Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 224 in total

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  1. Nikolopoulos GK, Kostaki EG, Paraskevis D
    Infect. Genet. Evol., 2016 Dec;46:256-268.
    PMID: 27287560 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.06.017
    HIV strains continuously evolve, tend to recombine, and new circulating variants are being discovered. Novel strains complicate efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV and may exhibit higher transmission efficiency and virulence, and elevated resistance to antiretroviral agents. The United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) set an ambitious goal to end HIV as a public health threat by 2030 through comprehensive strategies that include epidemiological input as the first step of the process. In this context, molecular epidemiology becomes invaluable as it captures trends in HIV evolution rates that shape epidemiological pictures across several geographical areas. This review briefly summarizes the molecular epidemiology of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Europe and Asia. Following high transmission rates of subtype G and CRF14_BG among PWID in Portugal and Spain, two European countries, Greece and Romania, experienced recent HIV outbreaks in PWID that consisted of multiple transmission clusters including subtypes B, A, F1, and recombinants CRF14_BG and CRF35_AD. The latter was first identified in Afghanistan. Russia, Ukraine, and other Former Soviet Union (FSU) states are still facing the devastating effects of epidemics in PWID produced by AFSU (also known as IDU-A), BFSU (known as IDU-B), and CRF03_AB. In Asia, CRF01_AE and subtype B (Western B and Thai B) travelled from PWID in Thailand to neighboring countries. Recombination hotspots in South China, Northern Myanmar, and Malaysia have been generating several intersubtype and inter-CRF recombinants (e.g. CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, CRF33_01B etc.), increasing the complexity of HIV molecular patterns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  2. J Sykepleien, 1993 Jan 19;81(1):20.
    PMID: 8466793
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  3. Liyanage T, Ninomiya T, Perkovic V, Woodward M, Stirnadel-Farrant H, Matsushita K, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2017 Jun;22(6):456-462.
    PMID: 27187157 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12821
    AIM: The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world. However, there is limited information on the overall regional prevalence of CKD, as well as the prognostic implications and treatment patterns in Asian region. We have established the Asian Renal Collaboration (ARC) with the goal of consolidating region-wide data regarding CKD.

    METHODS: This collaborative project will synthesize data and perform meta-analyses of observational studies conducted in Asia. Studies will be identified through a systematic literature search including abstracts, proceedings of meetings, electronic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. Personal enquiry among collaborators and experts in the region will identify additional studies, or other data sources such as registries. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that describe the prevalence of CKD and its complications will be included, as will longitudinal studies that describe important clinical outcomes for people with CKD. Individual participant data will be sought, where possible, from each of the studies included in the collaboration for baseline parameters and subsequent outcomes, in order to maximize flexibility and consistency of data analyses.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study is an initiative offering a unique opportunity to obtain information about the prevalence and manifestations of CKD in Asia, as well as its risk factors. The ARC will also provide insights into important outcomes including progression of CKD, CKD complications, cardiovascular disease and death. These findings will improve our understanding of kidney disease in Asia, and thus help inform service provision, preventive care and further research across the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  4. Khan YH, Mallhi TH, Sarriff A, Khan AH, Tanveer N
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2018 Dec;28(12):960-966.
    PMID: 30501836 DOI: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.12.960
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an asymptomatic disease associated with high morbidity and life-threatening complications that lead to decreased life expectancy. Worldwide prevalence of CKD is escalating at an alarming rate. Large population-based representative surveys have been reported in Western countries to estimate the prevalence of the disease. However, there is paucity of data as far as developing nations are concerned. Asia is the world's largest continent accommodating maximum number of under-developed and developing countries with an unclear picture of prevalence of CKD. Current review attempts to give an insight to the prevalence of CKD in this region by combining population-based surveys. This review will assist in estimating the burden of CKD in Asia, so that appropriate control measures could be designed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  5. Ngan R, Wang E, Porter D, Desai J, Prayogo N, Devi B, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6821-32.
    PMID: 24377612
    BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas require tailored and multidisciplinary treatment and management. However, little is known about how sarcomas are treated and managed throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE was systematically searched using prespecified criteria. Publications (previous 10 years) that reported tumour characteristics, treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and/or safety outcomes of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma were selected. Exclusion criteria were studies of patients <18 years of age; ≤ 10 patients; countries other than Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, or Thailand; >20% benign tumours; sarcomas located in bones or joints; gastrointestinal stromal tumour; Kaposi's sarcoma; or not reporting relevant outcomes.

