidemiological input as the first step of the process. In this context, molecular epidemiology becomes invaluable as it captures trends in HIV evolution rates that shape epidemiological pictures across several geographical areas. This review briefly summarizes the molecular epidemiology of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Europe and Asia. Following high transmission rates of subtype G and CRF14_BG among PWID in Portugal and Spain, two European countries, Greece and Romania, experienced recent HIV outbreaks in PWID that consisted of multiple transmission clusters including subtypes B, A, F1, and recombinants CRF14_BG and CRF35_AD. The latter was first identified in Afghanistan. Russia, Ukraine, and other Former Soviet Union (FSU) states are still facing the devastating effects of epidemics in PWID produced by AFSU (also known as IDU-A), BFSU (known as IDU-B), and CRF03_AB. In Asia, CRF01_AE and subtype B (Western B and Thai B) travelled from PWID in Thailand to neighboring countries. Recombination hotspots in South China, Northern Myanmar, and Malaysia have been generating several intersubtype and inter-CRF recombinants (e.g. CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, CRF33_01B etc.), increasing the complexity of HIV molecular patterns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  3. J Sykepleien, 1993 Jan 19;81(1):20.
    PMID: 8466793
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  4. Park S, Park JY, Song Y, How SH, Jung KS, Respiratory Infections Assembly of the APSR
    Respirology, 2019 06;24(6):590-597.
    PMID: 30985968 DOI: 10.1111/resp.13558
    In past decades, we have seen several epidemics of respiratory infections from newly emerging viruses, most of which originated in animals. These emerging infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and avian influenza (AI) viruses, have seriously threatened global health and the economy. In particular, MERS-CoV and AI A(H7N9) are still causing infections in several areas, and some clustering of cases of A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) may imply future possible pandemics. Additionally, given the inappropriate use of antibiotics and international travel, the spread of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is also a significant concern. These infections with epidemic or pandemic potential present a persistent threat to public health and a huge burden on healthcare services in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, to enable efficient infection prevention and control, more effective international surveillance and collaboration systems, in the context of the 'One Health' approach, are necessary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  5. Liyanage T, Ninomiya T, Perkovic V, Woodward M, Stirnadel-Farrant H, Matsushita K, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2017 Jun;22(6):456-462.
    PMID: 27187157 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12821
    AIM: The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world. However, there is limited information on the overall regional prevalence of CKD, as well as the prognostic implications and treatment patterns in Asian region. We have established the Asian Renal Collaboration (ARC) with the goal of consolidating region-wide data regarding CKD.

    METHODS: This collaborative project will synthesize data and perform meta-analyses of observational studies conducted in Asia. Studies will be identified through a systematic literature search including abstracts, proceedings of meetings, electronic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. Personal enquiry among collaborators and experts in the region will identify additional studies, or other data sources such as registries. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that describe the prevalence of CKD and its complications will be included, as will longitudinal studies that describe important clinical outcomes for people with CKD. Individual participant data will be sought, where possible, from each of the studies included in the collaboration for baseline parameters and subsequent outcomes, in order to maximize flexibility and consistency of data analyses.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study is an initiative offering a unique opportunity to obtain information about the prevalence and manifestations of CKD in Asia, as well as its risk factors. The ARC will also provide insights into important outcomes including progression of CKD, CKD complications, cardiovascular disease and death. These findings will improve our understanding of kidney disease in Asia, and thus help inform service provision, preventive care and further research across the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  6. Khan YH, Mallhi TH, Sarriff A, Khan AH, Tanveer N
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2018 Dec;28(12):960-966.
    PMID: 30501836 DOI: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.12.960
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an asymptomatic disease associated with high morbidity and life-threatening complications that lead to decreased life expectancy. Worldwide prevalence of CKD is escalating at an alarming rate. Large population-based representative surveys have been reported in Western countries to estimate the prevalence of the disease. However, there is paucity of data as far as developing nations are concerned. Asia is the world's largest continent accommodating maximum number of under-developed and developing countries with an unclear picture of prevalence of CKD. Current review attempts to give an insight to the prevalence of CKD in this region by combining population-based surveys. This review will assist in estimating the burden of CKD in Asia, so that appropriate control measures could be designed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  7. Ngan R, Wang E, Porter D, Desai J, Prayogo N, Devi B, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6821-32.
    PMID: 24377612
    BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas require tailored and multidisciplinary treatment and management. However, little is known about how sarcomas are treated and managed throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE was systematically searched using prespecified criteria. Publications (previous 10 years) that reported tumour characteristics, treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and/or safety outcomes of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma were selected. Exclusion criteria were studies of patients <18 years of age; ≤ 10 patients; countries other than Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, or Thailand; >20% benign tumours; sarcomas located in bones or joints; gastrointestinal stromal tumour; Kaposi's sarcoma; or not reporting relevant outcomes.

