METHODS: Data from death records, 1998-2002, and from 2001 Census data were extracted for seven migrant groups [New Zealand; United Kingdom (UK)/Ireland; Germany; Greece; Italy; China/Singapore/Malaysia/Vietnam (East Asia); and India/Sri Lanka (South Asia)] aged 45-64 years. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the duration of residence effect (categorized in 5-year bands and also as having arrived 2-16, 17-31 and 32 years ago or more), adjusted for sex, 5-year age group and year of death, then additionally for occupational class and marital status (SES) on relative risks (RR) of CVD mortality.
RESULTS: Compared with the Australia-born population, CVD mortality was generally lower in each migrant group. Decreasing mortality with increasing duration of residence was observed for migrants from New Zealand (RR 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92-0.98, P<0.01, per 5-year increase), Greece (0.90, 0.86-0.94, P<0.01), Italy (0.94, 0.91-0.97, P<0.01) and South Asia (0.95, 0.91-0.99, P<0.01), mainly in older age groups. Trends remained after SES adjustment and also when broader categories of duration of residence were used. CVD mortality among migrants from the UK/Ireland appeared to converge towards those of the Australian-born.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show divergence in CVD mortality compared with the Australian rate for New Zealanders, Greeks, Italians and South Asians. Sustained cardio-protective behavioural practices in the Australian setting is a potential explanation.
METHOD: In 1995, using a language rating scale constructed by the authors, six standardized patients evaluated the English-language proficiencies of 127 second-year medical student undergraduates enrolled at the University of Adelaide, Australia, many of whom were from a non-English speaking background.
RESULTS: An earlier standardized test (Screening Test for Adolescent Language) had identified approximately one third of the students as potentially experiencing difficulties in using English in their training. Students so identified were rated lower than were their peers by the standardized patients.
CONCLUSION: The study proved useful both in identifying aspects of speech that can be reasonably rated by standardized patients and also in identifying students who might benefit from language interventions. Replication studies with the new instrument are required to further establish its reliability, validity, and generalizability across different student cohorts.
METHODS: Blood lead level, anemia, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, tuberculosis infection or disease, and Strongyloides seropositivity data were available for 8148 refugee children (aged < 19 years) from Bhutan, Burma, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Iraq, and Somalia.
RESULTS: We identified distinct health profiles for each country of origin, as well as for Burmese children who arrived in the United States from Thailand compared with Burmese children who arrived from Malaysia. Hepatitis B was more prevalent among male children than female children and among children aged 5 years and older. The odds of HBV, tuberculosis, and Strongyloides decreased over the study period.
CONCLUSIONS: Medical screening remains an important part of health care for newly arrived refugee children in the United States, and disease risk varies by population.
HYPOTHESIS: This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in the utilization of invasive cardiac procedures and long-term mortality in survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) among Chinese, Malays, and South Asians in Singapore.
METHODS: All MI events in the country were identified and defined by the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Register, which uses modified procedures of the World Health Organization MONICA Project. Information on utilization of coronary angiography, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, and survival was obtained by data linkage with national billing and death registries. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model with adjustment for baseline characteristics.
RESULTS: From 1991 to 1999, there were 10,294 patients who survived > or = 3 days of MI. Of these, 40.6% underwent coronary angiography and 16.5% a revascularization procedure < or = 28 days. Malays received substantially less angiography (34.0%) and revascularization (11.4%) than Chinese (41.9%, 17.9%) and South Asians (40.0%, 16.3%). The ethnic disparity increased during the 1990s, particularly in the performance of coronary angiography (p = 0.038). While fatality declined during the study period for Chinese and South Asians, the rate remained stable for Malays. After a median follow-up period of 4.1 years, survival was lowest among Malays (adjusted HR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.42, compared with Chinese).
CONCLUSION: Ethnic inequalities in invasive cardiac procedures exist in Singapore and were exacerbated in the 1990s. Inequalities in medical care may contribute to the poorer longterm survival among Malays.