    RESULTS: Of the 1,822 publications retrieved, 35 (32 studies) were included. Nearly all patients (98%, 1,992/2,024; 31 studies) were treated with surgery, and more studies used adjuvant radiotherapy than chemotherapy (24 vs 17 studies). Survival outcomes and recurrence rates varied among the studies because of the different histotypes, sites, and disease stages assessed. Only 5 studies reported safety findings.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the lack of specific data available about soft-tissue sarcomas in the Asia-Pacific region. Better efforts to understand how the sarcoma is managed and treated will help improve patient outcomes in the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  6. Dokubo EK, Kim AA, Le LV, Nadol PJ, Prybylski D, Wolfe MI
    AIDS Rev, 2013 Apr-Jun;15(2):67-76.
    PMID: 23681434
    Rates of new HIV infections in Asia are poorly characterized, likely resulting in knowledge gaps about infection trends and the most important areas to target for interventions. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed English language publications and conference abstracts on HIV incidence in thirteen countries - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We obtained data on HIV incidence rate, incidence estimation method, population, and risk factors for incident infection. Our search yielded 338 unique incidence estimates from 70 published articles and 41 conference abstracts for eight countries. A total of 138 (41%) were obtained from prospective cohort studies and 106 (31%) were from antibody-based tests for recent infection. High HIV incidence rates were observed among commercial sex workers (0.4-27.8 per 100 person-years), people who inject drugs (0.0-43.6 per 100 person-years) and men who have sex with men (0.7-15.0 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for incident HIV infection include brothel-based sex work and cervicitis among commercial sex workers; young age, frequent injection use and sharing needles or syringes among people who inject drugs; multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men. In the countries with available data, incidence rates were highest in key populations and varied widely by incidence estimation method. Established surveillance systems that routinely monitor trends in HIV incidence are needed to inform prevention planning, prioritize resources, measure impact, and improve the HIV response in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  7. Yasmin AM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):311-2.
    PMID: 10968105
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  8. Goh KL, Chang CS, Fock KM, Ke M, Park HJ, Lam SK
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2000 Mar;15(3):230-8.
    PMID: 10764021
    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) occurs more frequently in Europe and North America than in Asia but its prevalence is now increasing in many Asian countries. Many reasons have been given for the lower prevalence of GORD in Asia. Low dietary fat and genetically determined factors, such as body mass index and maximal acid output, may be important. Other dietary factors appear to be less relevant. Increased intake of carbonated drinks or aggravating medicines may influence the increasing rates of GORD in some Asian countries but no strong evidence links other factors, such as the age of the population, smoking or alcohol consumption, to GORD. The management of GORD in Asia is similar to that in Europe and North America but the lower incidence of severe oesophagitis in Asia may alter the approach slightly. Also, because Asians tend to develop stomach cancer at an earlier age, endoscopy is used routinely at an earlier stage of investigation. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is essentially a motility disorder, so short-term management of the disease can usually be achieved using prokinetic agents (or histamine (H2)-receptor antagonists). More severe and recurrent GORD may require proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or a combination of prokinetic agents and PPI. The choice of long-term treatment may be influenced by the relative costs of prokinetic agents and PPI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  9. Arumugam K, Welluppilai S
    Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol, 1993 Sep;19(3):231-4.
    PMID: 8250754
    The social class distribution in 147 patients confirmed to have endometriosis at laparoscopy was done to see if the disease was associated with affluence. Two hundred and eighty-one patients confirmed not to have endometriosis was used as controls. The patients were derived from a background population for which the social class characteristics was known. Endometriosis was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with social class 1 and 2. However there was no association between social class distribution and the severity of the disease developed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  10. Bull. World Health Organ., 1992;70(6):801-4, 809-13.
    PMID: 1283116
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  11. Kaldor JM, Sittitrai W, John TJ, Kitamura T
    AIDS, 1994;8 Suppl 2:S1-2.
    PMID: 7857551
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  12. Peterson AT
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP824-32.
