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  1. Hasbullah NA, Taha RM, Awal A
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2008 Jun 01;11(11):1449-54.
    PMID: 18817245
    Regeneration potentials in Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. Hook f. from tissues culture system was studied using leaf, petiole and root explants. In vitro regeneration, callus induction and root formation were optimized by manipulation of growth regulators during organogenesis. Various kinds of plant growth regulators such as 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3-Butyric acid (IBA), N6-[2-Isopentenyl]adenine (2iP), Kinetin and Zeatin were used to initiate cultures. These plant growth regulators were added to Murashige and Skoog medium in different combinations and concentrations. Adventitious shoots were obtained from petiole explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. Effectiveness of shoot regeneration medium, type of growth regulator used and duration of induction period were investigated. Leaf explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP and 2.0 mg L(-1) 2, 4-D showed the best results for callus induction. Root explants were found to be non-regenerative in all experiments conducted. Petiole segment was identified as the best explant for regeneration of this species. Regenerated plants were rooted on Murashige and Skoog basal medium. Plantlets were then transferred to field with 75% survival rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asteraceae/growth & development*
  2. Wan-Nadilah WA, Akhtar MT, Shaari K, Khatib A, Hamid AA, Hamid M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 05;19(1):245.
    PMID: 31488132 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2655-9
    BACKGROUND: Cosmos caudatus is an annual plant known for its medicinal value in treating several health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the leaf aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plant at different growth stages (6, 8. 10, 12 and 14 weeks) were determined in an effort to ascertain the best time to harvest the plant for maximum medicinal quality with respect to its glucose-lowering effects.

    METHODS: The aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts of C. caudatus were characterized by NMR and LC-MS/MS. The total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated using one-way ANOVA with Duncan's post hoc test, and correlation among the different activities was performed by Pearson's correlation test. NMR spectroscopy along with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the metabolites correlated with total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. caudatus leaf extracts.

    RESULTS: It was found that the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the optimized ethanol:water (80:20) leaf extract of the plant increased significantly as the plant matured, reaching a maximum at the 10th week. The IC50 value for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (39.18 μg mL- 1) at the 10th week showed greater potency than the positive standard, quercetin (110.50 μg mL- 1). Through an 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach, the 10-week-old samples were shown to be correlated with a high total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. From the partial least squares biplot, rutin and flavonoid glycosides, consisting of quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-xyloside, were identified as the major bioactive metabolites. The metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy (J-resolve, HSQC and HMBC experiments) and further supported by dereplication via LC-MS/MS.

    CONCLUSION: For high phytomedicinal quality, the 10th week is recommended as the best time to harvest C. caudatus leaves with respect to its glucose lowering potential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asteraceae/growth & development
  3. Mediani A, Abas F, Ping TC, Khatib A, Lajis NH
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2012 Dec;67(4):344-50.
    PMID: 23054393 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-012-0317-x
    The impact of tropical seasons (dry and wet) and growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) of Cosmos caudatus on the antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the level of bioactive compounds were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plant morphology (plant height) also showed variation between the two seasons. Samples planted from June to August (during the dry season) exhibited a remarkably higher bioactivity and height than those planted from October to December (during the wet season). The samples that were harvested at eight weeks of age during the dry season showed the highest bioactivity with values of 26.04 g GAE/100 g and 22.1 μg/ml for TPC and IC₅₀, respectively. Identification of phytochemical constituents in the C. caudatus extract was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass (LC-DAD-ESIMS/MS) technique and the confirmation of constituents was achieved by comparison with literature data and/or co-chromatography with authentic standards. Six compounds were indentified including quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid. Their concentrations showed significant variance among the 8, 10 and 12-week-old herbs during both seasons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asteraceae/growth & development
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