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  1. Liu A, Byrne NM, Kagawa M, Ma G, Kijboonchoo K, Nasreddine L, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2011;11:500.
    PMID: 21703012 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-500
    Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  2. Heng LL, Caguioa P, Chin NS, Chiou TJ, Lee JW, Miyakawa Y, et al.
    Int. J. Hematol., 2011 Aug;94(2):142-149.
    PMID: 21766185 DOI: 10.1007/s12185-011-0894-8
    Patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) from the Asia-Pacific region often exhibit characteristics distinct from those of patients from the West. Moreover, as the region itself is heterogeneous, the ITP landscape among individual Asia-Pacific countries can be diverse. The recently released international consensus report on ITP places new emphasis on ITP, but does not address the unique ITP landscape in the Asia-Pacific region, which is home to 60% of the world's population. In an attempt to characterize how the ITP landscape differs between the West and the Asia-Pacific region, an expert panel with representatives from Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia was convened. Important differences were identified between the guidance provided in the international consensus report and experience in the Asia-Pacific region, namely diagnostic practices, incidence and approach to ITP secondary to H. pylori infection, systemic lupus erythematosus-related ITP, the use of bone marrow examination, initial treatment strategies, and the role of splenectomy, rituximab, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  3. Chen CH, Chen MC, Gibbs H, Kwon SU, Lo S, On YK, et al.
    Int. J. Cardiol., 2015 Jul 15;191:244-53.
    PMID: 25978611 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.03.369
    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia. Untreated AF incurs a considerable burden of stroke and associated healthcare costs. Asians have AF risk factors similar to Caucasians and a similarly increased risk of AF-related stroke; however, with a vast and rapidly ageing population, Asia bears a disproportionately large disease burden. Urgent action is warranted to avert this potential health crisis. Antithrombotic therapy with oral anticoagulants is the most effective means of preventing stroke in AF and is a particular priority in Asia given the increasing disease burden. However, AF in Asia remains undertreated. Conventional oral anticoagulation with warfarin is problematic in Asia due to suboptimal control and a propensity among Asians to warfarin-induced intracranial haemorrhage. Partly due to concerns about intracranial haemorrhage, there are considerable gaps between AF treatment guidelines and clinical practice in Asia, in particular overuse of antiplatelet agents and underuse of anticoagulants. Compared with warfarin, new direct thrombin inhibitors and Factor Xa inhibitors are non-inferior in preventing stroke and significantly reduce the risk of life-threatening bleeding, particularly intracranial bleeding. These agents may therefore provide an appropriate alternative to warfarin in Asian patients. There is considerable scope to improve stroke prevention in AF in Asia. Key priorities include: early detection of AF and identification of asymptomatic patients; assessment of stroke and bleeding risk for all AF patients; evidence-based pharmacotherapy with direct-acting oral anticoagulant agents or vitamin K antagonists for AF patients at risk of stroke; controlling hypertension; and awareness-raising, education and outreach among both physicians and patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  4. Grulich AE, McCredie M, Coates M
    Br. J. Cancer, 1995 Feb;71(2):400-8.
    PMID: 7841061
    Cancer incidence during 1972-90 in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, is described. Overall cancer incidence was lower than in the Australia born in most migrant groups, and this reached significance in migrants born in China/Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam and India/Sri Lanka, and in male migrants born in Indonesia. For the majority of cancers, rates were more similar to those in the Australia born than to those in the countries of birth. For cancers of the breast, colorectum and prostate, rates were relatively low in the countries of birth, but migrants generally exhibited rates nearer those of the Australia born. For cancers of the liver and cervix and, in India/Sri Lanka-born migrants, of the oral cavity, incidence was relatively high in the countries of birth but tended to be lower, nearer Australia-born rates, in the migrants. For these cancers, environmental factors related to the migrant's adopted country, and migrant selection, appeared to have a major effect on the risk of cancer. For certain other cancers, incidence was more similar to that in the countries of birth. Nasopharyngeal cancer, and lung cancer in females, had high rates in both the countries of birth and in migrants to Australia. Nasopharyngeal cancer rates were highest in China/Taiwan and Hong Kong-born migrants, and were also significantly high in migrants from Malaysia/Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines. Rates of lung cancer were significantly high in women born in China/Taiwan, and the excess was greater for adenocarcinoma than for squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma had low rates in both the migrants and in the countries of birth. For these cancers, it was probable that genetic factors, or environmental factors acting prior to migration, were important in causation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  5. Too CL, Padyukov L, Dhaliwal JS, Lundström E, Yahya A, Muhamad NA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(6):e21069.
    PMID: 21698259 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021069
    BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia.
    METHODS: 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping.
    RESULTS: The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups.
    CONCLUSION: The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  6. Gray L, Harding S, Reid A
    Eur J Public Health, 2007 Dec;17(6):550-4.
    PMID: 17353202
    BACKGROUND: Very little is known about how acculturation affects health in different societal settings. Using duration of residence, this study investigates acculturation and circulatory disease mortality among migrants in Australia.

