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  1. Lim TO, Looi HW, Harun K, Marzida
    Med J Malaysia, 1991 Sep;46(3):230-4.
    PMID: 1839917
    Data on number of cases of acute asthma seen at casualty department in 1987 as well as daily metereological data for 1987 were obtained and analysed for relation between climatic factors and acute asthma. Ambient temperature was significantly associated with acute asthma; the lower the temperature, the more the number of cases of asthma were seen. No association however was observed between asthma and the other climatic factors viz, rainfall, humidity, daily change in humidity and daily drop in temperature. We further discuss our finding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  2. Chan PW, Samsinah H, Azlin NM
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2002 Dec;38(6):622.
    PMID: 12410882
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  3. Zulkifli A, Hwa NW, Chelvam P
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Dec;34(2):156-8.
    PMID: 548719
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  4. Jie Y, Isa ZM, Jie X, Ju ZL, Ismail NH
    PMID: 23625129 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6898-1_2
    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  5. Jie Y, Ismail NH, Jie X, Isa ZM
    J Formos Med Assoc, 2011 Sep;110(9):555-63.
    PMID: 21930065 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfma.2011.07.003
    This review summarizes the results of epidemiological studies focusing on the detrimental effects of home environmental factors on asthma morbidity in adults. We reviewed the literature on indoor air quality (IAQ), physical and sociodemographic factors, and asthma morbidity in homes, and identified commonly reported asthma, allergic, and respiratory symptoms involving the home environment. Reported IAQ and asthma morbidity data strongly indicated positive associations between indoor air pollution and adverse health effects in most studies. Indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke. Environmental exposure may increase an adult's risk of developing asthma and also may increase the risk of asthma exacerbations. Evaluation of present IAQ levels, exposure characteristics, and the role of exposure to these factors in relation to asthma morbidity is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  6. Jeyaindran S
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Mar;61(1):117-21.
    PMID: 16708750
    From the beginning of time, man has lived in a continuous state of interdependence with his environment. If the forces of nature are harnessed well, they are a source of great benefit to mankind, but when this balance is tipped, nature's backlash on man can be quite devastating. In recent times, we have seen many vivid examples of the magnitude of the destructive forces of nature, ranging from massive floods caused by typhoons such as Katrina and Rita, the hundreds of thousands of lives lost by the powerful tsunami and the destruction of the environment by the raging forest fires in Spain and California. Yet man has not learnt his lesson. Often greed, at times gross ignorance and more often than not, just indifference to the effects of his actions on the environment result in man upsetting his balance with the environment. In Malaysia, since 1990, the haze has become a predictable annual occurrence, varying only in its severity and duration. The cause being beyond our control, we are unable to prevent it from happening. However, it is within our means to be ready to take the necessary steps to minimize the effects of the haze on the health of Malaysians. In order to be able to give appropriate advice and to allay the anxiety of the general public, it is necessary to have a clear understanding about the various effects of haze on humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology
  7. Zainal N, Rahardja A, Faris Irfan CY, Nasir A, Wan Pauzi WI, Mohamad Ikram I, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2016 Dec;57(12):690-693.
    PMID: 26805669 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2016019
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms among schoolchildren with low birth weight (LBW), and to compare the lung function of these children with that of children with normal birth weight.

    METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study. We recruited children aged 8-11 years from eight primary schools in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. The children were divided into two groups: those with LBW (< 2,500 g) and those with normal birth weight (≥ 2,500 g). Parents of the enrolled children were asked to complete a translated version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Lung function tests, done using a MicroLoop Spirometer, were performed for the children in both groups by a single investigator who was blinded to the children's birth weight.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of 'ever wheezed' among the children with LBW was 12.9%. This value was significantly higher than that of the children with normal birth weight (7.8%). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second, and forced expiratory flow when 50% and 75% of the FVC had been exhaled were significantly lower among the children with LBW as compared to the children with normal birth weight.