    PMID: 23343646 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512471965
    Nipah virus is a highly pathogenic but poorly known paramyxovirus from South and Southeast Asia. In spite of the risks that it poses to human health, the geography and ecology of its occurrence remain little understood-the virus is basically known from Bangladesh and peninsular Malaysia, and little in between. In this contribution, I use documented occurrences of the virus to develop ecological niche-based maps summarizing its likely broader occurrence-although rangewide maps could not be developed that had significant predictive abilities, reflecting minimal sample sizes available, maps within Bangladesh were quite successful in identifying areas in which the virus is predictably present and likely transmitted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  13. Morand S, Jittapalapong S, Suputtamongkol Y, Abdullah MT, Huan TB
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(2):e90032.
    PMID: 24587201 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090032
    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  14. Bravo LC, Asian Strategic Alliance for Pneumococcal Disease Prevention (ASAP) Working Group
    Vaccine, 2009 Dec 9;27(52):7282-91.
    PMID: 19393708 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.046
    This paper represents a collaborative effort by the Asian Strategic Alliance for Pneumococcal Disease Prevention (ASAP) Working Group to collate data on the disease burden due to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in participating Asian countries and territories; namely, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand. A review of both published and unpublished data revealed that the incidence of IPD in some countries is well documented by way of large, long-duration studies, while in other countries, much of the available data have been extrapolated from international studies or have come from small population studies of limited geographical coverage. This paper confirms that data regarding the incidence of IPD in Asia are grossly lacking and reinforces the need for urgent and more substantial studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  15. Yip CH
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2009;471:51-64.
    PMID: 19109774 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-416-2_3
    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in most countries in Asia. The incidence rates remain low, although increasing at a more rapid rate than in western countries, due to changes in the lifestyle and diet. There are many differences between breast cancer in Asia compared with western countries. The mean age at onset is younger than in the west, and unlike the west, the age-specific incidence decreases after the age of 50 years. Because there is no population-based breast cancer screening program in the majority of Asian countries, the majority of patients present with advanced disease. There is a higher proportion of hormone receptor-negative patients, and some evidence that the cancers in Asia are of a higher grade. Most of the Asian countries are low- and middle-income countries, where access to effective care is limited. Because of the late detection and inadequate access to care, survival of women with breast cancer in Asia is lower than in western countries. Improving breast health in most of the Asian countries remains a challenge that may be overcome with collaboration from multiple sectors, both public and private.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  16. Fock KM, Talley N, Goh KL, Sugano K, Katelaris P, Holtmann G, et al.
    Gut, 2016 Sep;65(9):1402-15.
    PMID: 27261337 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-311715
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the Asia-Pacific consensus on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 2008, there has been further scientific advancement in this field. This updated consensus focuses on proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus.

    METHODS: A steering committee identified three areas to address: (1) burden of disease and diagnosis of reflux disease; (2) proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease; (3) Barrett's oesophagus. Three working groups formulated draft statements with supporting evidence. Discussions were done via email before a final face-to-face discussion. We used a Delphi consensus process, with a 70% agreement threshold, using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to categorise the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.

    RESULTS: A total of 32 statements were proposed and 31 were accepted by consensus. A rise in the prevalence rates of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Asia was noted, with the majority being non-erosive reflux disease. Overweight and obesity contributed to the rise. Proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease was recognised to be common. A distinction was made between refractory symptoms and refractory reflux disease, with clarification of the roles of endoscopy and functional testing summarised in two algorithms. The definition of Barrett's oesophagus was revised such that a minimum length of 1 cm was required and the presence of intestinal metaplasia no longer necessary. We recommended the use of standardised endoscopic reporting and advocated endoscopic therapy for confirmed dysplasia and early cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines standardise the management of patients with refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  17. Abad-Casintahan F, Chow SK, Goh CL, Kubba R, Hayashi N, Noppakun N, et al.