    METHODS: Data from death records, 1998-2002, and from 2001 Census data were extracted for seven migrant groups [New Zealand; United Kingdom (UK)/Ireland; Germany; Greece; Italy; China/Singapore/Malaysia/Vietnam (East Asia); and India/Sri Lanka (South Asia)] aged 45-64 years. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the duration of residence effect (categorized in 5-year bands and also as having arrived 2-16, 17-31 and 32 years ago or more), adjusted for sex, 5-year age group and year of death, then additionally for occupational class and marital status (SES) on relative risks (RR) of CVD mortality.

    RESULTS: Compared with the Australia-born population, CVD mortality was generally lower in each migrant group. Decreasing mortality with increasing duration of residence was observed for migrants from New Zealand (RR 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92-0.98, P<0.01, per 5-year increase), Greece (0.90, 0.86-0.94, P<0.01), Italy (0.94, 0.91-0.97, P<0.01) and South Asia (0.95, 0.91-0.99, P<0.01), mainly in older age groups. Trends remained after SES adjustment and also when broader categories of duration of residence were used. CVD mortality among migrants from the UK/Ireland appeared to converge towards those of the Australian-born.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results show divergence in CVD mortality compared with the Australian rate for New Zealanders, Greeks, Italians and South Asians. Sustained cardio-protective behavioural practices in the Australian setting is a potential explanation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  7. Mariappan P, Chong WL
    BJU Int., 2006 Dec;98(6):1264-8.
    PMID: 17034498
    OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a population-based survey, the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED) and incontinence in community-dwelling men in multiethnic Malaysia, as currently available Western demographic data might not be applicable in the Asian population.
    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out in the State of Penang, Malaysia, with a target population of men aged > or = 40 years. Using a multistage study design, random systematic sampling was used to represent the target population, who were weighted based on ethnicity and rural-urban ratios so as to represent the general population distribution. Trained field-workers conducted direct interviews and administered the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire and questions on incontinence based on the International Continence Society 2002 definition.
    RESULTS: In all, 418 men aged > or = 40 years were interviewed, of whom 353 completed the AUA-SI questionnaire (84.5% response rate). The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe LUTS was 80.6%, 6% and 0.3%, respectively. The prevalent symptoms were frequency and nocturia. There was moderate and severe ED in 45.9% of men, whereas incontinence was reported by 8.2%. The AUA-SI correlated strongly with age (R = 0.291, P < 0.001), IIEF-5 (R = - 0.265, P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence and severity of LUTS, ED and incontinence increased with age in this multiethnic Asian population, in which ED correlated strongly with LUTS. Compared to the Western population, the prevalence of LUTS was significantly lower, while the prevalence of ED and incontinence were comparable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  8. Chur-Hansen A, Vernon-Roberts J
    Acad Med, 1999 Jul;74(7):829-34.
    PMID: 10429593
    To explore the use of standardized patients for evaluating medical student's proficiency in speaking English.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  9. Ho CC, Singam P, Hong GE, Zainuddin ZM
    Asian J. Androl., 2011 Jul;13(4):537-42.
    PMID: 21643001 DOI: 10.1038/aja.2010.135
    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  10. Chia YC, Yeoh ES, Ng CJ, Khoo EM, Chua CT
    Singapore Med J, 2009 May;50(5):500-5.
    PMID: 19495520