    CONCLUSION: LBW is associated with an increased prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and impaired lung function indices later in life. Children born with LBW may need additional follow-up so that future respiratory problems can be detected early.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  8. Mariana A, Ho TM, Sofian-Azirun M, Wong AL
    PMID: 11414418
    Allergy to house dust mites (HDM) is an important cause of asthma and rhinitis in Malaysia. This study was carried out to evaluate the dust mite fauna in the Klang Valley. Dust samples were collected from 20 houses from March 1994 to February 1995. Thirty-three dust samples from mattresses were examined monthly for the occurrence of HDM. A total of 22 species in 9 families of HDM was identified. The most common and densely populated species was Blomia tropicalis with an average density of 8,934 mites/g of dust. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the next in abundance, followed by Malayoglyphus intermedius. All houses surveyed were found to be infested with HDM and every house had at least 6 species of HDM. B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus were found in all mattresses. HDM in the Klang Valley were found to be highly prevalent and present in high densities. In this study, counts of D. pteronyssinus was found to exceed the proposed exposure threshold of 500 mites/g dust, for triggering acute asthma. Although counts of B. tropicalis exceeded D. pteronyssinus, no conclusion could be made because there is currently no exposure threshold for triggering acute asthma, for this species. Monthly distribution of B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus showed 2 peaks and 4 peaks, respectively. The major peak for D. pteronysinus was in January 1995 whereas for B. tropicalis, the major peak was more variable and occurred between November 1994 to January 1995. Both the species showed minor peak in April 1994.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology
  9. Connett GJ, Lee BW
    BMJ, 1994 May 14;308(6939):1282-4.
    PMID: 8205023
    Though Western medicines and ideas about asthma have become popular in many Asian nations, local beliefs about treatment prevail. The multiracial society of Singapore shows a variety of beliefs about causes of asthma attacks (for example, the balance of yin and yang) and types of treatment--herbal remedies, inhaled versus eaten medicines, the influence of Ramadan. Many of the cultural practices mentioned are probably preserved among south east Asian minorities residing in the United Kingdom. Eastern treatments typically take a holistic approach to asthma and do not ignore the psychosomatic component of the disorder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology
  10. Ng TP, Hui KP, Tan WC
    Thorax, 1994 Apr;49(4):347-51.
    PMID: 8202905
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence and morbidity of asthma vary greatly among different ethnic communities and geographical locations, but the roles of environmental and genetic factors are not fully understood. The differences in prevalence of adult asthma among Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in Singapore were examined, and the extent to which these could be explained by personal and environmental factors were investigated.
    METHODS: A stratified disproportionate random sample (n = 2868) of Chinese (n = 1018), Malays (n = 967), and Indians (n = 883) of both sexes was drawn from households in five public housing estates, and an interviewer administered questionnaire was used to determine cumulative and current prevalence of "physician diagnosed asthma" (symptoms with a physician diagnosis of asthma).
    RESULTS: Lifetime cumulative prevalence (standardised to the general population) of "physician diagnosed asthma" was 4.7% in men and 4.3% in women; 12 month period prevalences were 2.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Cumulative prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in Indians (6.6%) and Malays (6.0%) than in Chinese (3.0%); period prevalences of asthma were 4.5% in Indians, 3.3% in Malays, and 0.9% in Chinese. Ownership of cats or dogs was more frequent in Malays (15.4%) and Indians (11.2%) than in Chinese (8.8%). Rugs and carpets were also more frequently used by Malays (52.2%) and Indians (40.7%) than by Chinese (8.9%). Current smoking prevalences were higher in Malays (27.3%) than in Indians (19.4%) and Chinese (23.0%). Malays and Indians did not have higher rates of atopy (11.1% and 15.2%, respectively) than Chinese (15.4%). Adjustment for these factors in multivariate analyses reduced the greater odds of asthma in Malays and Indians, but not to a significant extent.
    CONCLUSIONS: There are ethnic differences in the prevalence of asthma in Singapore which are not entirely explained by differences in smoking, atopy, or other risk factors. Other unmeasured environmental factors or genetic influences are likely to account for residual differences in the prevalence of asthma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology
  11. Ross I
    Br J Dis Chest, 1984 Oct;78(4):369-75.
    PMID: 6487527 DOI: 10.1016/0007-0971(84)90170-0
    Asthmatic patients constitute up to 5% of admissions to medical wards in our area. Analysis of 1099 adult asthmatic admissions over a 3-year period showed that Malays composed 31% of patients (expected 23%), Indians composed 36% (expected 31%) and Chinese only 32% (expected 46%). There was a reduced prevalence of asthma in the Chinese (P less than 0.001). Male asthmatic admissions showed a non-seasonal cyclic variation (P less than 0.01) with an increasing trend in the number of admissions (P less than 0.02). The proportion of male to female asthmatic admissions did not differ. In a sample of 50 asthmatic patients, studied in detail, the mean age of onset was 33.3 years (range 6-74) while only 14% of subjects had onset of asthma before the age of 10 years. Although the clinical features of these patients differ from those of Caucasian asthmatics, skin prick tests and other features suggest that the majority of our patients suffer from extrinsic atopic asthma.