    RESULTS: Of the 1,822 publications retrieved, 35 (32 studies) were included. Nearly all patients (98%, 1,992/2,024; 31 studies) were treated with surgery, and more studies used adjuvant radiotherapy than chemotherapy (24 vs 17 studies). Survival outcomes and recurrence rates varied among the studies because of the different histotypes, sites, and disease stages assessed. Only 5 studies reported safety findings.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the lack of specific data available about soft-tissue sarcomas in the Asia-Pacific region. Better efforts to understand how the sarcoma is managed and treated will help improve patient outcomes in the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  8. Dokubo EK, Kim AA, Le LV, Nadol PJ, Prybylski D, Wolfe MI
    AIDS Rev, 2013 Apr-Jun;15(2):67-76.
    PMID: 23681434
    Rates of new HIV infections in Asia are poorly characterized, likely resulting in knowledge gaps about infection trends and the most important areas to target for interventions. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed English language publications and conference abstracts on HIV incidence in thirteen countries - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We obtained data on HIV incidence rate, incidence estimation method, population, and risk factors for incident infection. Our search yielded 338 unique incidence estimates from 70 published articles and 41 conference abstracts for eight countries. A total of 138 (41%) were obtained from prospective cohort studies and 106 (31%) were from antibody-based tests for recent infection. High HIV incidence rates were observed among commercial sex workers (0.4-27.8 per 100 person-years), people who inject drugs (0.0-43.6 per 100 person-years) and men who have sex with men (0.7-15.0 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for incident HIV infection include brothel-based sex work and cervicitis among commercial sex workers; young age, frequent injection use and sharing needles or syringes among people who inject drugs; multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men. In the countries with available data, incidence rates were highest in key populations and varied widely by incidence estimation method. Established surveillance systems that routinely monitor trends in HIV incidence are needed to inform prevention planning, prioritize resources, measure impact, and improve the HIV response in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  9. Goh KL, Chang CS, Fock KM, Ke M, Park HJ, Lam SK
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2000 Mar;15(3):230-8.
    PMID: 10764021
    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) occurs more frequently in Europe and North America than in Asia but its prevalence is now increasing in many Asian countries. Many reasons have been given for the lower prevalence of GORD in Asia. Low dietary fat and genetically determined factors, such as body mass index and maximal acid output, may be important. Other dietary factors appear to be less relevant. Increased intake of carbonated drinks or aggravating medicines may influence the increasing rates of GORD in some Asian countries but no strong evidence links other factors, such as the age of the population, smoking or alcohol consumption, to GORD. The management of GORD in Asia is similar to that in Europe and North America but the lower incidence of severe oesophagitis in Asia may alter the approach slightly. Also, because Asians tend to develop stomach cancer at an earlier age, endoscopy is used routinely at an earlier stage of investigation. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is essentially a motility disorder, so short-term management of the disease can usually be achieved using prokinetic agents (or histamine (H2)-receptor antagonists). More severe and recurrent GORD may require proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or a combination of prokinetic agents and PPI. The choice of long-term treatment may be influenced by the relative costs of prokinetic agents and PPI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  10. Yasmin AM
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):311-2.
    PMID: 10968105
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  11. Kaldor JM, Sittitrai W, John TJ, Kitamura T
    AIDS, 1994;8 Suppl 2:S1-2.
    PMID: 7857551
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  12. Arumugam K, Welluppilai S
    Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol, 1993 Sep;19(3):231-4.
    PMID: 8250754
    The social class distribution in 147 patients confirmed to have endometriosis at laparoscopy was done to see if the disease was associated with affluence. Two hundred and eighty-one patients confirmed not to have endometriosis was used as controls. The patients were derived from a background population for which the social class characteristics was known. Endometriosis was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with social class 1 and 2. However there was no association between social class distribution and the severity of the disease developed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  13. Bull World Health Organ, 1992;70(6):801-4, 809-13.
    PMID: 1283116
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  14. Binns C, Low WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 11;31(8):677-678.
    PMID: 31762300 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519889539
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  15. Lim SY, Tan AH, Ahmad-Annuar A, Klein C, Tan LCS, Rosales RL, et al.
    Lancet Neurol, 2019 09;18(9):865-879.
    PMID: 31175000 DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30195-4
    1·8 billion people of diverse ethnicities and cultures live in the Western Pacific Region. The increasing longevity of populations in this region is a major contributor to the exponential increase in Parkinson's disease prevalence worldwide. Differences exist between Parkinson's disease in the Western Pacific Region and in Europe and North America that might provide important insights into our understanding of the disease and approaches to management. For example, some genetic factors (such as LRRK2 mutations or variants) differ, environmental exposures might play differential roles in modulating the risk of Parkinson's disease, and fewer dyskinesias are reported, with some differences in the profile of non-motor symptoms and comorbidities. Gaps in awareness of the disease and inequitable access to treatments pose challenges. Further improvements in infrastructure, clinical governance, and services, and concerted collaborative efforts in training and research, including greater representation of the Western Pacific Region in clinical trials, will improve care of patients with Parkinson's disease in this region and beyond.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  16. He Z, Chin Y, Yu S, Huang J, Zhang CJP, Zhu K, et al.
    JMIR Public Health Surveill, 2021 01 25;7(1):e20495.
    PMID: 33232262 DOI: 10.2196/20495
    BACKGROUND: The influence of meteorological factors on the transmission and spread of COVID-19 is of interest and has not been investigated.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the associations between meteorological factors and the daily number of new cases of COVID-19 in 9 Asian cities.