    INTRODUCTION: Calcium channel blockers are well established modalities for the treatment of hypertension. However, in spite of the availability of many efficacious agents, hypertension control continues to be poor. One reason is poor tolerability due to adverse events. Racial differences also exist. Lercanidipine, a third-generation calcium channel blocker, is associated with better tolerability. However, it has not been studied in the Asian population. This study examines its efficacy and tolerability in Asian subjects of different ethnicities.
    METHODS: This was an eight-week open label study of adults with mild to moderate hypertension. Blood pressure (BP), pulse rate, self-administered symptom check and laboratory evaluations were done at baseline. Patients were prescribed 10 mg lercanidipine, with up-titration to 20 mg if BP was not controlled at Week 4. Baseline evaluations were repeated at Week 8. Adverse events were also enumerated.
    RESULTS: 27 patients (mean age 53.4 +/- 12.1 years) completed the study. The baseline systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and heart rate was 159 +/- 12.2, 96.6 +/- 7.7 mmHg and 71 +/- 13/min, respectively. Three racial groups were represented. SBP and DBP decreased significantly after four weeks of therapy. A further reduction to 139 +/- 14.3 and 88 +/- 9.8 (p-value is less than 0.0001) was seen in Week 8. The absolute SBP and DBP reduction was 20.5 mmHg (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 16.5-24.5, p-value is less than 0.0001) and 9.3 mmHg (95 percent CI 6.2-12.5, p-value is less than 0.0001), respectively. All adverse symptoms, except for palpitations, were reduced at the end of the study.
    CONCLUSION: Lercanidipine is efficacious and well tolerated in Asians of different ethnicities. Its BP lowering effects and tolerability in Asians appear to be similar to other studies on Caucasians and other calcium channel blockers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  11. Yun K, Matheson J, Payton C, Scott KC, Stone BL, Song L, et al.
    Am J Public Health, 2016 Jan;106(1):128-35.
    PMID: 26562126 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302873
    OBJECTIVES: We conducted a large-scale study of newly arrived refugee children in the United States with data from 2006 to 2012 domestic medical examinations in 4 sites: Colorado; Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington State.

    METHODS: Blood lead level, anemia, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, tuberculosis infection or disease, and Strongyloides seropositivity data were available for 8148 refugee children (aged < 19 years) from Bhutan, Burma, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Iraq, and Somalia.

    RESULTS: We identified distinct health profiles for each country of origin, as well as for Burmese children who arrived in the United States from Thailand compared with Burmese children who arrived from Malaysia. Hepatitis B was more prevalent among male children than female children and among children aged 5 years and older. The odds of HBV, tuberculosis, and Strongyloides decreased over the study period.

    CONCLUSIONS: Medical screening remains an important part of health care for newly arrived refugee children in the United States, and disease risk varies by population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  12. Mak KH, Kark JD, Chia KS, Tan C, Foong BH, Chew SK
    Clin Cardiol, 2004 May;27(5):275-80.
    PMID: 15188942
    BACKGROUND: Ethnic differences in coronary mortality have been documented, and South Asians from the Indian subcontinent are particularly vulnerable.

    HYPOTHESIS: This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in the utilization of invasive cardiac procedures and long-term mortality in survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) among Chinese, Malays, and South Asians in Singapore.

    METHODS: All MI events in the country were identified and defined by the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Register, which uses modified procedures of the World Health Organization MONICA Project. Information on utilization of coronary angiography, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, and survival was obtained by data linkage with national billing and death registries. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model with adjustment for baseline characteristics.