    Study site: Hospital [unknown], Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology
  12. Mac Aogáin M, Tiew PY, Lim AYH, Low TB, Tan GL, Hassan T, et al.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2019 04 01;199(7):842-853.
    PMID: 30265843 DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201807-1355OC
    RATIONALE: Allergic sensitization is associated with poor clinical outcomes in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis; however, its presence, frequency, and clinical significance in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis remain unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and geographic variability that exists in a sensitization pattern to common and specific allergens, including house dust mite and fungi, and to correlate such patterns to airway immune-inflammatory status and clinical outcomes in bronchiectasis.

    METHODS: Patients with bronchiectasis were recruited in Asia (Singapore and Malaysia) and the United Kingdom (Scotland) (n = 238), forming the Cohort of Asian and Matched European Bronchiectasis, which matched recruited patients on age, sex, and bronchiectasis severity. Specific IgE response against a range of common allergens was determined, combined with airway immune-inflammatory status and correlated to clinical outcomes. Clinically relevant patient clusters, based on sensitization pattern and airway immune profiles ("immunoallertypes"), were determined.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A high frequency of sensitization to multiple allergens was detected in bronchiectasis, exceeding that in a comparator cohort with allergic rhinitis (n = 149). Sensitization was associated with poor clinical outcomes, including decreased pulmonary function and more severe disease. "Sensitized bronchiectasis" was classified into two immunoallertypes: one fungal driven and proinflammatory, the other house dust mite driven and chemokine dominant, with the former demonstrating poorer clinical outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Allergic sensitization occurs at high frequency in patients with bronchiectasis recruited from different global centers. Improving endophenotyping of sensitized bronchiectasis, a clinically significant state, and a "treatable trait" permits therapeutic intervention in appropriate patients, and may allow improved stratification in future bronchiectasis research and clinical trials.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  13. Norbäck D, Markowicz P, Cai GH, Hashim Z, Ali F, Zheng YW, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(2):e88303.
    PMID: 24523884 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088303
    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology
  14. Leung R, Ho P, Lam CW, Lai CK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1997 May;99(5):594-9.
    PMID: 9155823
    BACKGROUND: Allergen sensitization is associated with asthma and allergic disease in children, but such a relationship has not been confirmed in Chinese populations.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of allergen sensitization and family history of atopy on asthma and allergic disease in Chinese schoolchildren from three southeast Asian populations.

    METHODS: Written questionnaires on respiratory and allergic symptoms were completed by parents of children of secondary-school age (age range 12 to 18 years) in Hong Kong (n = 1062), Kota Kinabalu in eastern Malaysia (n = 409), and San Bu in southern China (n = 737). A subsample of school-children underwent skin prick testing to common inhalant allergens (Hong Kong 471 children, Kota Kinabalu 321, San Bu 647).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in schoolchildren was highest in Hong Kong, intermediate in Kota Kinabalu, and lowest in San Bu. However, the overall rate of atopic sensitization was similar in the three populations (49% to 63%). House dust mite and cockroach were the two most common allergens causing sensitization and these gave rise to more than 95% of the positive skin test results in all three populations. By regression analysis, mite allergy was associated with rhinitis and asthma in all three populations, and a family history of asthma, rhinitis, or eczema was strongly associated with respective symptoms in the subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, atopic status, and family history of allergic disease, the place of residence remained a significant independent factor for asthma (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0 for Hong Kong, 0.57 for Kota Kinabalu, 0.15 for San Bu, p < 0.001), rhinitis (OR = 1.0 for Hong Kong, 0.59 for Kota Kinabalu, 0.15 for San Bu, p < 0.001), or eczema (OR = 1.0 for Hong Kong, 0.35 for Kota Kinabalu, 1.01 for San Bu, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Sensitization to indoor allergens was a significant risk factor for asthma and allergic disease, and familial clustering of disease was common in the region. However, the marked difference in disease prevalence in the three southeast Asian populations of Chinese schoolchildren cannot be explained by atopic sensitization and family history alone, and the place of residence was an independent risk factor for asthma and allergies, which suggests an important environmental role in disease pathogenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  15. Azizi BHO, Zulkifli HI, Kasim S
    J Asthma, 1995;32(6):413-8.