    J. Dermatol., 2016 Jul;43(7):826-8.
    PMID: 26813513 DOI: 10.1111/1346-8138.13263
    In patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick phototypes III-VI), acne is often accompanied by post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). Further, acne-related pigmentation can pose a greater concern for the patient than the acne lesions. There has been little formal study of this acne-related PIH. Recently, the Asian Acne Board - an international group of dermatologists with interest in acne research - made a preliminary evaluation of the frequency and characteristics of PIH in seven Asian countries. A total of 324 sequential acne subjects were evaluated for the presence of PIH. The majority (80.2%) of subjects had mild to moderate acne and there were more females than males (63.0% vs 37.0%). In this population of patients consulting a dermatologist for acne, 58.2% (188/324) had PIH. The results also showed that pigmentation problems are often long lasting: at least 1 year for more than half of subjects and 5 years or longer in 22.3%. In accordance with our clinical experience, patients reported that PIH is quite bothersome, often as bothersome or more so than the acne itself and sometimes more problematic. Excoriation was commonly reported by patients, and may represent a modifiable risk factor that could potentially be improved by patient education.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  18. Azeem S, Gillani SW, Siddiqui A, Jandrajupalli SB, Poh V, Syed Sulaiman SA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(13):5389-96.
    PMID: 26225683
    Diet is one of the major factors that can exert a majorly influence on colorectal cancer risk. This systematic review aimed to find correlations between various diet types, food or nutrients and colorectal cancer risk among Asian populations. Search limitations included Asian populations residing in Asia, being published from the year 2008 till present, and written in the English language. A total of 16 articles were included in this systematic review. We found that red meats, processed meats, preserved foods, saturated/animal fats, cholesterol, high sugar foods, spicy foods, tubers or refined carbohydrates have been found by most studies to have a positive association with colorectal cancer risk. Inversely, calcium/dairy foods, vitamin D, general vegetable/fruit/fiber consumption, cruciferous vegetables, soy bean/soy products, selenium, vitamins C,E and B12, lycophene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, folic acid and many other vitamins and minerals play a protective role against colorectal cancer risk. Associations of fish and seafood consumption with colorectal cancer risk are still inconclusive due to many varying findings, and require further more detailed studies to pinpoint the actual correlation. There is either a positive or no association for total meat consumption or white meats, however their influence is not as strong as with red and processed meats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  19. Kwan P, Cabral-Lim L, D'Souza W, Jain S, Lee BI, Liao W, et al.
    Epilepsia, 2015 May;56(5):667-73.
    PMID: 25823580 DOI: 10.1111/epi.12957
    The Asia-Oceanian region is the most populous region in the world. Although there has been substantial economic development and improvement in health services in recent years, epilepsy remains generally an underrecognized and understudied condition. To help promote research in the region, the Commission on Asian and Oceanian Affairs (CAOA) of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) appointed the Research Task Force (RTF) to facilitate the development of research priorities for the region. Research that focuses on issues that are unique or of particular importance in the Asia-Oceanian region is encouraged, and that captures the impact of the dynamic socioeconomic changes taking place in the region is emphasized. Based on these considerations, we propose research "dimensions" as priorities within the Asia-Oceanian region. These are studies (1) that would lead to fuller appreciation of the health burden of epilepsy, particularly the treatment gap; (2) that would lead to better understanding of the causes of epilepsy; (3) that would alleviate the psychosocial consequences of epilepsy; (4) that would develop better therapies and improved therapeutic outcomes; and (5) that would improve the research infrastructure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
  20. Goh KL
    J Dig Dis, 2007 Nov;8(4):179-85.
    PMID: 17970873
    The new millennium has seen distinct changes in the pattern of gastrointestinal disease in the Asia-Pacific region. These changes are important as more than half of the world's population come from the region and therefore impact significantly on the global disease burden. The highest incidence of gastric cancer (GCA) has been reported from Asia and GCA remains a very important cancer. However time-trend studies have shown a decrease in GCA incidence in several countries in Asia. A rise in cardio-esophageal cancers as seen in the West has not been reported. On the other hand, colorectal cancer has been steadily increasing in Asia with age-standardized incidence rates of some countries approaching that of the West. The pattern of acid-related diseases has also changed. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a fast emerging disease with an increasing prevalence of reflux esophagitis and reflux symptoms. The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease has at the same time declined in step with a decrease in H. pylori infection. Many of the changes taking place mirror the Western experience of several decades ago. Astute observation of the epidemiology of emerging diseases combined with good scientific work will allow a clearer understanding of the key processes underlying these changes. With rapid modernization, lifestyle changes have been blamed for an increase in several diseases including gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and colorectal cancer. A worrying trend has been the increase in obesity among Asians, which has been associated with an increase in metabolic diseases and various gastrointestinal cancers. Conversely, an improvement in living conditions has been closely linked to the decrease in GCA and H. pylori prevalence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology
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