    RESULTS: From 1991 to 1999, there were 10,294 patients who survived > or = 3 days of MI. Of these, 40.6% underwent coronary angiography and 16.5% a revascularization procedure < or = 28 days. Malays received substantially less angiography (34.0%) and revascularization (11.4%) than Chinese (41.9%, 17.9%) and South Asians (40.0%, 16.3%). The ethnic disparity increased during the 1990s, particularly in the performance of coronary angiography (p = 0.038). While fatality declined during the study period for Chinese and South Asians, the rate remained stable for Malays. After a median follow-up period of 4.1 years, survival was lowest among Malays (adjusted HR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.42, compared with Chinese).

    CONCLUSION: Ethnic inequalities in invasive cardiac procedures exist in Singapore and were exacerbated in the 1990s. Inequalities in medical care may contribute to the poorer longterm survival among Malays.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  13. Michailidou K, Lindström S, Dennis J, Beesley J, Hui S, Kar S, et al.
    Nature, 2017 11 02;551(7678):92-94.
    PMID: 29059683 DOI: 10.1038/nature24284
    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  14. Lee KT, Li MK, Cheng WS, Foo KT
    Br J Urol, 1998 May;81(5):705-8.
    PMID: 9634045
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the modified ileal neobladder reconstruction on lifestyle, voiding habits and functional outcome in Asian patients.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven Asian patients (25 men and two women, mean age 59 years, range 41-76) underwent modified ileal neobladder reconstruction after radical cystectomy for carcinoma of the bladder. The mean (range) follow-up was 21 (3-75) months. All patients were evaluated retrospectively using case notes, reviews, interviews and voiding charts; 18 patients underwent urodynamic studies.

    RESULT: Twenty-five patients (93%) achieved diurnal and 23 (85%) nocturnal continence within 6 months. Of the 19 patients who were in employment before surgery, 15 continued to be economically active afterward; 26 patients (96%) reported no change in their daily living activities. Of 16 men who reported being potent pre-operatively only four retained some residual erectile function. Twenty-three patients were interviewed about their voiding habits and satisfaction with the outcome of surgery. Fourteen patients had no sensation of reservoir fullness and of the 21 men, 13 had to squat or sit to void effectively. The mean (range) voiding frequency was 5 (4-8) during the day and 2 (0-4) during sleep. Twenty-two patients were satisfied with the overall outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: The modified ileal bladder provides a high urinary continence rate with minimal changes in daily living activities and occupational status. The functional outcome was very satisfactory and accepted well, despite some changes in reservoir sensation, voiding posture and erectile function. The method is a viable option for reconstruction after cystectomy in Asian patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
  15. Bosco I, Teh A
    Leukemia, 1995 Jun;9(6):951-4.
    PMID: 7596183
    Reports on the outcome of treatment in ALL in Asian (non-Caucasian) adults have been few, and published results compare very unfavourably with results of treatment from 'Western' centres. Seventy-four newly diagnosed Malaysian patients with ALL between the ages of 15 and 69 were treated from 1986 to 1990. The clinical features and prognostic factors were similar to those reported in 'Western' series. The chemotherapy protocol utilized was adapted from the one used by Hoelzer et al in the multicentre German study. The complete remission rate was 73%. The probability of continuous complete remission at 5 years was 29% with a median duration of remission of 15 months. This compares with Hoelzer's initial results of 77% CR rate and 35% CCR at 5 years. Patients with an initial white cell count of less than 30 x 10(9)/l at presentation were found to have a significantly better disease-free survival than those with a count of more than 30 x 10(9)/l (35 vs 22%, P = 0.026, univariate analysis). There was no difference in leukaemia-free survival according to age, sex, ethnic group, or immunophenotype. These results show that the use of moderately intensive chemotherapy protocols in Asian (non-Caucasian) patients achieves similar results to those used in Caucasians. We also showed that the difficulties in 'curing' approximately 70% of adult patient with ALL are universal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia/ethnology
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