    PMID: 7592244 DOI: 10.3109/02770909409077752
    We performed a hospital-based study to examine a hypothesis that indoor air pollution was associated with acute asthma in young children living in Kuala Lumpur City. A total of 158 children aged 1 month to 5 years hospitalized for the first time for asthma were recruited as cases. Controls were 201 children of the same age group who were hospitalized for causes other than a respiratory illness. Information was obtained from mothers using a standardized questionnaire. Univariate analysis identified two indoor pollution variables as significant factors. Sharing a bedroom with an adult smoker and exposure to mosquito coil smoke at least three nights in a week were both associated with increased risk for asthma. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that sharing a bedroom with an adult smoker (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.13, 3.21) and exposure to mosquito coil smoke (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.02, 2.93) were independent risk factors. Other factors independently associated with acute asthma were previous history of allergy, history of asthma in first-degree relatives, low birth weight, and the presence of a coughing sibling. There was no association between asthma and exposure to kerosene stove, wood stove, aerosol mosquito repellent, type of housing, or crowding. We conclude that indoor air pollution is an avoidable factor in the increasing morbidity due to asthma in children in a tropical environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  16. Sreetharan SS, Prepageran N, Razak A, Valuyeetham KA
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Jun;58(2):290-3.
    PMID: 14569753
    Aerodigestive amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by fibrillar protein deposition in the aerodigestive tree. We present a case of a 19-year-old Chinese gentleman whose diagnosis was initially missed as he presented with features suggestive of severe bronchial asthma and was intubated and ventilated. He subsequently presented 2 years later with severe stridor and required emergency tracheostomy. Current literature is reviewed for the histopathology, common clinical features, radiological findings and treatment options for aerodigestive amyloidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  17. Tan HT, Hagner S, Ruchti F, Radzikowska U, Tan G, Altunbulakli C, et al.
    Allergy, 2019 02;74(2):294-307.
    PMID: 30267575 DOI: 10.1111/all.13619
    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease with marked clinical and pathophysiological heterogeneity. Specific pathways are thought to be involved in the pathomechanisms of different inflammatory phenotypes of asthma; however, direct in vivo comparison has not been performed.

    METHODS: We developed mouse models representing three different phenotypes of allergic airway inflammation-eosinophilic, mixed, and neutrophilic asthma via different methods of house dust mite sensitization and challenge. Transcriptomic analysis of the lungs, followed by the RT-PCR, western blot, and confocal microscopy, was performed. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells cultured in air-liquid interface were used to study the mechanisms revealed in the in vivo models.

    RESULTS: By whole-genome transcriptome profiling of the lung, we found that airway tight junction (TJ), mucin, and inflammasome-related genes are differentially expressed in these distinct phenotypes. Further analysis of proteins from these families revealed that Zo-1 and Cldn18 were downregulated in all phenotypes, while increased Cldn4 expression was characteristic for neutrophilic airway inflammation. Mucins Clca1 (Gob5) and Muc5ac were upregulated in eosinophilic and even more in neutrophilic phenotype. Increased expression of inflammasome-related molecules such as Nlrp3, Nlrc4, Casp-1, and IL-1β was characteristic for neutrophilic asthma. In addition, we showed that inflammasome/Th17/neutrophilic axis cytokine-IL-1β-may transiently impair epithelial barrier function, while IL-1β and IL-17 increase mucin expressions in primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that differential expression of TJ, mucin, and inflammasome-related molecules in distinct inflammatory phenotypes of asthma may be linked to pathophysiology and might reflect the differences observed in the clinic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology*
  18. Nathan AM, de Bruyne J, Khalid F, Arumugam K
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2012 Sep;30(3):204-8.
    PMID: 23156850
    Birth cohort studies in some countries have shown a link between caesarean section and asthma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology
  19. Cyranoski D, Law YH, Ong S, Phillips N, Zastrow M
    Nature, 2018 06;558(7711):502-510.
    PMID: 29950631 DOI: 10.1038/d41586-018-05506-1
    Matched MeSH terms: Asthma/etiology
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