    METHODS: Pearson correlation and generalized additive modeling (GAM) were performed to assess the relationships between daily new COVID-19 cases and meteorological factors (daily average temperature and relative humidity) with the most updated data currently available.

    RESULTS: The Pearson correlation showed that daily new confirmed cases of COVID-19 were more correlated with the average temperature than with relative humidity. Daily new confirmed cases were negatively correlated with the average temperature in Beijing (r=-0.565, P

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  17. Fock KM, Talley N, Goh KL, Sugano K, Katelaris P, Holtmann G, et al.
    Gut, 2016 Sep;65(9):1402-15.
    PMID: 27261337 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-311715
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the Asia-Pacific consensus on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 2008, there has been further scientific advancement in this field. This updated consensus focuses on proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus.

    METHODS: A steering committee identified three areas to address: (1) burden of disease and diagnosis of reflux disease; (2) proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease; (3) Barrett's oesophagus. Three working groups formulated draft statements with supporting evidence. Discussions were done via email before a final face-to-face discussion. We used a Delphi consensus process, with a 70% agreement threshold, using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to categorise the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.

    RESULTS: A total of 32 statements were proposed and 31 were accepted by consensus. A rise in the prevalence rates of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Asia was noted, with the majority being non-erosive reflux disease. Overweight and obesity contributed to the rise. Proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease was recognised to be common. A distinction was made between refractory symptoms and refractory reflux disease, with clarification of the roles of endoscopy and functional testing summarised in two algorithms. The definition of Barrett's oesophagus was revised such that a minimum length of 1 cm was required and the presence of intestinal metaplasia no longer necessary. We recommended the use of standardised endoscopic reporting and advocated endoscopic therapy for confirmed dysplasia and early cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines standardise the management of patients with refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  18. Morand S, Jittapalapong S, Suputtamongkol Y, Abdullah MT, Huan TB
    PLoS One, 2014;9(2):e90032.
    PMID: 24587201 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090032
    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  19. Bravo LC, Asian Strategic Alliance for Pneumococcal Disease Prevention (ASAP) Working Group
    Vaccine, 2009 Dec 9;27(52):7282-91.
    PMID: 19393708 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.046
    This paper represents a collaborative effort by the Asian Strategic Alliance for Pneumococcal Disease Prevention (ASAP) Working Group to collate data on the disease burden due to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in participating Asian countries and territories; namely, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand. A review of both published and unpublished data revealed that the incidence of IPD in some countries is well documented by way of large, long-duration studies, while in other countries, much of the available data have been extrapolated from international studies or have come from small population studies of limited geographical coverage. This paper confirms that data regarding the incidence of IPD in Asia are grossly lacking and reinforces the need for urgent and more substantial studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  20. Yip CH
    Methods Mol Biol, 2009;471:51-64.
    PMID: 19109774 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-416-2_3
    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in most countries in Asia. The incidence rates remain low, although increasing at a more rapid rate than in western countries, due to changes in the lifestyle and diet. There are many differences between breast cancer in Asia compared with western countries. The mean age at onset is younger than in the west, and unlike the west, the age-specific incidence decreases after the age of 50 years. Because there is no population-based breast cancer screening program in the majority of Asian countries, the majority of patients present with advanced disease. There is a higher proportion of hormone receptor-negative patients, and some evidence that the cancers in Asia are of a higher grade. Most of the Asian countries are low- and middle-income countries, where access to effective care is limited. Because of the late detection and inadequate access to care, survival of women with breast cancer in Asia is lower than in western countries. Improving breast health in most of the Asian countries remains a challenge that may be overcome with collaboration from multiple sectors, both public and private.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
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